Gravity equations:

Gravity equations:

Workhorse, Toolkit and Cookbook
  • Double-stack container train on the Canadian transcontinental railwayDouble-stack container train on the Canadian transcontinental railway

The gravity equations chapter (PDF, 1.2Mo) to appear in the Handbook of International Economics is now available on this website.


This chapter focuses on the estimation and interpretation of gravity equations for bilateral trade. This necessarily involves a careful consideration of the theoretical underpinnings since it has become clear that naive approaches to estimation lead to biased and frequently misinterpreted results. There are now several theory-consistent estimation methods and we argue against sole reliance on any one method and instead advocate a toolkit approach. One estimator may be preferred for certain types of data or research questions but more often the methods should be used in concert to establish robustness. In recent years, estimation has become just a first step before a deeper analysis of the implications of the results, notably in terms of welfare. We try to facilitate diffusion of best-practice methods by illustrating their application in a step-by-step cookbook mode of exposition.

Companion website

Companion website to the paper, including a lot of stata code.

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