The OECD Gender Data Portal includes a set of indicators highlighting gender inequalities in the areas of education, employment, entrepreneurship, health, development and governance. The data cover OECD member countries, as well as partner economies including Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, and South Africa. The database includes indicators on gender wage gap, unemployment rate by sex and age, as well as indicators of discrimination against women. The data on entrepreneurship mainly concern the self-employed, their profile, age, education, and sector of activity. It also presents gender specific access to entrepreneurial training and financing, as well as attitudes towards entrepreneurial risks.
The World Bank Gender Data Portal includes the latest gender-disaggregated data covering demography, education, health, access to economic opportunities, public life and decision-making, and agency. The data include indicators, by sex, on employment rate, unemployment rate, ownership of goods and land, the proportion of self-employed workers, level of education, mortality rates as well as the proportion of participation in decision-making (individual and family). The portal includes the Women, Business and the Law (WBL) database, which collects data on laws and regulations that restrict women’s opportunities and incentives to work. It provides information on topics such as accessing institutions, getting a job, going to court and building credit.
The UN Minimum Set of Gender Indicators is a collection of quantitative and qualitative indicators addressing relevant issues related to gender equality and/or women’s empowerment. The areas of concern are economic structures, participation in productive activities and access to resources, education, health, public life and decision-making, and human rights of women and girl children. Data include variables such as gender wage gap by occupation and age, employment and unemployment rate by sex and age, average number of hours spent on unpaid domestic and care work by sex, age and location, maternal mortality ratio, life expectancy at age 60 by sex, and women’s share of governmental ministerial positions.
The Gender Statistics Database developed by the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) provides statistical evidence on gender. The indicators cover thematic areas such as attitudes perceptions and norms (regarding gender equality, discrimination, quality of life), health and mortality, work and labour market (employment, earnings, work-life balance), power and decision making, and education attainment and accomplishments.
The EIGE also develops the Gender Equality Index, a composite indicator, that measures gender gaps between women and men in six core domains (work, money, knowledge, time, power and health) and assigns a score for each Member State between 1 (for total inequality) and 100 (for full equality).
The IMF Gender Budgeting and Equality Portal covers recent gender budgeting study as well as gender inequality and development indices. Gender budgeting is an approach to budgeting that uses fiscal policy and administration to promote gender equality and girls’ and women’s development. The indicator informs about the countries who apply gender budgeting initiatives and includes components of fiscal policy, the place of gender budgeting in the fiscal process, the role of government and the role of civil society. The data on gender equality include the gender development index and the gender inequality index from 1990 to 2013.
The Global Gender Equality Constitutional Database is a repository of gender equality related provisions in 195 constitutions from around the world. It presents constitutional provisions through a gender lens. The categories covered by the database include education, employment rights and protection, gender equality machineries, participation in public life and institutions, and women’s rights.
The European Values study (EVS) is large-scale, cross-national survey on basic human values that has been conducted every nine years since 1981 to 2017. The fourth wave in 2008 covers 47 European countries. The research topics cover life, family, work, religion, politics and society. Information on gender equality can be found through the indicator that examines views regarding the proper role of women in the labour market.
The Gender and Land Rights Database (GLRD) aims to highlight the major political, legal and cultural factors that influence the realisation of women’s land rights throughout the world. It includes three sections: regularly-updated country profiles that gives access to gender and land rights in constitutions and law, land-related statistics disaggregated by gender, and a legal assessment tool that helps visualise the legal framework surrounding men and women’s access to land. The land-related statistics includes distribution of landholders by sex, and the incidence of landholders by sex, among others.
The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Gender Statistics cover a wide range of topics and issues reflecting the roles of women and men in society, in the economy and in families and households. The data include indicators on decision-making (share of women among legislators, senior officials and managers), education (proportion of women with tertiary education), labour and work-life balance (employment rate, gender pay gap, average hours spent in work), health and violence (psychological and economic), among others.
The Eurostat Gender Statistics for the EU present a set of indicators to measure differences in the situation of men and women (gender gaps). The fields of concern include education, labour market, earnings and social inclusion (gender pay gap, structure of earnings, risk of poverty, unmet needs), childcare, health, digital economy and society. The indicators show gender gaps, as well as the levels achieved for the population as a whole.
The Gender Data Navigator cover a range of topics related to gender equality, such as health, education, violence against women, labour and economic activities, household assets, and migration. A set of indicators concerning economic structures, participation in productive activities and access to resources highlight gender differences in terms of labour force participation and average numbers of hours spent on unpaid domestic work, among others.
The WPS Index offers a comprehensive measure of women’s wellbeing, by ranking 153 countries on both peace and security – and women’s inclusion and justice. The index includes indicators such as financial inclusion, legal discrimination, justice and security index, among others.
The GEM provides information and reports on entrepreneurship through a data collection effort for over a hundred economies. In each economy, GEM looks at two elements: the entrepreneurial behaviour and attitudes of individuals, and the national context and how that impacts entrepreneurship. The data cover perceived opportunities, fear of failure rate, entrepreneurial intentions and female/male Total Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA).
The FESE is collected by the European Commission. It is an individual-level, cross-national survey on attitudes, values, and beliefs covering a wide range of topics in the sociocultural and socio-political domain. European and other large countries are surveyed starting in 2002. It includes information on the development of entrepreneurship, what encourages entrepreneurship, as well as attitudes towards risk-taking, start-ups, obstacles to entrepreneurship and business failures.
The Ministry of Labour offer time series statistics, from 1975 to 2012, that make it possible to establish a comparative data between men and women on questions of integration into the labour market, employment, earnings, and exposure to occupational risks. The database concern France and some of the European countries. Also available are sex-disaggregated data on occupational risk exposures that include indicators on working hours, work intensity, physical constraints, work relations, and work organization.
SINE (Information System on New Business) survey is a large-scale survey of entrepreneurs conducted by the French Bureau of Statistics every four years. It allows to analyse the profile of the entrepreneur and the starting circumstances of new firms, the problems faced by young companies during the first five years of their existence and the effects of business start-ups on employment.
Reports on gender and well-being
The Gender and Well-being report explore gender differences in well-being around the world by comparing age, income, and education cohorts, both in the aggregate and in country or region-specific contexts. The research is based on data from the Gallup World Poll (2005-2011) and measuring subjective well-being based on Cantril’s ladder of life question.
The WHO report on women’s health and well-being provides a snapshot on women’s health in the region and discusses the social, economic and environmental factors that determine women’s well-being. The impact of gender discrimination and gender stereotypes is brought into focus along with perspectives for the international and national frameworks that govern women’s health and well-being in Europe.
The How’s Life? report by the OECD is a statistical report released every two years that documents a wide range of well-being outcomes, and how they vary over time, between population groups, men and women, and across countries. The report also includes measures of inequalities in well-being and quality of life (health status, work-life balance, education, personal security and subjective well-being).