Vers une matrice de l’action publique en Afrique ? Approche trans-sectorielle de l’action publique en Afrique contemporaine
This paper deals with the recurrences, which structure a relative standardization that concerns actors of the public policies in contemporary Africa. The proposed entrance is twofold. At first the author aims to highlight configurations of actors (international, national, public, private, associative, etc.), at the level of institutions, presented under forms “of agencies” (of normalization/standardization, regulation, execution, counterproposal, etc.). Secondly, a comparison within the health sector (AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis), then a comparative approach with two other sectors (the education and the biodiversity). This configuration of actors and institutions is based on a central hypothesis: the construction of “a matrix of the public action in Africa” among which the dynamics and the expected or prescribed results are different from one sector to the other. The main hypothesis, which tends to explain these differences, is articulated on the dynamic notion of “epistemic communities” developed by Peter Haas. The New Funding Model (NFM) of the Global Fund against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria represents an ultimate model of this matrix.