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Biometric Identification of 1.3 Billion Indians. The Business Community, the State and the Civil Society
Ethics, Fight against crime and corruption, Governance, India, Law, Law, New technologies, Norms, Political order, Political science, Social policy, Sociology, South Asia, State, Les études du CERI
Christophe Jaffrelot et Nicolas Belorgey
In 2009, India embarked on a scheme for the biometric identification of its people. This project was conceived by IT companies based in Bengaluru. The programme’s main architect, Nandan Nilekani, was in fact the head of one of these firms. The idea behind the project was to use digital technology – and the data it enables to collect – for economic ends. But to register the entire Indian population, the State had to be persuaded to be involved in the project, later named as "Aadhaar". The rationale that secured the government’s engagement was financial: using Aadhaar would help disburse aid to the poor while minimising the "leakages" caused by corruption and duplicates among beneficiaries. Yet, possessing an Aadhaar number gradually became necessary for a number of other things, too, including tax payment. When approached to rule on this matter, the Supreme Court dragged its feet and did not seek to decisively protect people’s privacy. As for the avowed aim of the scheme itself, Aadhaar did not improve the quality of the services rendered to the poor – far from it – and its economic impact, too, remains to be proven, even if operators who believe that "data is the new oil" consider benefits in a long term perspective.
Bulgaria, Central and Eastern Europe, Collective mobilizations, Fight against crime and corruption, Governance, Justice, Politics / Political Systems, Quatre questions sur
Actualité, Collective mobilizations, Fight against crime and corruption, Governance, Justice, Lebanon, Middle East, Politics / Political Systems, State
Crime, Fight against crime and corruption, Material cultures, Pakistan, Political economy, Political science, Security policy, Social policy, Sociology, South Asia, Urbanization, Violence, Les études du CERI
The history of industrial capitalism and its modes of domination is intimately linked to that of violent entrepreneurs deploying their coercive resources at the service of workplace discipline, the extraction of surplus value and the securitization of the accumulation cycle. The relationship between capital and coercion is always fraught with tensions, though, and sustains new vulnerabilities among security-consuming elites. The manufacturing economy of Karachi is a particularly fertile ground for studying this endogenous production of insecurity by security devices. The relations between Karachi’s factory owners and their guards have generated their own economy of suspicion. Various attempts to conjure this shaky domination have generated new uncertainties, calling for new methods of control to keep the guards themselves under watch.
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Collective mobilizations, Colombia, Conflict resolution, Costa Rica, Crime, Cuba, Democratization, Economy, Emerging States, Fight against crime and corruption, Governance, Latin America and the Caribbean, Memory and politics of the past, Mexico, Nationalism, NGOs / Civil society, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peace / Peacekeeping, Peru, Political economy, Political order, Political science, Politics / Political Systems, Regional integration, Religions, Security policy, Transnational actors, Venezuela, Violence, Les études du CERI
Observatoire politique de l’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes de Sciences Po
Amérique latine - L’Année politique is a publication by CERI-Sciences Po’s Political Observatory of Latin America and the Caribbean (OPALC). The study extends the work presented on the Observatory’s website (www.sciencespo.fr/opalc) by offering tools for understanding a continent that is in the grip of deep transformations.
Ethics, Fight against crime and corruption, Governance, India, Networks, Political science, Politics / Political Systems, Social policy, Sociology, South Asia, Les études du CERI
Business and politics in India have been closely connected since the colonial era, when entrepreneurs financed politicians who, in exchange, spared them some of the bureaucratic red tape. This proximity has endured after independence, even if Nehru’s official socialism subjected it to some constraints. Far from mitigating corruption, economic liberalization during the 1990s actually amplified it when large investors, attracted by the opening of the Indian market, paid huge bribes to political leaders, who often became businessmen themselves and forced public banks to lend to industrialists close to them, while businessmen were elected to Parliament, increasing insider trading. As it is observed in the modern era under Narendra Modi, be it at the national level and in his state of Gujarat, crony capitalism is well illustrated by Modi’s relationship to Gautam Adani, the rising star of Indian business. Crony capitalism has a financial cost (due to the under-taxation of companies and dubious debts on the banks’ balance sheets), a social cost (due to underpaid work and a reduction of the expenditure of education or health for lack of fiscal resources) and the environment (crony capitalists disregarding the most basic standards).
Argentina, Bolivia, Borders, Brazil, Chile, Collective mobilizations, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratization, Dominican Republic, Economic transactions, Fight against crime and corruption, Haiti, Jamaica, Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peace / Peacekeeping, Peru, Political science, Politics / Political Systems, Regional integration, Sovereignty, State, Trade, Transnational, Transnational actors, Venezuela, Les études du CERI
Observatoire politique de l’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes de Sciences Po
Amérique latine - L’Année politique 2017 est une publication de l’Observatoire politique de l’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes (Opalc) du CERI-Sciences Po. Il prolonge la démarche du site www.sciencespo.fr/opalc en offrant des clés de compréhension d’un continent en proie à des transformations profondes.
Azerbaijan, Belarus, Borders, Caucasus / Central Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, Conflict resolution, Czech Republic, Economic transactions, Energy / Natural resources, European Union, Europeanization, Fight against crime and corruption, Georgia, Globalization, Human rights, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Markets / Finance, Memory and politics of the past, Nationalism, Poland, Political economy, Political order, Political science, Russia, Slovakia, Territory, Terrorism, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Violence, Les études du CERI
Anne de Tinguy (dir.)
Looking into Eurasia : the year in politics provides some keys to understand the events and phenomena that have left their imprint on a region that has undergone major mutation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991: the post-soviet space. With a cross-cutting approach that is no way claims to be exhaustive, this study seeks to identify the key drivers, the regional dynamics and the underlying issues at stake
China, Diasporas, Fight against crime and corruption, Foreign policy, France, Globalization, Human rights, North-East Asia, Western Europe, Les dossiers du CERI
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Caucasus / Central Asia, Conflict resolution, Democratization, Economic transactions, European Union, Fight against crime and corruption, International security, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Politics / Political Systems, Regional integration, Russia, Russian Federation, Sovereignty, State, Tajikistan, Trade, Transnational, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Wars / Conflicts, Les études du CERI
Anne de Tinguy (Dir.)