Ongoing ANR Projects
occupation mobility and wage dynamics within and between firms (omwd)
ANR Grant awarded in 2019
Coordinator : Jean-Marc ROBIN (with Francis KRAMARZ and Fabien POSTEL-VINAY)
Recent research has emphasized the key importance of the equilibrium allocation of heterogeneous workers into heterogeneous jobs or occupations as a determinant of economic efficiency. Most of the literature on this subject envisions worker reallocation as occurring between employers. Yet, the data suggest that a very large amount of reallocation occurs within firms, in the form of internal promotions or demotions.
We want to construct a model with internal and external labor markets. Internal labor markets mediate occupational mobility and wage dynamics within firms, whereas the external labor market refers to occupational mobility with employer change, and related wage dynamics. We use “occupation” to refer to a set of job characteristics, which may include industry (e.g., manufacturing, services, etc.) and/or the degree of managerial responsibility that goes with the job (e.g. unskilled worker, supervisor, manager, etc.).
The aim of this construction is to understand and quantify the forces at work in a labor market where, at one extreme, workers spend their entire careers with one single employer (as was the norm in France in the three decades following WWII), gradually moving up some hierarchical ladder within a single firm, and at the other extreme, workers change employers regularly to prevent their career from stalling. Intuitively, the first type of equilibrium is stable if there is little complementarity between worker skill and firm technology. Biased technical progress, however, increases complementarity at the same time as total factor productivity (TFP), and is responsible for the observed shift in workers' careers from a single “job-for-life” to a sequence of different employments. Our research project therefore addresses important issues covered by the ANR research theme “Innovation and labor”.
technology and polarization of employment (topaze)
ANR Grant awarded in September 2018 for a duration of 48 monthes
Partner : Zsófia BÁRÁNY
Over the last 30 years, employment growth has been fast, not only in high-paid jobs (abstract, cognitive tasks requiring creativity), but also in low-paid jobs (manual, non-routine job requiring human interaction). In contrast, employment has decreased significantly among middling jobs (routine, repetitive), and those involving tasks that can be replaced by machines. As robots can now beat humans in performing complex tasks, employment becomes polarized with the disappearance of middle-income workers (replaced by machines) and an expansion in top and bottom jobs (performing tasks that cannot be computerized). Will this job polarization lead to a polarized society? This project aims at shedding light on this worldwide phenomenon using theoretical and empirical works.
gender, aspirations, and the labour market (aspire)
ANR "Tremplin-ERC" Grant awarded in April 2018 for a duration of 24 monthes
Awardee : Ghazala AZMAT
Establishing gender equality has been one of the most important global objectives in recent times. A large part of the gender pay gap, for instance, can be attributed to differences in the choices made – such as occupational and educational. However, many of these choices have a root that is less well-understood. To understand this process, it is crucial to understand the role of aspiration in driving the choices made by individuals before entering the labor market or early in their career.
A central objective of project ASPIRE is to open, and develop, a new line of research into the formation, and role, of aspirations in understanding gender differences in labor market outcomes. I will advance this research in three steps: i) combine innovative methodology and rich data sources to explore the relationship (and distance) between what individuals aspire towards and what they actually achieve, as well as to analyze the choices they make in the process. ii) Exploit important historical political and institutional changes to analyze the role of society in shaping aspirations. iii) Through a series of small and large-scale economic experiments, to advance our understanding of how aspirations are shaped and if they can be altered.
I will, first, study how aspirations affect wages and promotions within the firm using detailed data on aspirations, expectations and other factors, such as, discrimination and professional opportunities. I will then study early aspiration formation among adolescents and young adults, where there is no contemporaneous influence of current work conditions. Next I will look at how aspirations are influenced by society by analyzing the effect important shifts in political regimes on gender culture, and its consequences (on individuals’ beliefs and aspirations, as well as labor market outcomes). Finally, I will design experiments that elicit aspirations. For this, it is imperative to study the influence of expectations, contemporaneous conditions, peer composition and the role of feedback on aspiration formation.
economics of housing and public policy evaluation (echoppe)
ANR Grant awarded in October 2017 for a duration of 48 monthes
Partner : Etienne WASMER for the LIEPP (with Pierre-Henri BONO, Guillaume CHAPELLE, and Florian OSWALD)
Housing is a critical target of public policy in France. Our proposal aims at filling the gap that exists in France in terms of evaluating housing policies using general equilibrium economic modelling. Its overarching scientific purpose is to deepen our understanding on the long run impact of housing policies on housing inequalities in France and across countries.
Housing is a primary good, defined by John Rawls as desirable to any citizen, thus a common base for social justice. Public policies are explicitly targeted to the reduction of housing inequality with respect to laissez-faire. An extended set of policies (social housing, taxes and subsidies to renting or accessing ownership, rent controls, lower bounds of social housing for municipalities etc.) have been used to reach that goal but we do not know much about how successful they have been. Even from a purely descriptive view point, we cannot assess whether housing inequality in France is lower than in the US, the UK or Germany and by how much. Such a comparison would contrast countries between laissez-faire and intervention. Research in housing economics is undertaken in many research centers in France although the number of researchers involved remains small. The crucial importance of a high-quality public debate about housing policies in France cannot be enough emphasized given the large budgetary efforts at stake. This is why we propose to create ECHOPPE, a decentralized laboratory on the issue, which will provide a scientific environment for researchers in housing economics in France. This would coordinate their research effort and further our knowledge of housing economics. This “open laboratory” would favor scientific exchanges between a large group of researchers located in Aix-Marseille, Paris and Toulouse. Each researcher involved has already carried out research on the impact of housing policies, housing inequalities, social housing, economic geography or housing supply. Our project will formalize this cooperation and will open a platform accessible by all researchers in housing economics. Specifically, we will organize workshops and other exchanges (seminars) to invite national or international researchers in economics, but also in other disciplines working in housing-related fields.
Modeling Offline and Online News: Micro-Level Data and Structural of Information Production and Consumption (destination_moon)
ANR Grant "Young Researchers Programme" awarded in September 2017 for a duration of 36 monthes
Coordinator : Julia CAGÉ
The modern media industry is in a state of crisis. Digitalization has changed the nature of competition in media markets and the range of products provided. There is growing concern about news quality and the effectiveness of the media as a check on power. Furthermore, the number of journalists is collapsing in all developed countries, a major social change that may reflect media outlet’s falling incentives to invest in quality. An open question – with important consequences for journalists who are facing social mutations threatening their profession and more generally for the quality of the democratic debate – is whether news still have a commercial value, and what kind of new business models and legal status need to be developed for media organizations.
The first objective of this research project is to improve our understanding of the determinants of news consumption and production in the online world, using an interdisciplinary approach at the intersection between Economics and Computer sciences. In collaboration with the Institut National de l’Audiovisuel, we will construct a unique dataset on all offline and online news production by the universe of French news media (newspaper, TV, radio, pure online media and the AFP) from 2013 to 2017, and develop state-of-the art algorithms to analyze this data. We will merge this data with detailed input data (e.g. number of reporters) and disaggregated audience data.
We will then use this unique micro-level dataset to estimate a structural model of the media market. In our model, media outlets’ profit comes from selling content to citizens and advertising space, and outlets chose their slant and quality. We will use an original approach to define the quality of each article, based on the previous research I have conducted with the INA: its originality, i.e. the share of the article’s content that is original rather than copied-and-pasted from articles published earlier (Cagé et al., 2016, 2017). Heterogeneous consumers consume multiple piece of news from different media outlets. Each consumer derives utility both from the characteristics of a media outlet (e.g. its slant) and the quality of each piece of news. We will evaluate the welfare effects of a number of counterfactual experiments, such as changing online price or reinforcing ownership regulation. These experiments will be determined as a result of exchanges with media professionals.
This innovative project will be the first attempt at merging together high-quality content data, economic data and structural estimation tools to estimate the production and consumption of news media. The central objective of the structural estimation is to better understand the extent to which media organizations producing original and valued information get rewarded for this, and how different legal and institutional features (such as paywall for online news or better copyright enforcement for news agencies) can affect these incentives.
In terms of scientific contributions, this project will give rise to publications in top journals, and the results will be extensively presented in international conferences and seminars. Beyond its scientific contributions, it will have a large societal impact and important implications for the on-going public debates about the financing and business models of the media. Our goal is to provide up-to-date knowledge on how information is produced and consumed, in particular to media professionals searching for new business models, regulatory agencies, and more generally all citizens concerned with the future of democracy. We will write comprehensive non-technical reports at the different steps of the project, and set up a website providing access to the non-proprietary data, a number of visualization tools and algorithms. Finally, we will organize a semi-professional seminar that will gather together top scientists and media professionals, as well as training modules aimed at media executives and journalists.
Center for the Interdisciplinary Evaluation of Public Policies (LIEPP)
ANR Grant "Laboratoire d'excellence" (LABX), awarded in April 2011 until December 2022
Coordinator : Etienne WASMER
The Laboratory for Interdisciplinary Evaluation of Public Policies (LIEPP) aims to play a major role in evaluating various aspects of public policy through an innovative method based on multidisciplinarity and the combination of qualitative, comparative, and quantitative analysis.
LIEPP also aims to develop and disseminate the best academic methods and research in the field of policy evaluation.
LIEPP supports several research projects and most of them are already part of the various research groups (Discriminations and social inequalities; Evaluation of democracy; Educational policies; and Socio-fiscal policies). Co-directed by experienced researchers from different disciplines, the research groups guarantee an interdisciplinary approach.