Les Etudes du CERI

Les études du CERI

Les Etudes du CERI series publishes about 10 issues per year following the strict rules of double blind peer reviewed academic publications. The editorial board is composed of members of CERI’s Unit Council.
Les Etudes du CERI is a tool for decision-making and offers to scrutinize and study the transformations of our contemporary world, in more than 200 titles addressing a variety of topics and analyzing political, social and economic questions related to a specific country/region or a global contemporary challenge. Every issue follows, and is the result of, a fieldwork undertaken by its author. In this respect, this publication illustrates CERI’s approach to area studies, based on a direct, empirical experience and methodology.
Previous and current issues are all available online, free of charge. As all publications of this website, Les Etudes du CERI is protected by copyright through the French law.

 

Series editor: Alain Dieckhoff, directeur du CERI

Editor of the journal: Judith Burko, judith.burko@sciencespo.fr, phone +33158717004

Anne de Tinguy (dir.)

Looking into Eurasia - A review of 2020: the year in politics
N°254
-255
February 2021
Arctic / Antarctica, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Caucasus / Central Asia, Collective mobilizations, Conflict resolution, Democratization, Disasters, Economic transactions, Economy, Environment, European Union, Europeanization, Georgia, Governance, Health, Human rights, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Nationalism, Russia, Russian Federation, Sociology, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Les études du CERI

Looking into Eurasia : the year in politics provides some keys to understand the events and phenomena that have left their imprint on a region that has undergone major mutation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991: the post-soviet space. With a cross-cutting approach that is no way claims to be exhaustive, this study seeks to identify the key drivers, the regional dynamics and the underlying issues at stake

Comment citer ce volume :

Anne de Tinguy (dir.)

, Looking into Eurasia - A review of 2020: the year in politics / Les Études du CERI, N°254-255, February 2021, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Olivier Dabène (Dir.)

Amérique latine - L’année politique 2020
N°252
-253
January 2021
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Collective mobilizations, Economy, Governance, Health, History, Latin America and the Caribbean, Memory and politics of the past, Peru, Political science, Poverty, Social policy, Sociology, State, Uruguay, Wars / Conflicts, Anthropology, Les études du CERI

Amérique latine - L’Année politique is a publication by CERI-Sciences Po’s Political Observatory of Latin America and the Caribbean (OPALC). The study extends the work presented on the Observatory’s website (www.sciencespo.fr/opalc) by offering tools for understanding a continent that is in the grip of deep transformations.

Comment citer ce volume :

Olivier Dabène (Dir.)

, Amérique latine - L’année politique 2020 / Les Études du CERI, N°252-253, January 2021, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Christophe Jaffrelot et Nicolas Belorgey

Biometric Identification of 1.3 Billion Indians. The Business Community, the State and the Civil Society
N°251
November 2020
Ethics, Fight against crime and corruption, Governance, India, Law, Law, New technologies, Norms, Political order, Political science, Social policy, Sociology, South Asia, State, Les études du CERI

In 2009, India embarked on a scheme for the biometric identification of its people. This project was conceived by IT companies based in Bengaluru. The programme’s main architect, Nandan Nilekani, was in fact the head of one of these firms. The idea behind the project was to use digital technology – and the data it enables to collect – for economic ends. But to register the entire Indian population, the State had to be persuaded to be involved in the project, later named as "Aadhaar". The rationale that secured the government’s engagement was financial: using Aadhaar would help disburse aid to the poor while minimising the "leakages" caused by corruption and duplicates among beneficiaries. Yet, possessing an Aadhaar number gradually became necessary for a number of other things, too, including tax payment. When approached to rule on this matter, the Supreme Court dragged its feet and did not seek to decisively protect people’s privacy. As for the avowed aim of the scheme itself, Aadhaar did not improve the quality of the services rendered to the poor – far from it – and its economic impact, too, remains to be proven, even if operators who believe that "data is the new oil" consider benefits in a long term perspective.

Comment citer ce volume :

Christophe Jaffrelot et Nicolas Belorgey

, Biometric Identification of 1.3 Billion Indians. The Business Community, the State and the Civil Society / Les Études du CERI, N°251, November 2020, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
The French Diaspora in London in times of Brexit
N°250
July 2020
Diasporas, European Union, Politics / Political Systems, Social policy, Sociology, United Kingdom, Western Europe, Les études du CERI

300,000 French people are permanently settled in the British capital city. They do not form a monolitic community, but various social groups marked by differences in economic and cultural capital. The French state has developed a strong institutional presence to meet the needs of this London based diaspora (consular services, cultural institute, schools, business support). The system is supplemented by associative structures that provide social services. French Londoners also have their own political representation: members of the French parliament, consular advisers, members of the Advisory Committee of the Union of French Nationals Abroad. These mandates give rise to elections and an extraterritorialisation of French politics. Brexit obliges the French Londoners—who have retained their French nationality—to consider the future of their resident status. They will have to negotiate with the British State. The new migration policies of the United Kingdom will also make the possibility to settle in London more difficult for French citizens.

Comment citer ce volume : Christian Lequesne, The French Diaspora in London in times of Brexit / Les Études du CERI, N°250, July 2020, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Etienne Smith

Voting Far Away. Transnational Electoral Dynamics in the Ninth Constituency of French Citizens Abroad
N°249
April 2020
Algeria, Burkina Faso, Collective mobilizations, Global history, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, North Africa, Political science, Politics / Political Systems, Senegal, Sociology, State, Transnational, West Africa, Les études du CERI

While it often attracts media attention for its atypical aspects, the vote of French nationals abroad has rarely been the subject of in-depth fieldwork. This study of electoral dynamics in the ninth constituency of French citizens abroad (North Africa and West Africa) during the presidential and legislative elections of 2017 questions the constraints on the nomination process and candidacies, the transnational blurring of what is at stake during the election, and the effects of atypical campaigning in electoral archipelagos characterized both by their strong localism and their particular connection to broader geopolitical issues. This contribution shows how the meanings and stakes of extraterritorial voting are multivocal depending on the actors involved (candidates, voters, local media, authorities in the host country). Does overseas voting bring about a French community abroad or does it rather reveal the persistent differentiations at work between French communities according to origin, relationship to the “host” country and to “autochtony”, social status and the temporality of integration abroad?

Comment citer ce volume :

Etienne Smith

, Voting Far Away. Transnational Electoral Dynamics in the Ninth Constituency of French Citizens Abroad / Les Études du CERI, N°249, April 2020, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Anne de Tinguy (dir.)

Looking into Eurasia - A review of 2019: the year in politics
N°247
-248
February 2020
Arctic / Antarctica, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Borders, Caucasus / Central Asia, Conflict resolution, Democratization, Demography, Diasporas, Energy / Natural resources, Europeanization, Georgia, Global realm, International security, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Multilateralism, Networks, Political economy, Political science, Politics / Political Systems, Power, Religions, Russia, Russian Federation, Security policy, Sovereignty, State, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Wars / Conflicts, Les études du CERI

Looking into Eurasia : the year in politics provides some keys to understand the events and phenomena that have left their imprint on a region that has undergone major mutation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991: the post-soviet space. With a cross-cutting approach that is no way claims to be exhaustive, this study seeks to identify the key drivers, the regional dynamics and the underlying issues at stake

Comment citer ce volume :

Anne de Tinguy (dir.)

, Looking into Eurasia - A review of 2019: the year in politics / Les Études du CERI, N°247-248, February 2020, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Observatoire politique de l’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes de Sciences Po

AMÉRIQUE LATINE - L’ANNÉE POLITIQUE 2019
N°245
-246
January 2020
Argentina, Bolivia, Borders, Brazil, Collective mobilizations, Colombia, Economic transactions, Governance, Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Political economy, Political order, Political science, Politics / Political Systems, Regional integration, State, Transnational, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, Violence, Les études du CERI

Amérique latine - L’Année politique is a publication by CERI-Sciences Po’s Political Observatory of Latin America and the Caribbean (OPALC). The study extends the work presented on the Observatory’s website (www.sciencespo.fr/opalc) by offering tools for understanding a continent that is in the grip of deep transformations.

Comment citer ce volume :

Observatoire politique de l’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes de Sciences Po

, AMÉRIQUE LATINE - L’ANNÉE POLITIQUE 2019 / Les Études du CERI, N°245-246, January 2020, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
The Ambivalence of British Arms Policy Towards Europe
N°244
May 2019
Defense policy, European Union, Europeanization, Political economy, Security policy, United Kingdom, Wars / Conflicts, Western Europe, Les études du CERI

Published in the context of Brexit, this research paper analyses the ‘double relationship’ between Britain and Europe: being ‘in’ by taking part in co-operation with other European states, and at the same time being ‘out’ by staying away from or even leaving multilateral programmes in Europe. This dilemma is worked on from the case of defence procurement policy. How does the British government decide to be both ‘in’ and ‘out’ of Europe by participating in the A400M military transport aircraft programme and withdrawing from the EuroMale UAV programme? Based on exclusive data, the decision in favour of the A400M (‘in’) is explained by the action of political, administrative and industrial actors who perceive the A400M as a ‘truck’ rather than a ‘race car’. As for the British State’s decision not to participate in the EuroMale programme (‘out’), it is conditioned by a weakening of the political will of political actors, and at the same time by a strengthening of conflicting relations between French and British administrations and industries. In doing so, this research contributes to the literature on the acquisition of armaments in strategic studies, and to the literature on differentiated integration in European studies.

Comment citer ce volume : , The Ambivalence of British Arms Policy Towards Europe / Les Études du CERI, N°244, May 2019, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
Who’s Watching the Watchmen? Corporate Security and the Manufacturing of Uncertainty in Karachi
N°243
April 2019
Crime, Fight against crime and corruption, Material cultures, Pakistan, Political economy, Political science, Security policy, Social policy, Sociology, South Asia, Urbanization, Violence, Les études du CERI

The history of industrial capitalism and its modes of domination is intimately linked to that of violent entrepreneurs deploying their coercive resources at the service of workplace discipline, the extraction of surplus value and the securitization of the accumulation cycle. The relationship between capital and coercion is always fraught with tensions, though, and sustains new vulnerabilities among security-consuming elites. The manufacturing economy of Karachi is a particularly fertile ground for studying this endogenous production of insecurity by security devices. The relations between Karachi’s factory owners and their guards have generated their own economy of suspicion. Various attempts to conjure this shaky domination have generated new uncertainties, calling for new methods of control to keep the guards themselves under watch.

Comment citer ce volume : Laurent Gayer, Who’s Watching the Watchmen? Corporate Security and the Manufacturing of Uncertainty in Karachi / Les Études du CERI, N°243, April 2019, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Observatoire politique de l’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes de Sciences Po

Amérique latine - L’année politique 2018
N°239
-240
January 2019
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Collective mobilizations, Colombia, Conflict resolution, Costa Rica, Crime, Cuba, Democratization, Economy, Emerging States, Fight against crime and corruption, Governance, Latin America and the Caribbean, Memory and politics of the past, Mexico, Nationalism, NGOs / Civil society, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peace / Peacekeeping, Peru, Political economy, Political order, Political science, Politics / Political Systems, Regional integration, Religions, Security policy, Transnational actors, Venezuela, Violence, Les études du CERI

Amérique latine - L’Année politique is a publication by CERI-Sciences Po’s Political Observatory of Latin America and the Caribbean (OPALC). The study extends the work presented on the Observatory’s website (www.sciencespo.fr/opalc) by offering tools for understanding a continent that is in the grip of deep transformations.

Comment citer ce volume :

Observatoire politique de l’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes de Sciences Po

, Amérique latine - L’année politique 2018 / Les Études du CERI, N°239-240, January 2019, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
The life story of a Generation : Chinese born under socialist China
N°238
December 2018
China, Democratization, History, Memory and politics of the past, North-East Asia, Political order, Political science, Politics / Political Systems, Sociology, Les études du CERI

One of the most striking phenomena of China’s recent history is the singular life trajectory of the generation born in large metropolises between the end of the 1940s and the early 1950s. After having endured with full force their country’s upheavals and ruptures after 1949, the people of this generation occupy dominant positions in most sectors of social life today. Yet despite its importance, the history of this generation—who contributed to build what China is today—has not triggered much academic research. The seven life stories presented in this study provide information and a testimony that help understand how these people elaborate a discourse on their personal experience. Analysing this discourse makes it possible to grasp the connections between individual life paths and events as well as social determinations.

Comment citer ce volume : Jean-Louis Rocca, The life story of a Generation : Chinese born under socialist China / Les Études du CERI, N°238, December 2018, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
Crony Capitalism in India under Narendra Modi
N°237
September 2018
Ethics, Fight against crime and corruption, Governance, India, Networks, Political science, Politics / Political Systems, Social policy, Sociology, South Asia, Les études du CERI

Business and politics in India have been closely connected since the colonial era, when entrepreneurs financed politicians who, in exchange, spared them some of the bureaucratic red tape. This proximity has endured after independence, even if Nehru’s official socialism subjected it to some constraints. Far from mitigating corruption, economic liberalization during the 1990s actually amplified it when large investors, attracted by the opening of the Indian market, paid huge bribes to political leaders, who often became businessmen themselves and forced public banks to lend to industrialists close to them, while businessmen were elected to Parliament, increasing insider trading. As it is observed in the modern era under Narendra Modi, be it at the national level and in his state of Gujarat, crony capitalism is well illustrated by Modi’s relationship to Gautam Adani, the rising star of Indian business. Crony capitalism has a financial cost (due to the under-taxation of companies and dubious debts on the banks’ balance sheets), a social cost (due to underpaid work and a reduction of the expenditure of education or health for lack of fiscal resources) and the environment (crony capitalists disregarding the most basic standards).

Comment citer ce volume : Christophe Jaffrelot, Crony Capitalism in India under Narendra Modi / Les Études du CERI, N°237, September 2018, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Anne de Tinguy (dir.)

Looking into Eurasia - A review of 2017: the year in politics
N°235
-236
February 2018
Azerbaijan, Belarus, Borders, Caucasus / Central Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, Conflict resolution, Czech Republic, Economic transactions, Energy / Natural resources, European Union, Europeanization, Fight against crime and corruption, Georgia, Globalization, Human rights, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Markets / Finance, Memory and politics of the past, Nationalism, Poland, Political economy, Political order, Political science, Russia, Slovakia, Territory, Terrorism, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Violence, Les études du CERI

Looking into Eurasia : the year in politics provides some keys to understand the events and phenomena that have left their imprint on a region that has undergone major mutation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991: the post-soviet space. With a cross-cutting approach that is no way claims to be exhaustive, this study seeks to identify the key drivers, the regional dynamics and the underlying issues at stake

Comment citer ce volume :

Anne de Tinguy (dir.)

, Looking into Eurasia - A review of 2017: the year in politics / Les Études du CERI, N°235-236, February 2018, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Observatoire politique de l’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes de Sciences Po

Amérique latine - L’année politique 2017
N°233
-234
January 2018
Argentina, Bolivia, Borders, Brazil, Chile, Collective mobilizations, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratization, Dominican Republic, Economic transactions, Fight against crime and corruption, Haiti, Jamaica, Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peace / Peacekeeping, Peru, Political science, Politics / Political Systems, Regional integration, Sovereignty, State, Trade, Transnational, Transnational actors, Venezuela, Les études du CERI

Amérique latine - L’Année politique 2017 est une publication de l’Observatoire politique de l’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes (Opalc) du CERI-Sciences Po. Il prolonge la démarche du site www.sciencespo.fr/opalc en offrant des clés de compréhension d’un continent en proie à des transformations profondes.

Comment citer ce volume :

Observatoire politique de l’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes de Sciences Po

, Amérique latine - L’année politique 2017 / Les Études du CERI, N°233-234, January 2018, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Kevin Parthenay

The Governance of Latin American Regional Organizations A Comparative Study of the Role of General Secretaries
N°232
January 2018
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Governance, Haiti, Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico, Multilateralism, Networks, Nicaragua, Peru, Political science, Politics / Political Systems, Regional integration, Sociology, Sovereignty, State, Les études du CERI

In Latin America, as elsewhere in the world, regional and subregional organizations have multiplied recently. Scholars tend to focus on the variety of regionalisms or their ever changing nature (post-liberal, post-hegemonic...). This study, through a political sociology of regionalism approach, examines Latin American regions and their actors and goes beyond the first set of questions. In this perspective, scrutinizing the regional General Secretaries of the sub-continent is particularly useful to understand how regional powers emerge. With a specific focus on the Southern Common Market (UNSUR), the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR), the Andean Community of Nations (CAN) and the Central American Integration System (SICA), this research offers a more precise answer to the question of the configuration of power within Latin American regionalisms.

Comment citer ce volume :

Kevin Parthenay

, The Governance of Latin American Regional Organizations A Comparative Study of the Role of General Secretaries / Les Études du CERI, N°232, January 2018, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Charlotte Thomas

Being a Kashmiri in Delhi. Experiencing Long-distance Nationalism
N°231
June 2017
Borders, Human rights, India, Material cultures, Political science, Regional integration, Sociology, South Asia, Sovereignty, State, Territory, Terrorism, Wars / Conflicts, Les études du CERI

Armed combatant and leader of the Hizbul Mujahideen Burhan Wani was killed by the Indian Army in July 2016. This killing triggered a new phase of insurgency in Kashmir. In the Valley, the local populace started mobilizing against the Indian State in the name of azadi, (freedom). In such volatile context, the production of the national sentiment of the Kashmiris is documented from a distanciated perspective. Frontiers of the national group are explored from New Delhi, as well as the logics of differentiation and otherification of the Kashmiri group towards the Indian one. Kashmiri nationalism therefore more clearly appears in a negative definition (what a Kashmiri is not) than in a positive definition (what a Kashmiri is). The slight and incremental slip of the meaning of azadi demands is at the heart of Kashmiri nationalism. From an original demand for greater autonomy within the Indian Republic, demands of azadi now refer to the independence of the Valley – yet there are nuances that will be studied. They also convey an utter rejection of “Indianess” whether national or citizen. In that respect, New Delhi’s negating the political aspect of the mobilizations that are taking place in the Kashmir Valley has dramatically fuelled the national sentiment of the Kashmiris. The current insurgency that started in July 2016 has sped up the pace of the process. Despite the escalating tensions in the Valley, New Delhi keeps refusing to consider the political dimension of the local social movements, be they violent or peaceful. That is the reason why, beyond Kashmir and Kashmiris themselves, studying the political demands of the Kashmiri population does shed a light on the functioning of the Indian nation and the Indian state.

Comment citer ce volume :

Charlotte Thomas

, Being a Kashmiri in Delhi. Experiencing Long-distance Nationalism / Les Études du CERI, N°231, June 2017, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
Elections and notability in Iran. Analyzing the 2016 legislative vote in four wards
N°230
May 2017
Borders, Democratization, Governance, Identities, Iran, Middle East, Networks, Political science, Politics / Political Systems, Sociology, State, Les études du CERI

Elections have been trivialized in Iran. They allow for the expression of diversity, in particular ethnical and denominational, of historical regional identities, and prove the growing professionalization of political life. Paradoxically, such professionalization withdraws the Republic away into the levels of family, parenthood, autochthony, and even neighborhoods or devotional sociability, which are all institutions that instill a feeling of proximity, solidarity, communion; close to the notion of asabiyat. As the saying goes, the Islamic Republic has become a « parentocracy » (tâyefehsâlâri). The country’s industrial development isn’t at odds with such ponderousness since it lies on a web of very small family businesses. The analysis of the 2016 legislative elections in four wards reveals how important the issue of property is in political life, indivisible as it is of the various particularistic consciences. The connections with notables are still there, revealing lines of continuity with the old regime as well as longstanding agrarian conflicts that have not been erased by the Revolution and that are being kept alive through contemporary elections.

Comment citer ce volume : Fariba Adelkhah, Elections and notability in Iran. Analyzing the 2016 legislative vote in four wards / Les Études du CERI, N°230, May 2017, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Anne de Tinguy (Dir.)

Regards sur l’Eurasie - L’année politique 2016
N°228
-229
February 2017
Comment citer ce volume :

Anne de Tinguy (Dir.)

, Regards sur l’Eurasie - L’année politique 2016 / Les Études du CERI, N°228-229, February 2017, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Observatoire politique de l’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes de Sciences Po

Amérique latine - L’année politique 2016
N°226
-227
January 2017
Comment citer ce volume :

Observatoire politique de l’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes de Sciences Po

, Amérique latine - L’année politique 2016 / Les Études du CERI, N°226-227, January 2017, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Bayram Balci, Juliette Tolay

Turkey Hosting Syrian Refugees Between Humanitarian Commitment and Political Instrumentalisation
N°225
December 2016
Balkans, Diasporas, Globalization, International security, Middle East, Migrations, Nationalism, Peace / Peacekeeping, Regional integration, Religions, Russia, Syria, Terrorism, Transnational actors, Turkey, Wars / Conflicts, Les études du CERI

While the issue of Syrian refugees has led an increasing number of countries to work on curbing arrivals, one country, Turkey, hosts almost half of these refugees. Yet, far from imposing restrictions, Turkey has distinguished itself for its open border policy and large-scale humanitarian contribution. Turkey’s generosity alone is not sufficient to understand this asylum policy put in place specifically for Syrians. There are indeed a number of political factors that indicate a certain level of instrumentalisation of this issue. In particular, Turkey’s benevolent attitude can be explained by Turkey’s early opposition to Assad in the Syrian conflict and its wish to play a role in the post-conflict reconstruction of Syria, as well as by its willingness to extract material and symbolic benefits from the European Union. But the refugee crisis also matters at the level of domestic politics, where different political parties (in power or in the opposition) seem to have used the refugee issue opportunistically, at the expense of a climate favorable to Syrians’ healthy integration in Turkey

Comment citer ce volume :

Bayram Balci, Juliette Tolay

, Turkey Hosting Syrian Refugees Between Humanitarian Commitment and Political Instrumentalisation / Les Études du CERI, N°225, December 2016, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Laetitia Bucaille

Palestine: From an untraceable State to an impossible nation. What purpose do Palestinian leaders serve?
N°224
October 2016
Conflict resolution, Democratization, Governance, Israel, Middle East, Palestine, Peace / Peacekeeping, Politics / Political Systems, Sovereignty, State, Territory, Violence, Wars / Conflicts, Les études du CERI

Today, the creation of a Palestinian state appears to be a distant possibility: the international community rejected to manage the issue, and the leadership in these territories weakened because of its divisions, revealing their inability to advance. Both the political and the territorial partition between the Gaza strip, governed by the Hamas and the West Bank, under Palestinian authority in line with Fatah, reveal a profound crisis that questions the very contours of Palestinian politics. It also shows that Hamas’ integration in the political game made it impossible to pursue the security subcontacting system. Maintaining the system avoids reconstructing the Palestinian political community, and makes it difficult to develop a strategy that moves towards sovereignty. Since October 2015, the popular and pacific resistance project has been shelved by the return of the violence against Israeli civilians. The Palestinian leadership counts on internationalization of the cause, which has shown mediocre results. Will the replacement of Mahmoud Abbas by his competitors permit to leave the rut?

Comment citer ce volume :

Laetitia Bucaille

, Palestine: From an untraceable State to an impossible nation. What purpose do Palestinian leaders serve? / Les Études du CERI, N°224, October 2016, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Jacobo Grajales

Land, from War to Peace. Land Policies and Post-Conflict Situation in Colombia
N°223
September 2016
Colombia, Conflict resolution, Emerging States, Energy / Natural resources, Fight against crime and corruption, Latin America and the Caribbean, Political science, Les études du CERI

Four years after the negotiations started in Havana, 2016 marked the success of the peace talks between the Colombian government and the Farc rebels. Even if during the entire process the outcome was unclear, most political actors did not wait for the actual signature of the agreement to claim results. New public policies have been launched and in the rural and land sector the break with a violent past has been loudly dramatized. Changes conducted in the name of the consolidation of peace do however have more discreet effects. They cause an increased business of land, which risks producing exclusion and dissent in rural areas. Although it is undeniable that the post conflict agenda includes reparation policies for the victims and protection for small farmers, taking advantage of peace as an opportunity for economic development does also trigger interest for territories that are defined as new agrarian frontiers. And so, not only have the agro-industrial exploitation and the commodification of nature become legitimate, but they seem to be part of the social changes that are both made possible by peace, and desirable.

Comment citer ce volume :

Jacobo Grajales

, Land, from War to Peace. Land Policies and Post-Conflict Situation in Colombia / Les Études du CERI, N°223, September 2016, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Leila Seurat

Public Order and Community Policing in Beirut. Ras Beirut Police Station as a Case Study
N°222
July 2016
Crime, Fight against crime and corruption, Governance, Lebanon, Middle East, NGOs / Civil society, Security policy, Sociology, State, Transnational actors, Violence, Les études du CERI

Yet there is ample literature devoted to the sociology of the police in the western world, little research focuses on Arab countries. This study tries to fill this gap by offering an ethnographic study of Ras Beirut police station, the first and the only police station in Lebanon that has been reformed according to the community policing model. The academic works focusing on the importation of this model in developing countries point out how difficult it is to implement and emphasize its negative outcomes due to the local characteristics of each country. Fragmented on a sectarian and a political ground, Lebanon remains a perfect field to explore this hypothesis. Indeed the divisions of the Lebanese state weaken the interactions between the public and the private security forces. Nevertheless, many others factors, beyond the religious and the political divisions, explain Ras Beirut’s failure. The internal dynamics at work inside the police station and the influence of the patronage networks reduce considerably the chances of its success.

Comment citer ce volume :

Leila Seurat

, Public Order and Community Policing in Beirut. Ras Beirut Police Station as a Case Study / Les Études du CERI, N°222, July 2016, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

avec la collaboration de Madhi Mehraeen et Ibrahim Tavalla

War, Reconstruction of the State and Invention of Tradition in Afghanistan
N°221
Afghanistan, Caucasus / Central Asia, Conflict resolution, History, Identities, NGOs / Civil society, Peace / Peacekeeping, Political order, Religions, Sociology, State, Violence, Wars / Conflicts, Anthropology, Les études du CERI

War since 1979 and the reconstruction of the state under Western tutelage since 2001 have led to a simplification of the identity of Afghan society, through an invention of ethnicity and tradition – a process behind which the control or the ownership of the political and economic resources of the country are at stake. Hazarajat is a remarkable observation site of this process. Its forced integration into the nascent Afghan state during the late nineteenth century has left a mark on its history. The people of Hazara, mainly Shi’ite, has been relegated to a subordinate position from which it got out of progressively, only by means of jihad against the Soviet occupation in the 1980s and the US intervention in 2001, at the ost of an ethnicization of its social and political consciousness. Ethnicity, however, is based on a less communitarian than unequal moral and political economy. Post-war aid to state-building has polarized social relations, while strengthening their ethnicization: donors and NGOs remain prisoners of a cultural, if not orientalist approach to the country that they thereby contribute to “traditionalize”, while development aid destabilizes the “traditional” society by accelerating its monetization and commodification.

Comment citer ce volume : Fariba Adelkhah

avec la collaboration de Madhi Mehraeen et Ibrahim Tavalla

, War, Reconstruction of the State and Invention of Tradition in Afghanistan / Les Études du CERI, N°221, , [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
Looking into Eurasia - A review of 2015: the year in politics
N°219
-220
February 2016
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Caucasus / Central Asia, Demography, Economic transactions, Economy, Energy / Natural resources, European Union, Europeanization, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Middle East, Migrations, Nationalism, Political economy, Political science, Regional integration, Religions, Russia, Russian Federation, Sovereignty, State, Tajikistan, Terrorism, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Western Europe, Les études du CERI

"Looking into Eurasia" provides some keys to understand the events and phenomena that have left their imprint on a region that has undergone major mutation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991: the post-soviet space. With a cross-cutting approach that is no way claims to be exhaustive, this study seeks to identify the key drivers, the regional dynamics and the underlying issues at stake.

Comment citer ce volume :

Anne de Tinguy (Dir.)

, Looking into Eurasia - A review of 2015: the year in politics / Les Études du CERI, N°219-220, February 2016, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
Amérique latine - L’année politique 2015
N°217
-218
December 2015
Comment citer ce volume : , Amérique latine - L’année politique 2015 / Les Études du CERI, N°217-218, December 2015, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Denise Fisher

One Among Many: Changing Geostrategic Interests and Challenges for France in the South Pacific
N°216
December 2015
Australia, Colonization/Decolonization, Oceania, Political economy, Political science, Les études du CERI

France, which is both an external and resident South Pacific power by virtue of its possessions there, pursues, or simply inherits, multiple strategic benefits. But the strategic context has changed in recent years. China's increased presence; consequent changes in the engagement of the US, Japan and Taiwan; and the involvement of other players in the global search for resources, means that France is one of many more with influence and interests in a region considered by some as a backwater. These shifts in a way heighten the value of France's strategic returns, while impacting on France's capacity to exert influence and pursue its own objectives in the region. At the same time, France is dealing with demands for greater autonomy and even independence from its two most valuable overseas possessions on which its influence is based, New Caledonia and French Polynesia. How it responds to these demands will directly shape the nature of its future regional presence, which is a strategic asset.

Comment citer ce volume :

Denise Fisher

, One Among Many: Changing Geostrategic Interests and Challenges for France in the South Pacific / Les Études du CERI, N°216, December 2015, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Dilek Yankaya

Industrial Exhibition, Network Production and Construction of Imaginaries : the International Müsiad Fair and Representations of the Turkish State
N°215
November 2015
Balkans, Political science, Sociology, Turkey, Les études du CERI

Müsiad International Fair held in Istanbul in 2014 aroused great public interest due to the strong presence of political elites as well as to the mobilization of a large network of institutions, firms and media partners. International exhibitions are relevant fields to explore the formation of trade circuits and the creation of sociabilities, as well as to question the political and international issues central to the construction of trade networks and markets. This event appears as the representation of the Turkish state as it is formed under the AKP power. We witness a double trend of reconfiguration and of internationalization of the state constituting processes through the phenomena of increased interactions between private enterprise and public action on one side and the shrinkage of patronage networks on the other. Participating to this event therefore becomes a question of legitimization and delegitimization for private actors regarding these networks of power, the production of which is based on the presentation of economic and industrial productions and goes together with the creation of Imaginaries. The ethnographic study of the fair shows how industrial, cultural and symbolic representations bring about the production of two types of Imaginary, one related to the reinvention of the idea of the ummah across merchant networks and the other referring to the supremacy of Turkey as the carrier of this project.

Comment citer ce volume :

Dilek Yankaya

, Industrial Exhibition, Network Production and Construction of Imaginaries : the International Müsiad Fair and Representations of the Turkish State / Les Études du CERI, N°215, November 2015, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Alvaro Artigas

Energy Insecurity in South America : Network Development and Sectoral Integration in Chile and Peru
N°214
October 2015
Chile, Economic transactions, Economy, Energy / Natural resources, Latin America and the Caribbean, Peru, Political economy, Regional integration, Les études du CERI

The South American continent has experienced a robust economic growth presently overshadowed by an uneven energy integration that fails to meet both an ever-growing industrial and metropolitan demand. Several integration mechanisms co-exist, but a poor integration layout threatens the energy security of the region and individual countries. Several factors contribute to this. Firstly, the very template of regional integration has failed to deliver a valid set of supranational coordination mechanisms aimed at coordinating and sorting out disputes among individual countries. Secondly, national States tie security to self-sufficiency in the face of mutual distrust, thus rendering potential advantages of market and networks integration a less desirable choice. The example of Chile and Peru integration drive reveals many of these dynamics while showing at the same time the windfalls of a transversal sectoral coordination over diplomatic exchange by individual states. What is the potential for an alternative template where the State will play a less intrusive role while consigning territorial disagreements backstage?

Comment citer ce volume :

Alvaro Artigas

, Energy Insecurity in South America : Network Development and Sectoral Integration in Chile and Peru / Les Études du CERI, N°214, October 2015, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Alice Ekman

Informal Relations Between Beijing and Taipei: The Expansion of Academic Diplomacy in the Taiwan Strait
N°213
September 2015
Borders, China, Identities, Nationalism, Southeast Asia, Sovereignty, State, Taiwan, Les études du CERI

Since the Kuomintang returned to power in 2008, Beijing has adjusted its communication strategy towards Taiwan, while maintaining the same long-term goal of reunification. This strategy of rapprochement by seduction rather than by threat promotes the rapid growth of exchanges between the Chinese and Taiwanese populations at all levels: students, tourists, farmers, businessmen, academics, retired diplomats and military, politicians, etc. Especially, the multiplication of meetings between academics of both countries is creating new channels of communication over the Strait, allowing on the one hand to compensate for the lack of formal diplomacy between Beijing and Taipei, and on the other hand to compete with informal diplomatic links existing between Taiwan and several of its partners (US and Japan, mainly). These communication channels could ultimately reinforce Beijing’s strategy – and China keeps investing heavily in their development – but could also be used as a conduit to prevent and to manage crisis would tensions reappear in the Strait.

Comment citer ce volume :

Alice Ekman

, Informal Relations Between Beijing and Taipei: The Expansion of Academic Diplomacy in the Taiwan Strait / Les Études du CERI, N°213, September 2015, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
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