Launch of the 5th edition of the Public Policy Incubator to train students to design public policies differently

  • Launch of the Public Policy Incubator, January 2023 ©Léa Douhard/EAPLaunch of the Public Policy Incubator, January 2023 ©Léa Douhard/EAP

The Public Policy Incubator (IPP) started its academic year on 16 January 2023. This 5th edition started with an intensive week of activities aimed at familiarising students with the methods and tools of public policy design before confronting them with the realities of the field of the 20 selected challenges of public interest. This year, 115 first-year Master students from the School of Public Affairs are participating in the programme.

During the spring semester, the students work in small groups under the supervision of a designer tutor to come up with a concrete prototype of a solution that would, for example, make it possible to better welcome and take care of victims of serious personal injury within a police station, to fight against the spread of misinformation and fake news during election periods, to better coordinate public action in order to steer the ecological transition, or to strengthen the association of citizens in the programming of financial jurisdiction audits.

To do this, they are working directly with 20 partners who have agreed to open the doors of their organisations and share their expertise, their fields and their problems with them (see the list of the 20 challenges at the end of the page).

Through these concrete projects, the IPP's objective is to train future graduates of the School of Public Affairs to design public policies differently by responding to the real needs of citizens and by collectively thinking up new forms of public action that are better adapted to the changes brought about by the climate, democratic and digital challenges. 


During the first two days, the students were able to discover public policy design through theoretical learning, practical application and inspiring encounters.  

Apolline le Gall, professor and researcher in social sciences and co-founder of the design agency Où sont les dragons, reminded the students of the fundamentals of design and the interest of its growing development within the public sphere.

As this is a relatively new field for the students, they were able to benefit from the feedback of Benjamin Marteau, director of "Pix", the online public service whose mission is to assess, develop and certify the digital skills of citizens throughout their careers. In his inaugural lecture, he shared his experience as an entrepreneur of general interest who, with a political sciences background, had to learn to appropriate design methods and postures over the course of his career in order to do politics differently. 

To dive more concretely into what public innovation and transformation is, the students were also able to discover a variety of structures within the French ecosystem, as well as the career paths and occupations of the people working in them:

  • At the interministerial level, the students were welcomed at the Lieu de la Transformation Publique where they were able to meet the Direction interministérielle de la Transformation Publique (DITP), the Direction interministérielle du Numérique (DINUM) as well as the teams of projects internalised by the administration such as LexImpact, a service of the National Assembly. 
  • Another group was received at the French Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industrial and Digital Sovereignty, where they were able to meet the teams of the Transformation Laboratory and the Innovation Mission of the Synthesis Coordination Innovation Delegation, who presented the services and support offered to the Ministry's agents.
  • The third group met with private and associative structures that collaborate with public actors on public innovation and transformation issues on the site of CÉSURE, a "tiers-lieu" supported by Plateau Urbain. Among them, design agencies such as Vraiment Vraiment and Praticable, but also Démocratie Ouverte, the Université de la Pluralité and the Design Fiction Club.

Echange avec des agents de la DITP

Exchange with DITP staff © Céline Lopes-Correia/EAP


Over the next three days, the students explored their own challenges in groups and began to put into practice the knowledge they had acquired at the beginning of the week. 

Tailored to each topic, each group's programme allowed them to observe the different realities that often exist in the field and to listen to users and stakeholders.

"The idea is to look beyond the discourse, to observe, to put oneself in the place of the patient", summarises Anceline Brioudes in an interview with the newspaper Le Progrès after her group's three-day immersion in the Givors hospital.

It was in this same spirit that other groups set off to discover the cultural ecosystem of the Côtes-d'Armor region, to meet Restos du Cœur volunteers and carry out a few missions to put themselves in their shoes, to visit day-care centres and childcare centres (a challenge with the CNAF, the French National Family Allowance Fund), to talk to judges and court-appointed agents in the Hauts-de-France region (a challenge with the DGCS, the French Directorate General of Social Cohesion) or to visit the control and command centre of the Eau de Paris water authority (a challenge with Lille Metropole and the FNCCR, the National Federation of Water Local Authorities). 

Etudiants sur le terrain

(left) Visit to a Restos du Cœur food warehouse in Gironde © Groupe 18 IPP / (right) Interview with Dorothée Deléglise, legal representative and member of the Tourcoing CCAS guardianship service © Groupe 10 IPP

While this immersion is essential for the students, it also gives the partners themselves a different perspective on their day-to-day issues, as Elisabeth Tan, deputy director of the Centre communal d'action sociale (CCAS) in Gennevilliers, explains: "Digital inclusion is a 'fashionable' concept, but it is a sad reality: people with a breakdown in their rights, young people and the not-so-young struggling with their administrative procedures, professionals overwhelmed by a lack of support in the area of dematerialisation... It was urgent for the CCAS of Gennevilliers to reflect on this issue. The opportunity of the challenge allowed us to formalize our needs, to set out our practices, to identify our strengths, but also to perceive our shortcomings and to be accompanied by 4 students with an outside view. The ideas they will present to us will strengthen the proposals to meet a major challenge: a digital service offer accessible to all.

In a few days, the groups will present the first results of their observations from this immersion phase before entering the second phase of the programme, which consists of imagining possible solutions to the challenge they have been given. Here again, the students will have to leave their comfort zone and deploy original tools and methods. Kenza Terkemani, a student taking part in the challenge with the Givors hospital, has this in mind: "We don't expect a report or an audit, the idea is to do something operational with an adapted tool that is easy to use for the target population”. 

See you in May 2023 to discover the final projects! 


  • Ademe & Coop des Milieux - How to coordinate public action on a territory to monitor, pilot and accelerate the deployment of the ecological transition?  
  • Caisse nationale des allocations familiales (CNAF) - How can we rethink childcare facilities and services for parents with a view to the early socialisation of the under-3s?
  • Campus Cyber - How to ensure the sustainability of the Digital Commons and thus encourage the commitment of public and private actors?
  • Centre Hospitalier de Givors - How can we transform internal communication in the hospital to improve the experience of both staff and patients?
  • Police station of the 13th district of Paris - How to improve the conditions of reception and treatment of victims of serious personal injury in police stations?
  • European Commission - How to identify and fight effectively against the spread of disinformation and fake news in the European digital space, especially during election periods? 
  • Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés (CNIL) - How to guarantee the right to multiple identities? 
  • Conseil départemental des Côtes-d'Armor - How can culture and its actors accompany the ecological transition?
  • Cour des Comptes - How to strengthen the association of citizens in the programming of the financial jurisdictions' controls and give better access to their work?
  • Direction générale de la Cohésion Sociale (DGCS) - How to improve the protection of vulnerable persons by better supporting family guardians?
  • GHU Paris psychiatrie & neurosciences - How to reconsider the mental health care offer for young people in order to anticipate acute situations and facilitate access to care?
  • JCDecaux - How can the actors, especially private actors, in the city's fabric work effectively in favour of the fragile and vulnerable and thus make the city ever more inclusive and caring?
  • Métropole Européenne de Lille & Fédération nationale des collectivités concédantes et régies - How can the various stakeholders in the territory be made aware of the need to alter their practices to reduce drinking water consumption?
  • Ministry of the Interior - How to restore trust in institutions by designing an efficient and secure decentralised digital environment? 
  • Ministry of Overseas France - How to encourage the success of overseas students enrolled in higher education in metropolitan France? 
  • French Office for the Protection of Refugees and Stateless Persons (OFPRA) - How can the economic and social rights and residence rights opened up by obtaining refugee status be made more effective? 
  • Préfecture de Loire-Atlantique - How can climate, societal and economic changes be identified and made legible so that the State's services can integrate them into their missions and the public policies they implement?
  • Restos du Cœur - How can we integrate "ad hoc volunteering" offers and link them to "traditional volunteering", while maintaining an involvement that makes sense for the volunteers and the associations?
  • UNESCO - How could youth support governments and social media companies to co-create policies to combat disinformation and hate speech online? 
  • City of Gennevilliers - How can we shape the digital support of marginalized populations with a view to improving access to rights?


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The mission in Moldova of a Young European Ambassador and student of the Master in European Affairs

  • Jules (orange coat) surrounded by other ambassadors © European CommissionJules (orange coat) surrounded by other ambassadors © European Commission

Jules Bigot, a student in the Europe in the World policy stream the Master in European Affairs, has been a Young European Ambassador since the end of 2021. In this context, he took part in a mission in Moldova in February 2023. Testimonial.  


The Young European Ambassadors (YEAs) is a non-political initiative which aims at building bridges between the youth from the Eastern Partnership countries (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine) and the youth from the EU and the UK. Through the organization of various activities and our participation in different international events, we seek to raise awareness about EU cooperation in the Eastern Partnership (EaP) and to promote civic activism and youth participation to shape together a better future for our regions. Our network is organized into chapters, one in each Eastern Partnership country, and one in the EU & UK, which I am part of since December 2021. As such, my role as Young European Ambassador in the EU is to promote the Eastern Partnership and the culture of its countries within the Member states of the European Union, a very exciting task!

The selection process to become a Young European Ambassador is held every year in autumn and includes the filling in of an application form, which will be followed by an interview for successful candidates. The selection process is open to citizens from EaP countries, an EU Member states or the UK, aged 16 to 26 years old, interested in European affairs, the relation between the EU and the Eastern Partnership and ready to take part in voluntary activities in the network. 

As part of your missions, you participated in the "More EU in Moldova" event, could you tell us more?

The “More EU in Moldova“ event to which I participated in February was organized to kickstart this new year of cooperation between the European Union and Moldova and gathered Young European Ambassadors from the EU and from Moldova in Chisinau for a couple of days. Through different activities we tried to highlight the importance of Moldova for the EU and of the EU for Moldova. 

We for example took part in school visits throughout Chisinau and its region where we presented the EU’s history, its values, its principles of cooperation with Moldova, as well as the work of our network in the country. These presentations were also a good opportunity to exchange with the students who had a lot of questions about our countries and the EU. The idea here was to bring the EU closer to Moldovan students. 

This event included a day trip to Cahul in the south of the country where we visited the city’s business incubator and met local entrepreneurs who actively participate in the economic development of their country. In the Liceul Teoretic Piotr Rumeantev we visited a Digital Lab also financed by the EU where students presented their work which ranged from digital art to website design or digital service providing. These two visits showcased the EU’s strong support to local businesses and to the digitalization of the country, two key sectors for the future of Moldova and its youth.

Jules Bigot and other young European Ambassadors from different EU countries © European Commission

What were the highlights of this experience and what did you learn from it? 

This “More EU in Moldova“ event was a great opportunity to step out of the academic box, to have a more pragmatic approach to the topic of my studies: the European Union. Indeed, presenting and promoting the European Union in a candidate country and discussing with students about their expectations towards the EU was a unique experience and made me realize the beauty of this European project we are part of. Furthermore, meeting our fellow Young European Ambassadors from Moldova with whom we had been working online prior to this trip and discovering their country and culture by their side was certainly another highlight of this event, which gave us a different perspective on this rather unknown country in the West of Europe. Our trip to Moldova was a good reminder of the fact that there are more things that bring our two regions together than separates them, and of the need to continue this dialogue on a young people's level to build together the future of Europe. 

Do you have a message for students who would like to become a Young European Ambassador?

This network has allowed me to meet some of the most amazing people in the EU and the Eastern Partnership, who soon became friends. We all have different backgrounds and profiles but are united in our will to bring the Eastern Partnership and the EU’s civil societies closer together. If these words resonate with you, please do apply to become a Young European Ambassador in autumn this year and we will be more than happy to welcome you into our big family! 

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Eamon Drumm, Class of 2022

From the Master in Public Affairs (one-year Master) to the position of Senior Program Officer at Sustainable Development Solutions Network
  • Eamon Drumm © Soc. Photo Ciné Madeleine Eamon Drumm © Soc. Photo Ciné Madeleine

Can you describe your academic and professional background before the MPA?

I was born in the United States but have been living in France since 2010. My undergraduate degree is in politics and urban planning from the University of Virginia, and I also have a master’s degree in geography and land-use planning from the Université Paris-Sorbonne. I initially worked as a consultant for a few different international organizations. Then I had a job for about seven years in the energy industry focused on urban energy efficiency and "smart city" projects. I wanted to transition back to international organizations or an NGO. When I started the MPA, I was a few months into a consultancy contract at the UNESCO World Heritage Centre.

You graduated last spring. What is your current professional situation? What are its main features?   

I still live in Paris, where I manage a team at the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network, an NGO mandated by the UN Secretariat General and led by Jeffrey Sachs. We conduct and publish research about how national and local governments are doing on achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. I supervise a team of economists, data scientists, and developers who work on data visualization and policy analysis.   

What were the contributions of your training to the function that you hold today?  

I got the job thanks to my experience, but also because I did my MPA policy project with the OECD on policy coherence for sustainable development. My supervisor had previously worked at the OECD on similar topics. On a day-to-day basis, some of the courses I took at Sciences Po on R and Python for policy analysis are very useful in my work.

Why would you recommend the MPA to other young professionals?  

Yes. In addition to the MPA curriculum, I would recommend they take advantage of the school’s classes in French (if they can) and on those on data (R/Stata/Python), which are essential if they want to work on policy issues at international organizations or think tanks. They should also seek internships or do their policy project in an organization where they would like to work after, since Sciences Po has very good connections to many of the French and European ones.

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Myassa Djebara, Class of 2015

From the "Master affaires publiques", general stream (now Master in Public Policy, Public Administration stream) to the position of Speech and Analysis Advisor to the Minister for Democratic Renewal and Government Spokesperson
  • Myassa Djebara © Audran DemierreMyassa Djebara © Audran Demierre


As a high school student in Alès in the Gard region, my main teacher was a teacher of philosophy, who found himself sent to the Cévennes, a long way (in total) from his native Paris. I dared to talk to him about Sciences Po, a little haggard, a little ashamed, a lot dreamy. From afternoons of filing to blank tests, from French history to the principles of macroeconomics, I discovered the rigour of effort at the same time as I encountered freedom.

At Sciences Po, I looked for courses that would bring me closer to my first love: philosophy and literature. I liked writing and thinking. I had no fixed project in mind, but I was driven by a single goal, which some would still say was naïve, but I remained faithful to it: to serve the country that had given me the means to rise. 

From there, everything followed: public affairs, the Ena prep school*, local authorities, mission companies, then the ministry, and always this adolescent taste for writing. 


By dreaming about it as a child! 

Any professional path is made on two legs: competence and meetings. Sometimes one leg is shorter than the other, but all this can be corrected! I keep in mind the words of one of my mentors: "We transform ourselves through effort, not through laziness". 

Effort, curiosity, desire in the service of work (or the other way round!) often lead us close to our childhood dreams... and to our adult dreams. 


Where to start? A high level of self-demand. A sharp analytical and critical mind. And a network of alumni who are frankly quick to help each other. 

Preparing for the ENA exam was the most edifying period of my university career. On the day of the exam, on the starting line, you arrive with a level of knowledge that you know is unequalled. Never again in your life will your head be so methodically full.  

I am lucky enough to work with a minister who is also a neurologist. Every day I discover a little more about the most fascinating organ of the human body, its plasticity and resilience, on the borderline of muscle. My years at Sciences Po trained it to survive whatever the subject, whatever the moment. These reflexes of the brain, such as this integrated capacity to produce a plan in a few moments, i.e. an organised thought that unfolds, are precious assets in the job I do today. 


To listen to your instincts, with complete confidence, in all circumstances. I wish someone had told me that! 

I've seen too many of my peers try to fit circles into squares and suffer for it, come close to burn/bore/brown out and be stubborn. Convincing themselves that yes, when all around them was shouting no.

Chance and instinct, combined with the ability to look ahead, are the best allies for a rewarding and surprising professional life. We work as we like. With momentum.

*The ENA Prep has been replaced by the PrépaConcours. 


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Maximin Wion, Class of 2021

From the Master in Public Policy, Social Policy and Social Innovation stream, to Project Process Manager at Mitsio Motu
  • Maximin Wion © Bellevue PhotographieMaximin Wion © Bellevue Photographie


I started my academic career in the Europe-Africa Programme at Sciences Po. It was an opportunity to study the challenges of the African continent and to meet people with multiple and rich backgrounds. After a year abroad at the University of Cape Town, I joined the School of Public Affairs.

In parallel to my master's degree, I worked with the elected officials of the city of Montreuil in order to anchor in reality the academic knowledge acquired at Sciences Po. I completed this master's degree with a gap year that allowed me to have two experiences in project management, within an association and a local authority. After writing a thesis on the territorialisation of public health, I joined Mitsio Motu in Lomé. 


Mitsio Motu is a start-up specialising in the construction of geographic information systems aimed at providing universal access to basic services. We collect, process and analyse data to develop tools and support public and private actors on the African continent in their decisions and the transformation of their organisations. 

In concrete terms, we have, for example, carried out a complete census of a country's social and economic infrastructure, developed geoportals to support decision-making, planned the deployment of infrastructure on a national scale in order to maximise the impact of projects thanks to data, and carried out numerous consultancy missions...

Since 2018, Mitsio Motu has completed 45 projects in 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. From a dozen employees when I arrived, we have grown in 2022 to a 100% Africa-based team of 750 employees from over 8 nationalities. 


The main advantage of working in a fast-growing organisation is the possibility of working on many different issues. I started on the operational subjects of data collection management, then on the administrative and financial structuring of the company, and now on the advice to our customers and the development of new projects and markets. This career path has enabled me to master the realities of the field, the different phases of a project, and to better identify today the factors of success and the potential obstacles. 

I'm lucky enough to never have a day like the last one! I work daily in a transversal manner with the operations, data, tech and development teams on current missions and the development of new projects.


Participating in the development of Mitsio Motu on new markets. This is extremely stimulating because it includes discovering new geographical, institutional and decision-making areas, as well as conceptualising and developing new projects and new offers to adapt as closely as possible to the needs of stakeholders. 


The EAP provided me with a solid background that allows me to work on a variety of issues with public, private and non-governmental actors. Thus, the skills developed in teamwork, writing, analysis and synthesis are essential in my professional activity.

The Social Policy and Social Innovation stream has also enabled me to understand the multiple facets of the challenges facing public actors in terms of innovation, public policy evaluation, impact measurement, etc. 


The first is to be curious. The closer you get to the end of your studies, the more pressure you can feel if you don't know where to go and where to apply, especially if you don't feel attracted to the more traditional paths. Attending events, talking to professionals about their careers, finding out about new sectors or countries can help you discover yourself and create many opportunities.

The second is to accept uncertainty and doubts. The path presented as "ideal" may not exist, or may not allow you to fulfil your potential. Trying and daring to take the plunge will always open doors for you and will certainly allow you to gain experience.


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Valentin Jedraszyk, Class of 2019

From the Master in Public Policy, Public Administration stream, to the position of project manager at the General Directorate of Companies, French Ministry of the Economy, Finance, Industrial and Digital Sovereignty
  • Valentin Jedraszyk © Tristan Reynaud/SIPAValentin Jedraszyk © Tristan Reynaud/SIPA


Originally from Lens, in the Hauts-de-France region, I passed my scientific baccalaureate there in 2013. I then joined the European campus of Sciences Po in Dijon in order to study a region that has always fascinated me: Central and Eastern Europe. These two years were among the richest of my life and allowed me to seriously learn Polish, to discover in detail the functioning of our European institutions as well as to meet students from all over Europe. To complete my bachelor's degree, I then did an international exchange at the Faculty of International Relations of one of the oldest universities in Central Europe: the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. Back in Paris, I joined the Master in Public Policy from which I graduated in 2019. 


To perfect my knowledge of the professional world, I also benefited from one of the major strengths of Sciences Po in my opinion, namely the possibility of carrying out numerous internships during the curriculum. I did an internship in the office of the prefect of the Île-de-France region to deal with issues relating to the integration of refugees in the region, an internship in a public affairs firm and also had an experience in the public affairs department of the BNP Paribas group. However, the most enriching step for me was undoubtedly the few months I spent as an intern with the director of cabinet of Jean-Michel Blanquer, then Minister of French National Education. I was able to discover the functioning of the administration, the inner workings of a ministerial cabinet as well as French education policy. Finally, in 2019, I joined the Directorate General for Enterprise (DGE) within the French Ministry of Economy and Finance. 


My job was quickly disrupted, at the beginning of 2020, by the Covid-19 pandemic. The Ministry quickly got into battle to support the French economic sector at a time when the country was at a standstill. For my part, I was responsible for designing and managing the solidarity fund for entrepreneurs in difficulty. During the few months that this crisis lasted, I participated in the drafting of more than 60 decrees in order to adjust the system as best I could to the changing health situation. More than 2 million companies were thus supported for an astronomical amount of nearly 41 billion euros. 

In addition, another current event has punctuated my experience at the Ministry: the French Presidency of the European Union. In this context, I participated in the organisation of a ministerial conference on the place of small and medium-sized enterprises within the European single market. I am also involved in many other issues such as public support for the growth of French SMEs and SMIs, the management of an associative network to support entrepreneurs in difficulty (the Portail du Rebond)...


The teachers at Sciences Po, and in particular at the EAP, were clearly a determining factor in my choice of direction. The fact that I was able to rub shoulders with many professionals during my studies was extremely enlightening in the construction of my career path. I remember in particular my lecturers in public finance or economics, who were in fact working at the French Ministry of Finance, and who gave me many very useful recommendations! 


I've never appreciated advice given in a peremptory tone so I'll refrain from doing so. But I would perhaps just suggest to current students to multiply experiences in fields that do not necessarily appear to them as their own, especially in internships, in order to build a varied experience and become multi-skilled. And above all, not to limit themselves and censor themselves.  

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A student of the Master in European Affairs represents Sciences Po and France in Brussels

  • Alexandre Alecse, student of the Master in European Affairs © DRAlexandre Alecse, student of the Master in European Affairs © DR

Early February 2023 in Brussels, students from all over Europe took part in a major simulation, allowing them to learn about European policy-making. They stepped into the shoes of national decision-makers and together negotiated new rules for the whole European Union. Alexandre Alecse, a student in the Master in European Affairs at the School of Public Affairs, who represented Sciences Po and France in this simulation, tells us about it. 

What is the ConSIMium, the simulation of the Council of the EU and what was its aim?

ConSIMium is the first-ever simulation of the European Council and the Council of the European Union organised by the Council itself. This event gathered 162 students from every Member State of the EU. Each country sent a delegation of 6 students with different roles: a Head of State, a minister, an ambassador, two national experts, and a journalist. 

For two days, we have been put in the real conditions of the Council. The Heads of State had to do a doorstep speech in front of the journalists before the European Council to expose their national priorities for the negotiations. The European Council negotiated the conclusion proposed and defined the political axis for the rest of the negotiations. The national experts were reunited to discuss the more technical aspect of the regulations. The ambassador and the minister finalised the negotiations to find a compromise on the regulations we worked on. 

How have you been selected?

The French delegation was composed of 6 students coming from different universities. Personally, I applied following the publication of this opportunity by the Master in European Affairs and I had the honor to be selected by Sciences Po to be part of this delegation. We then had several meetings to prepare our national position with our coordinators. 

On what subject have you worked and what was your position during the simulation? 

We worked on the subject of the ecological transition and more precisely on the regulation on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure (AFIR) and the regulation setting CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars and for new light commercial vehicles. 

During the simulation, I played the role of the President of France. As President, I represented and advocated for the interests of France at the European Council. I negotiated hard to integrate into the conclusion of the European Council the notion of industrial competitivity to protect at best the French and European automobile industries in order to reach our strategic autonomy. I also claimed for the protection of nuclear energy to reach our objective to have a zero-emission energy mix and achieve our aim to be energetically autonomous in the following years.  

What do you keep from this experience? 

This experience was very enriching both academically and personally. Indeed, this kind of simulation allows us to give practical meaning to the theories learned in class and gives perspective on the reality of negotiations. It is necessary to look beyond textbooks, especially if you are considering this kind of career in the future. 

In addition, we also get to see the diversity of opinion and culture in the European Union by having the opportunity to meet young people from all the member states. We had the chance to discuss our different backgrounds, our professional ambitions, and the possibility that one day we might meet again in this very same place to play our roles in real life!  

Furthermore, the Council officials were very present and at our side in the preparation and execution of the simulation. We were able to discuss with them after the simulation and they were all pleasantly surprised by the realism of our negotiations and our preparation.

Délégation française

French delegation to the ConSIMium, 2023 © DR

What are your future projects linked with Europe? 

Currently, I am in the Master in European Affairs, Europe in the World policy stream, at the School of Public Affairs. I will be doing my end-of-studies internship at the European Commission's DG DEFIS (Defence Industry and Space) in the coordination and inter-institutional relations unit. In the framework of the Bluebook internship, I will follow the different negotiations between the Council, the Parliament, the Commission, and other actors of the sector on subjects concerning the defence and space industries at the European level. I will also be participating in the elaboration and implementation of the new European policies on the defence industry and space matters. 

I will also continue my associative activity as President of the Young Europeans - Sciences Po with the organisation of a trip to Brussels to visit the institutions and meet high-level European officials and the organisation of a conference cycle given the European elections of 2024.  

My ambition is to continue my career in European affairs, especially within the Commission. I would like to take the European civil service competition to become a senior European civil servant.

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Laura Reznikova, Class of 2020

From the Master in European Affairs, Europe in the World policy stream, to Junior Policy Analyst at OECD
  • Laura ReznikovaLaura Reznikova


I graduated in the summer of 2020, from the Master in European Affairs at the School of Public Affairs. Prior to this, I completed a MSc in International Political Economy at the London School of Economics and Political Science, and a BA in International Relations with Spanish and French at the University of Exeter in the UK.  

Since early 2019, I have been working at the OECD, more specifically at the OECD Centre for Skills. I first started as an intern while I was still studying at Sciences Po, and had worked as a consultant before I began my current role of a Policy Analyst. 

How was the recruitment process at the OECD and what are the main characteristics of your job today? 

The recruitment process at the OECD can vary slightly depending on the specific position. The process I went through for my current role consisted of a pre-screening phase, a written test and a panel interview.  

In my job today, I work on developing policy advice for strengthening countries' skills systems and/or implementation guidance for implementing specific skills reforms. This typically involves in-depth analysis of the country's skills system, developing targeted policy recommendations and providing relevant international best practices that the country can learn from going forward. All of this is done through a collaborative process together with the country, and involves several rounds of engagements with a range of local stakeholders through workshops, focus groups and bilateral meetings. In my role, I have had the opportunity to work with a broad array of countries, including Ireland, Latvia, Luxembourg, Mexico, Portugal, and the Slovak Republic. 

What were the main stages in the construction of your professional project? 

From the beginning of my studies at Sciences Po, I knew I wanted to gain relevant work experience alongside my studies. In this respect, I was grateful for the simple and straightforward process through which Sciences Po signed off on my internship at the OECD (part-time during the semester), and for the support I received from the university. Equally, having the opportunity to pursue my professional interests during the last semester at Sciences Po allowed me to further progress in my role at the OECD, which then became the basis for the job that I have now.

What have been the contributions of your academic background at the School of Public Affairs to the position you hold today?     

Several of the courses I took during my studies, such as on labour markets policies in a comparative perspective, are directly relevant for my role today. The studies at the School of Public Affairs also allowed me to further develop several transversal skills that I now use in my job on an daily basis - most importantly analytical thinking, drafting and working in a team. Also, several of the projects I work on are carried out in close collaboration with the European Commission, which allows me to apply the understanding of the workings of EU institutions I had developed during my studies. I was equally able to further improve my French, from which I am now able to benefit given that the OECD's official languages are English and French. 

Do you have any advice for a student who wants to work in an international organisation today? 

There is a large variety between and even within international organisations in terms of their objectives and the areas of focus, so having an idea of the fields that one is interested in is a good first step. Once you figure out what roles you could see yourself in, my experience is that investing into research and preparation during the application process pays off. Reach out to people, use your alumni networks, ask questions and be proactive in your search. As recruitment processes tend to be competitive, do not be discouraged by rejection - I have myself received several before starting in my current role. Once you start at the job, make the most out of the expertise that will surround you, be willing to try new things, embrace the challenges that will come your way, and most importantly enjoy it!

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Virgile Billod, Class of 2019

From the Master in Public Policy, Public Administration stream, to the position of Communication and Public Affairs Advisor at Brunswick Group
  • Virgile Billot © Eric Malemanche/Encre NoireVirgile Billot © Eric Malemanche/Encre Noire


I grew up in a small town in the Haute-Saône region of France, quite far from the Parisian considerations in which I am immersed today. Next to my home was a small sub-prefecture. On the advice of a friend of my parents, I sent a letter to this public administration to do my professional discovery training course in "classe de 3ème" (9th grade). I discovered an environment which I liked and which above all triggered an obsession: to do a job in which I felt useful to others.   

After high school, I first joined the Institut d'Études Politiques de Strasbourg where I studied for four years, including a year spent at the Luiss University in Rome as an exchange student. I started to specialise in law and public administration and then I joined the School of Public Affairs at Sciences Po, with the idea of giving myself every chance to succeed in the competitive examination for the senior civil service. I entered the Master in Public Policy, Public Administration stream, and the rest did not go as planned! 

After qualifying for the Institut National des Etudes Territoriales (INET), I joined the office of the President of the Département Côte d'Or, where I worked as a technical adviser and for whom I was a regular penman. I made a lot of progress during this stage, during which I contributed to the work of a very experienced public leader, who understood the importance of communication for the success of his mandate, and who was in fact particularly gifted in this area.  

I then joined the cabinet of Agnès Pannier-Runacher, then Minister of Industry, as a speech adviser, i.e. in charge of speeches and written communication (editorials, prefaces, written interviews, various contributions). Of course, this experience confirmed the strategic nature of communication, but above all it enabled me to pass an important professional milestone. I spent a year in what could be described as a permanent crisis unit, having taken up my post at the peak of the pandemic, when the Minister was struggling to supply France with vaccines against COVID. It was a great honour and at the same time a trying time, with very high demands, an intensity that I had never known (not even at Sciences Po, and yet...) and an exceptional daily routine. 

I really enjoyed this experience. But it's a job that you do temporarily. I also wanted to broaden my field of competence and to confront myself with new environments. That's when I heard about strategic communication consulting. This sector offered me the opportunity to combine my passion for communication and public affairs, my desire to continue to take on new challenges, and the overriding need to feel useful. Since spring 2022, I have been working as a consultant at Brunswick Group, an international strategic communications consultancy founded in London 35 years ago.  


I would say that there were several "shocks" or realizations. The first was when I discovered the pleasure of working for others. What I liked was the idea of trying to act in the service of causes I believe in.  

The second shock was when I left for higher education, far from my family and a bit of a precursor, as few people around me had followed this type of path. Getting out of my comfort zone was not easy, but looking back, it was one of the best decisions of my life to this day. I learned to stand on my own two feet, to reach out to others and to push doors...  

Then there was the arrival at Sciences Po, the den of the "French elite" in the collective imagination, a place that for a long time seemed inaccessible to me. For three years, I did my best to seize the incredible opportunities offered by this school. I wanted to live the experience to the fullest, to get involved in the community life, to make the most of the courses.  

Finally, there was my time in a ministerial office. Time passes twice as fast as elsewhere, the pressure is permanent and the responsibilities are taken on very quickly. "Autonomy", the head of the cabinet told me on my first day. It was a formative experience and completely opened up my horizons. I was lucky enough to work at the Ministry of Industry, the backbone of the economy. I got to know the business world and the different people at Bercy. I draw on this experience every day in the job I do now, which is not so different from what I did before. The similarities between the political and administrative world and the business world are palpable, and increasingly so. 


I am fortunate to have joined a company that has strong values and for which people count, which is reflected every day in the activities we carry out for our clients. Brunswick Group is first and foremost a network of competent and talented people who work together across the globe. The international dimension of our organisation is evident, with 27 offices in 19 countries. Our clients are therefore, but not exclusively, large multinationals and listed companies, for whom communication is strategic in the sense that mistakes are not allowed. One wrong step, one breach in reputation, and the value of the company is immediately impacted, with serious consequences for the business and jobs. Our job is to take care of this reputation and to defend it when it is unfairly attacked. We are not doctors or lawyers, but we are not entirely unfamiliar with these roles in relation to our clients.  

Working at Brunswick is a team effort. We believe in the confrontation of expertise and in collective intelligence. It is because we are united and have confidence in each other that we perform well. Communication is not always an exact science. To be effective, it needs to be tested and questioned. This is the basis of our daily work, which is a work where humility counts a lot. We have to ask ourselves a lot of questions in order to try to provide our clients with solid, well-constructed answers.  

Finally, I would say that what makes our consulting work so special is the diversity of the subjects we deal with. No sector can do without thinking about aspects of communication and public affairs. Beyond that, communication is not a one-channel subject: corporate communication, internal communication, crisis communication or financial communication... It's very varied and stimulating, in line with the studies at Sciences Po.  


I don't have a crystal ball and I live without asking too many questions when it doesn't seem necessary. I have found a place where I feel comfortable to work, and where I hope to learn a lot. I am doing my best and I am confident in the future! One thing is for sure, I am not likely to be bored.


There are many, and frankly, the list is far from exhaustive. However, we can try to identify a few highlights. First of all, it is a school that provides a very wide range of skills and knowledge, and which trains very well for the demands of the job market. In my opinion, a graduate of Sciences Po, especially from the School of Public Affairs, is someone who knows how to adapt and has a solid foundation that allows him or her to quickly become comfortable with the responsibilities entrusted to them. Knowing how to define what you are looking for, and where to find it, is increasingly essential in a world where data is multiplying infinitely. Being trained at Sciences Po enables you to reason in a structured and synthetic way. In my opinion, this is one of the things that recruiters look for in our profiles. We could also mention a few clichés such as open-mindedness, exacerbated curiosity and a good network. It is very complete and it is a school that can be the chance of a lifetime. It is thanks to this school that I was able to work in a ministerial cabinet and then join a group such as Brunswick. I am convinced of that.  


Three pieces of advice come to mind. The first: accept a certain amount of uncertainty and doubt. Nothing can be taken for granted and there is no such thing as a clear-cut path, contrary to the ideals you may have as a student. Confronting this reality means maturing and becoming stronger in the face of the uncertainties of life and the professional world. Then, know how to build your network and learn to use it first and foremost to find good advice. It is by learning from the experience of others that your project will be refined. Finally, be daring! Get off the beaten track, explore avenues you hadn't thought of, discover new environments. Sometimes it's a risk, but it's also often the beginning of an adventure that will reward you in one way or another.

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Nassim Larfa, Class of 2019

From the Master in Public Policy, Public Administration stream, to the position of Advisor to the President of the Economic, Social and Environmental Council
  • Nassim Larfa © Nassim LarfaNassim Larfa © Nassim Larfa

Nassim Larfa was selected in the ranking of 35 young positive leaders under 35 years old with the newspaper Les Echos Start and Positive Planet (January 2023). 


Before my university education, my educational path took place exclusively in the town of Chelles (77500) where I still live today. 

I entered Sciences Po's undergraduate college in 2013 via the Convention d'Éducation Prioritaire (CEP) and then, after a year abroad split between Dubai and New York, I chose the Master in Public Policy where I did my M2 as an apprentice with the Mutuelle Nationale Territoriale (MNT).  

After graduation, I joined the Public Affairs Department of the Mutualité Française for two years. In 2020, following the first wave of COVID-19, I joined a consultancy firm specialising in the challenges of an ageing population, where I stayed for only six months. I then had the opportunity to join the Ministry of Solidarity and Health and the General Directorate of Social Cohesion (DGCS) in the midst of a health crisis, where I accompanied the return to normality in the EHPADs and the developments in this field. Finally, in June 2022, I joined the cabinet of the President of the Economic, Social and Environmental Council (CESE) Thierry Beaudet, as an advisor. 


My career has always been closely linked to two things: my commitment to associations and public policies. I have always been very involved in the priority neighbourhoods of the city (quartiers prioritaires de la ville - QPV), particularly in the Ambition Campus association at Sciences Po, and I have always been keen to work in environments that help advance causes that I consider essential. As a public policy enthusiast, I have naturally held positions aimed at promoting initiatives (Mutualité Française), laws (Ministry of Health) and the vitality of civil society (CESE).


The missions allow me to intervene in the whole field of action of the CESE President. The aim is to provide the President, at his request or on his own initiative, with expertise on all the issues on which the CESE has expressed a position. These tasks are part of a more global strategy for communicating and promoting the CESE's activities, defined in close cooperation with the President. My responsibilities include relations with the regions. For example, I am responsible for strengthening the CESE's presence in the regions by working with the regional economic, social and environmental councils (CESER) in drawing up reports and with associations of local elected representatives. 

If I were to describe working in a cabinet with a senior executive, I would describe it as demanding and stimulating. Indeed, the global strategy defined and implemented is mixed with the urgencies linked to current events and the President's own wishes. So, for all these reasons, a typical day in the office does not exist. 


The training I received at the School of Public Affairs has been particularly valuable throughout my (short) professional life. Indeed, its multi-disciplinary and demanding nature allows a perfect understanding of institutional mechanisms. Moreover, it provides the keys to better understand a variety of subjects within often tight deadlines. 

The apprenticeship is an opportunity to put into practice the theoretical knowledge acquired during the training. Moreover, my apprenticeship at the Mutuelle Nationale Territoriale (MNT) was an opportunity to integrate an ecosystem. I then joined the Fédération Nationale de la Mutualité Française, thus placing my professional career in the field of social democracy. Today, my functions at the CESE owe a lot to this learning experience. 


My advice would be threefold: first of all, stay focused on your career goals. You should always be one step ahead so that each work experience fits into the final position you want; 

Continue to pursue your passion. For example, I continue to play football in what can modestly be described as the best team in the Ile-de-France region, the Senior 3 Project of the US Vaires-sur-Marne (laughs). Keep a balance between professional and personal life. 

Finally, it is essential to pursue your associative commitments. Indeed, professional life can tend to "institutionalise" our attitudes. In this respect, involvement in associations brings as much to the person who benefits from the action as to the person who carries it out.  

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Clément Tougeron, Class of 2022

From the Master in Public Policy, Public Administration stream, to the position of senior consultant at Tilder, a public affairs and communications company
  • Clément Tougeron © Pierre TerrazClément Tougeron © Pierre Terraz


My academic background is similar to that of many Sciences Po students: after 3 years in a literary preparatory class, I was admitted to Sciences Po in spring 2019 in the Master of Public Policy, Public Administration stream. I postponed my admission by one year, in order to gain additional professional experience as a parliamentary assistant to the MP Céline Calvez. I therefore started my master's degree at the School of Public Affairs in September 2020 while continuing to do various internships, particularly within a political party, in the office of the Chief of Staff of the Navy, or with the Secretary of State in charge of Priority Education as chief of staff, press and communication advisor.

Due to political uncertainties, I completed this period in the ministerial cabinet as advisor for the follow-up of reforms and adviser for the French Presidency of the European Union to the Minister of National Education, Youth and Sports, Jean-Michel Blanquer. 

I graduated in June 2022 and since September 2022 I have been a senior consultant with the public affairs and communications firm Tilder and a presenter on Sud Radio.


I think it's a question of encounters, and the fact that I wasn't afraid to make these encounters. I built my professional project - however vague - very early on: I knew that I wanted to do politics and political communication, so I gave myself the means to achieve this by talking to as many people as possible. Often these meetings led to nothing more than the pleasure of a nice conversation. And then sometimes, the contact went well and these meetings turned into proposals. I have always accepted them, even if they sometimes seemed difficult to reconcile with my studies.


Today, I am involved in assisting major executives (CAC40, large groups, scale-ups, etc.) with their internal and external communications, as well as in building networks of influence. It is an activity at the crossroads of pure communication and public affairs. It involves press relations and preparing for interviews, but also targeting key decision-makers in a sector or drawing up a plan for meetings... The main quality required is, I think, to be clever.


The EAP training has given me a solid grounding in the functioning of the State and, more generally, in the major issues facing our society. I have a better understanding of the major mechanisms of public administration and politics. This may seem trivial, but in reality it is rare. You notice immediately when someone understands what they are talking about. For example, on the State budget (yes, public finance courses can help you even if this is not the core of your job), knowledge of the major balances allows you to be precise and fair, which reinforces the confidence of your partners. I have also met fellow students and teachers with whom I keep in touch. My exchanges with them are nourishing, I find it interesting to see how other people perceive and apprehend the world. It gives you food for thought, sometimes changes your point of view and always gives you a better understanding of various problems.


You should meet as many people as possible and never be afraid to ask for advice, tips, recommendations or sometimes even a job if the branch interests you, with the necessary consideration and form. In the worst case, you will get a negative answer. But an answer is better than a regret.  

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Do you know the research track of the School of Public Affairs?

  • A student picking up a book in the library © Marta Nascimento/Sciences PoA student picking up a book in the library © Marta Nascimento/Sciences Po

The School of Public Affairs (EAP) offers two possibilities to students who are interested in research:

1) Master 2 students can choose to write a thesis as part of their off-campus semester in semester 4 (four options are offered: thesis, internship, university exchange and personal project);

2) Master 1 students who are already interested in research and who wish to deepen their skills in this field can follow an in-depth course, from the 1st year of the Master, called the research track.


In order to respond to a growing demand from students wishing to study a subject of their choice in greater depth, to acquire in-depth analytical skills and to familiarise themselves with research methodology, EAP offers the opportunity to devote the last semester of your studies to writing a thesis, while benefiting from methodological support. Each year, some forty Master 2 students choose this off-campus semester (semester 4).


Students in the first year of the Master's programme who wish to develop their research skills in the social sciences, or even consider an academic career, can join the research track. 

This course is open to about ten students each year, selected on the basis of their applications, and is based on a partnership with the Master's degree in political science at the Sciences Po School of Research. It offers a hybrid programme between these two schools, which allows selected students to follow theoretical courses, quantitative and qualitative analysis courses and research methodology workshops from semester 2. Students write a research thesis (longer than the one expected in the classic programme) which they can defend in front of an enlarged jury, allowing them to apply for thesis funding at Sciences Po.

During this course, students remain enrolled at EAP and obtain the diploma of this sole school.

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3 questions addressed to Isabelle de Silva, Scientific Advisor of the Public Administration stream

  • Isabelle de SilvaIsabelle de Silva

Isabelle de Silva, a senior civil servant and member of the Council of State, has held various positions in the public administration and within the Council of State. She was a member and then president of the French Competition Authority until the end of 2021, and her term of office was devoted to digital issues. At the Council of State, she was government commissioner and deputy president of the Social Section, and in May 2022 she was appointed president of the sixth chamber of the Council of State. A specialist in environmental and urban planning issues, she has also held the position of Director of Legal Affairs at the French Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development. She has also held the positions of deputy rapporteur at the Constitutional Council and government commissioner at the Tribunal des conflits. She is a former student of HEC and ENA, holds a degree in Philosophy from the University of Paris I Sorbonne and a diploma from the Community of European Management Schools. She is an associate professor at the School of Public Affairs (EAP) since November 2022 and Scientific Advisor of the Public Administration policy stream. She succeeds Bernard Stirn.


I had been tempted to become an associate professor for a long time, in order to be in contact with the students and to be able to pass on the knowledge of law that I had acquired in my job. The proposal to join EAP came at the right time as I am now in a position that is compatible with this mission. I was particularly honoured by this proposal, because the prestige of the School of Public Affairs is no longer in question, and the diversity of the courses it offers seems to correspond perfectly to my past experiences: the fields of administration, ministerial action, litigation, regulation, and European affairs are familiar to me through the positions I have held, and are at the heart of society's current issues.


The 'Public Administration' stream is an old institution, which has trained generations of students, but which has managed to renew itself perfectly to adapt to the transformations of Sciences Po and the new aspirations of those who join it today. It welcomes students with excellent academic backgrounds who are looking for the transmission of fundamental knowledge in the fields of law, economics, social issues or public administration, but also for an opening to Europe, the world, and new challenges such as the ecological transition. My wish is to continue the remarkable work carried out over the last few years by Bernard Stirn, who has put together a particularly solid and experienced teaching team, by endeavouring, together with those in charge at EAP, to anticipate the necessary developments. In this respect, the transformation of the civil service, with the ongoing reforms of senior management, will be a point of attention. Likewise, taking into account climate issues and the digital revolution are long-term developments that must be reflected in the school's teaching. And it is important that, alongside the core disciplines for which the school is known, students can find more specialised courses that correspond to their interests and the career opportunities they prefer.


After having devoted a large part of my mandate as President of the French Competition Authority to digital issues, I thought it would be interesting to offer EAP students an overview of the regulation of digital platforms, analysing all the tools currently in use - competition law, protection of privacy, regulation of content - and those that will be used in the future: Digital Markets Act and Digital Services Act in particular. The idea of this course is to provide students with expert knowledge of these subjects, but also to provide food for thought on the effectiveness of the various regulatory methods and systems. How to define the objective of a regulation, which institutional architecture, how to measure its effectiveness? Can European regulation inspire the rest of the world? These questions are essential for future public decision-makers, but also for those considering a career in the private sector, because today the actions of the large digital platforms have an influence that transcends sectors and affects economic life as much as public life. I am very motivated by this project and I hope it will be useful to students!

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The Dardenne Brothers at the School of Public Affairs

A look back at the "Masterclasse Culture" held on September 28, 2022
  • Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne © Christine PlenusJean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne © Christine Plenus

On September 28th 2022, as part of the School of Public Affairs' Culture Masterclasses, Sciences Po welcomed the Belgian filmmaker brothers Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne for the release of their latest film Tori and Lokita, the film critic Jean-Michel Frodon and Diaphana’s CEO Michel Saint-Jean. This meeting was an opportunity to understand  how to edit, create, and distribute a socially engaged film alongside artists and professionals from the film industry.


Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne began by describing the writing and directing process of Tori and Lokita. Even before writing the script, they knew that they would tell the story of a friendship between two young migrants, driven by the conviction that friendship is essential during such ordeals, as it allows one to maintain trustworthy relationships while being far from home. The filmmakers then wrote their film as an act of resistance against the dominant discourse in society. To do so, they studied the situations experienced by immigrants in Belgium. This step was fundamental in the creation process: the directors got the chance to discuss with the police to obtain information on the drug and arms trafficking scene. They also met with directors of migrant reception centers in Belgium and learned about the administrative workings of unaccompanied exiled minors’ welcoming in the Revue de l'enfance et de l'adolescence. Finally, the two artists explain that their script was shaped and structured from the writing of the main characters. For Luc Dardenne, the film was only born when Tori and Lokita began to exist.  

A key moment of the meeting was the two brothers’ fascinating elaboration on the staging of their works. They remain faithful to several principles that they replicate from set to set: they shoot the scenes in continuity, that is to say, following the narrative order of the script; they keep the sets throughout the entire duration of the shooting (up to two and a half months); they organize several weeks of rehearsals in the sets, even if they are unfinished, with or without the actors, whether professional or not; and they film in long sequence shots (one shot in Tori and Lokita lasts seven minutes).   

Regarding distribution, Michel Saint-Jean presented his job, which is the last step of a film’s production line. According to him, the fundamental question that every distributor must ask himself is why a particular film should be distributed. However, the distributor is called upon to intervene at various stages of the film's creation: he or she reviews the script that the Dardenne brothers send him or her, takes care of the creation of the poster, the choice of the release date and the number of copies of the feature film to be supplied. As far as Diaphana is concerned, Michel Saint Jean specifically distributes films that he loves profoundly or that question the world we live in. He also says he likes to create long-term artistic partnerships, such as those with the Dardenne brothers or Ken Loach.


What is an engaged artist? Luc Dardenne declares that a film is political as soon as it focuses on an individual. "If we manage to film the individual, we are already committed to massification”. Art is interested in individuals, in details, in living things, and for Jean-Pierre Dardenne, their commitment as filmmakers is to remain at the characters’ level without taking them as objects of study. Although "meaning emerges from the material," this does not mean that the characters should be used to produce a discourse, however benevolent. 

When we ask the two artists about what makes their social cinema unique, Jean-Pierre Dardenne answers with a simple quote from the Neapolitan playwright Eduardo de Filippo: "If you look for style, you find death. If you look for life, you find style”. They acknowledge that their experience of documentary filmmaking allowed them to learn the technique. When they realized that they began to give great importance to directing, they finally turned to fiction. Furthermore, both brothers point out that the shaping of their characters is influenced by the different portraits they created in their documentary films. Thus, tese characters exist before, during and after their passage on screen.

"Masterclasse Culture" with the Dardenne Brothers on September 28, 2022 © CD/Sciences Po

Jean-Michel Frodon emphasizes that this is precisely the heart of a committed artist’s work. He conceives the brothers’ cinema as a carrier of movement, thought and sensitivity. Their cinema questions the way we live together from singular stories and seeks the possibilities of creating a common space. He also identifies two singularities in Tori and Lokita: the film’s simplicity and the exploration of the adventure genre. The two young people have adventures, but they are set in reality, without falling into the Hollywood buddy movie, often built around male friendships. The Dardenne's latest film features an unusual pairing: a fusional and combative duo formed by a little boy and a teenage girl. According to the film critic, this original friendship story suggests the power of creativity, inventiveness, courage and unique strength that could not exist in other situations.


The French film industry is facing an unprecedented attendance crisis. Michel Saint-Jean, Diaphana’s director, alerts us to the seriousness of the situation: French cinema is going through its most difficult time since 1895, when the first movie was screened in a theater on Boulevard des Capucines in Paris. The Additional Solidarity Tax (known as TSA), a tax on cinema tickets, is the backbone of the entire French film industry ecosystem and, accordingly, the drop in ticket sales is undermining its sustainability. Its operation is based on a threshold of approximately 200-220 million admissions per year. However, since the covid crisis, the number of admissions has dropped by 30 to 40%, reaching an average level of 140-150 million admissions per year. In that sense, Michel Saint-Jean tells us that we must invent and distribute more intelligently. The absolute urgency is to bring the public back to theaters, but the distributor admits that the exorbitant prices of movie tickets is problematic. 

Jean-Michel Frodon insists on the importance of proposing innovative cultural policies in order to continue to discover, think and understand our world through cinema. The way they are designed today is, according to him, the main explanation of the structural crisis that the French film industry is going through. Simple subsidisation is no longer a sufficient policy to support creation and distribution.  

The last question we asked our four guests proved to be a thorny one. What about the ecological transition in film production and distribution in France? Michel Saint-Jean, a little forbidden, confesses that the subject challenges him as a spectator and citizen, but not really as a distributor. Jean-Michel Frodon elaborates by telling us that the CNC has recently published a regulation imposing a new framework for energy and electricity consumption in movie theaters. He deplores, however, the fact that this policy is only "cosmetic", and reminds us that one of the major ecological challenges for the film industry remains the environmental footprint of international festivals. Thousands of visitors fly across the world for a few days in Cannes, Venice, New York or Toronto, so the question remains: how to reconcile these important cinematographic moments with the ecological transition?

As for Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne, they have even raised the possibility of making a film about a climate refugee and recognize that ecological aberrations are still common on film sets, from the abundance of plastic water bottles and the multitude of motorized vehicles used.

Overall, the first Culture Masterclass of the year 2022-2023 offered Sciences Po’s students the privilege to listen to professionals and artists talk about the film industry, cultural policies, cinema and art at a time when French cinema is undergoing a profound crisis. Eléné's closing word, the meeting’s highlight, shook the room with laughter. Our comrade paid a nice tribute to the film by evoking the ritornello "Alla Fiera dell'Est" that Tori and Lokita sing in chorus (but that she refuses to hum), while reminding the assembly of the heavy task the four guests charged us with: simply "save French cinema" and create new ambitious cultural policies, "not only by giving money", referring to the inefficiency of the subsidy policies pointed out by Jean-Michel Frodon. Eléné's speech, both tender and incisive, ended the first Culture Masterclass of the year 2022-2023 in style: institutions as well as the film industry’s actors themselves have the responsibility of addressing this structural crisis while proposing ambitious cinematographic projects that tackle society’s economic, political and social fractures. 

Article written by students of the Culture policy stream at the School of Public Affairs: Liv-Ophélie Forsans, Louise Hottinguer, Louise Leport, Romane Levi, Eléné Pluvinage et Maya Soler.

Private screening organised for students on the morning of 28 September at the cinema Le Silencio des Prés © CD/Sciences Po

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Uma Kalkar, Class of 2022

From the Master in Public Policy, Dual Master's degree with the University of Toronto, Digital, New Technology and Public Policy Stream, to the position of Researcher at the GovLab
  • Uma Kalkar © Amanda BurnsUma Kalkar © Amanda Burns


After learning about ‘wicked problems’ during my freshman year, I knew I wanted to help create impactful, ‘for good,’ policies. I obtained an Honors Bachelor of Science from the University of Toronto, majoring in Peace, Conflict & Justice Studies and double minoring in Biology and Mathematics. 

While at U of T, I received a Research Assistantship at the Department of Computer Science with Emeritus Professor Ronald Baecker to support his book, Computers and Society: Modern Perspectives (Oxford University Press, 2019). Through this research, I came to understand the importance of building ethical and responsible technology tools and the urgent need to study the impact of digital tools across multiple sectors.  

In 2019, I was one of three Munk School students selected to represent U of T as Presidential Fellows at the Center for the Study of the Presidency and Congress in Washington, DC. Through this year-long fellowship, I conducted quantitative research on the correlation between internet access and American partisanship across urban and rural congressional districts. This research, “Digital Fault Lines: An Examination of Internet Inequality in the United States” received the David M. Abshire Award and was published in the Fellows Review.

During my undergraduate program, Sciences Po and the Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy launched a dual-degree Master program. Having spent 12 years honing my French proficiency while growing up between the U.S. and Canada, I was drawn to the unique opportunity to study at two world-class schools and gain a transatlantic perspective on policy practices and social development research.

While at Sciences Po, I stumbled across The GovLab’s work on collective intelligence and open government during the course ‘Updating Democracy // Rebooting the State’ taught by Mauricio Mejía. I started following their work and connected with current GovLabbers to learn more about their research. I joined The GovLab’s Data Research Program as a Graduate Research Intern in January 2020, and in June 2022, I transitioned to a full-time Researcher position on the team. In addition to my work at The GovLab, I am the Strategy and Innovation Director of 18by Vote, the only U.S. nonprofit that focuses exclusively on increasing civic opportunity among ‘rising’ voters (young people aged 15 to 19 years old).


The main stages that led me to my work at The GovLab today can be attributed to three practices: exploring research and professional development outside of my classes; working on group projects; and using these techniques to build the confidence and know-how to launch ambitious ventures. 

In school, I explored different types of research methods, from literature analysis to data mining, across the history, ecology, computer science, and economics fields. Outside of school, I worked in the corporate sector at a Toronto-based mathematics and technology firm. In Paris, I tried my hand working for an international organization as a Strategic Transformation Intern at UNESCO’s Office of the Director-General, Strategic Transformation Unit. These opportunities helped me to become the generalist I am today, taking a well-rounded approach to public policy problems. Moreover, I received mentorship from professors and practitioners, built my professional relationships, and grew my work experience. 

During both Masters, group projects helped me develop my leadership and team-working skills to hone individual strengths for maximum collaborative impact. For a project for Barbara Ubaldi’s course ‘Digital & Innovative Government’ at Sciences Po, my team applied Open Government processes to devise a strategy for frictionless COVID-19 aid distribution in Paris. For the capstone project of the graduate program, which was carried out at the Munk School, I helped perform topic analysis to build policy recommendations for an investment firm in Toronto looking to engage with emerging demographics of ultra-high-net-worth individuals. 

Building on these skills helped me meaningfully lead 18by Vote with two of my friends, Jazmin Kay (Deloitte) and Ava Mateo (18by Vote). I used my mixed-methods research and policy background to design youth-led civic engagement initiatives. For instance, I repurposed the multiple regression analysis I used for my CSPC fellowship and graduate thesis to harness data on local demographics and voting rates to target hyper-localized communities that are classified as ‘civic deserts,’ or areas lacking civic engagement opportunity, to build sustained civic action by local young people. 

Since 2020, 18by Vote has hosted two classes of Civic Engagement Fellows that featured 50 young people across 20 congressional districts to build local communities of civic empowerment among young voters. In 2022, 18by Vote launched a Civic Hub program that builds long-term civic opportunity across six battleground states facing multiple civic deserts. Our work has been featured on The Daily Show with Trevor Noah, CIRCLE, and others. We have successfully reached over 1.6 million people to foster a culture of civic and voting action. 

Coming to The GovLab with a generalist and entrepreneurial background allowed me to gain perspective on how governance processes operate across the public, private, and civil society sectors and learn how to form purposeful partnerships with donors, data holders, and community stakeholders to create effective and lasting social change.


The Govlab is an action-research center, meaning we reflect on current data governance practices and look for ways to prototype new governance and/or data methods to advance social good. As a GovLabber, I work with a variety of stakeholders in the private sector, international organizations, and government levels across several domains, including food systems sustainability, urban mobility, peace tech, gender, and migration. The interdisciplinary nature of the work requires understanding existing governance strategies from a multi-stakeholder perspective and implementing practical processes to develop minimum viable products that further good governance practices. Two of the many great parts of my job are that no two weeks are alike and that I get to work with many different organizations and geographies!

Some of my projects include scoping the field of local governance approaches to AI (AI Localism), running studio sessions with high-level experts to see how to operationalize new governance concepts (Digital Self Determination for Migrants via the Big Data for Migration Alliance), and topic mapping emerging fields where data and data governance are playing important roles (PeaceTech Topic Map as part of the Global PeaceTech Hub). 


My time in the dual-degree program, especially while studying at Sciences Po, had an enormous effect on obtaining my position at The GovLab. 

The School of Public Affairs allowed me to explore the ‘tech for good’ space from a regulatory, policy and strategy, and sociological lens. The foundational courses, such as ‘Analytical Approaches to Public Policy’ taught by Colin Hay, and ‘Quantitative Analysis and Empirical Methods’ with Jan Rovny gave me a comprehensive overview of what public policy is and how to measure social and policy impact in a quantitative manner. 

Specifically with regard to the Digital, New Technology and Public Policy stream, I appreciated that many of my lecturers were also practitioners at the OECD and European Commission, and how they gave insight into how digital policies are actually created and understood at a European and international level. Outside of classes, I had the opportunity to attend office hours and get advice from these professionals about the digital policy field. 

Further, I am grateful for how much I learned from my classmates. As part of the Sciences Po Cybersecurity Association, I worked with my peers to host cybersecurity events and draft blogs and articles on the current state of cyber policy, which helped me gain a collaborative, student-led understanding of class concepts. I am proud to say that the network of inspiring young professionals I developed at Sciences Po continues to stay tight-knit long after the Master's program has come to a close.


Be ambitious. The Master’s program is an opportunity to explore new fields and take risks. Your colleagues and professors are there to support your aspirations and endeavors. Take culture classes, join interesting clubs, and let yourself grow! For instance, developing side projects or expanding on your academic work (i.e. submitting class essays to journals) is a great way to build your academic repertoire and confidence. 

Reach out to your program and career services. I am extremely grateful for the support I received from my program coordinator, Léa Douhard, to connect with policy experts to run special lectures and events, as well as the for the Sciences Po Carrières staff and their weekly newsletters on new opportunities.

Network, network, network. One of the most important takeaways from my time at Sciences Po has been the diverse community of experts, professors, and friends I had the pleasure of meeting. These are the people in your industry who will help you break the ice when seeking new opportunities. Stay in touch with your former lecturers and reach out to other Sciences Po graduates to build your community of professionals to lean on as you advance in your career. 

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Ester Davanzo, Class of 2021

From the Master in European Affairs, Politics and Public Policy stream, to the position of Communication Manager at the Directorate General for Enterprise at the French Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industrial and Digital Sovereignty
  • Ester Davanzo © Vincent BlocquauxEster Davanzo © Vincent Blocquaux


I started my academic journey in Italy, with a degree in International Studies at the University of Trento. During these three years, I was particularly interested in European affairs and I had the opportunity to participate in several Model European Union simulations all over Europe: in Zagreb, Sofia, Tallinn, Paris. I also did an Erasmus exchange in Valencia, Spain, and then decided to deepen my knowledge of the links between Europe and Latin America by writing my thesis on the relations between the EU and Mercosur, in Buenos Aires. 

After my degree, which was more focused on international relations, I chose to specialise in European affairs, with a master's degree at the School of Public Affairs at Sciences Po.


I started to take a closer look at communications when, during my master's degree at Sciences Po, I realised how important it has always been in politics, and especially nowadays. So I enriched my studies with courses in political and digital communication. I also chose to do my second year of the master's degree as an apprentice, as a digital communication officer at the Social Ministries. I was in charge of the editorial management of the website of the Ministry of Labour and that of the Ministry of Health, which allowed me to get a feel for institutional communication online and in times of crisis, as it was the year 2020, at the beginning of the covid-19 crisis.

At the same time, I was an ambassador for European careers for EPSO (European Personnel Selection Office) among Sciences Po students. In my missions, I used internet communication and the organisation of events - mainly remotely, due to covid - to share information and exchange good practices in order to start a career in the European institutions.  

One of the major steps in building my career path was my experience in the private sector. Being a small company, I had the opportunity to be confronted with a 360° communication: from social networks to event organisation, from press relations to community development. This allowed me to develop my skills and to understand what I preferred to do among the many forms of communication nowadays.


Today I am in charge of internal and external communication for the Digital Economy Department at the Directorate General for Enterprise (DGE) at the Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industrial and Digital Sovereignty: I coordinate the department's communication actions, being the main contact for the communication office of the DGE's General Secretariat and the Ministry's Communication Department. I organise and lead conferences, institutional events, seminars, trade shows and activities specifically designed for specific sectors of the French economy.

Internally, I facilitate communication with the aim of sharing knowledge among the more than 130 staff in the department. I design communication projects: production of newsletters, development of content for the website and social networks, creation of infographics; I contribute to media communication actions (TV production, media campaigns), I ensure compliance with standards such as government charters, accessibility, etc.

Lastly, I am pleased to be able to support the department's structural coordinator in the internal management of the department.

In addition to my duties as a communications manager, I am also a member of the DG'Elles project team. Created as part of the DGE's action plan on 8 March 2021, DG'Elles is the Directorate's first professional women's network and aims to be a forum for exchange and mutual support for the women of the DGE, as well as a vector for raising awareness of equality for all agents. Since its creation, the DG'Elles network has set up a mentoring system for the women of the directorate, organised exchange breakfasts for the women of the directorate, conferences open to all on themes relating to gender equality, as well as coaching workshops on work-life balance and success for women.


What I am most grateful for from Sciences Po is the possibility to create my own study plan, while following guidelines and compulsory courses, which gives the possibility to train in several fields at the same time. 

Extremely formative experiences during my M1 were the Collective Project and the Public Policy Incubator: these allowed me to confront myself with the world of work and to see the exchanges between the public and private sectors, which then led me to choose the DGE as a representative of the State towards the French economic sector. 

The second year of the master's degree as an apprentice was an opportunity to be trained in a professional setting for a whole year and thus to be able to increase my skills quickly and be immediately operational when I left school. 


Be curious, take part in all the conferences that interest you and in the projects proposed by Sciences Po, get involved in an association, put into practice what you have learnt on the benches of 27 rue Saint Guillaume and don't close any door. You have all the capacities to shape your destiny as you wish.

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Axelle Dubois, Class of 2019

From the Master in Public Policy, Global Health policy stream, in apprenticeship, to the position of Senior Consultant in Public Health Policy & Business Development Manager at Alcimed
  • Axelle Dubois © Axelle DuboisAxelle Dubois © Axelle Dubois


After a literary baccalaureate, I spent two years on the Sciences Po campus in Paris, as part of a dual degree with the University of Paris IV, which gave me the opportunity to complete both the undergraduate college at Sciences Po and a degree in history. This was not always a relaxing experience, but it was extremely enriching! 

As part of my 3A, I went to London with the desire to discover other teaching methods through the courses given by UCL. When I came back, I decided to follow a master's degree at Sciences Po's School of Public Affairs, specialising in "Global Health". 

This master's degree enabled me to take the first steps in my professional career, by doing a one-year work-study programme with the consulting firm Antares Consulting, which specialises in the health sector. I stayed with this firm after graduation, before leaving for new adventures in February 2021 in the Innovation and Public Policies team of ALCIMED, keeping my expertise in public health policies.  


Once I had chosen my Master's degree, I would say that my work-study year was particularly decisive in defining my career path. The courses I was given as well as the missions carried out within the firm allowed me to confirm my interest in the world of health - particularly public health - and to identify a professional sector through which I could invest myself. 


As a consultant, I carry out a variety of assignments for mainly public clients, both on a national and local scale: Health Insurance, Regional Health Agencies, rare disease networks, hospitals, etc. I support the setting up of innovative systems, I carry out diagnoses on the needs of specific populations, and I evaluate experiments. The range of possibilities is wide and can be explained by Alcimed's philosophy: the objective is to discover unknown areas, to accompany our clients in new needs, and to study new ways of doing things. It is thus rather rare to carry out identical missions several times. 

Being a consultant also means contributing to the life of the firm: leading team meetings, supporting junior consultants and carrying out communication activities.  

For over a year now, I have also been contributing to the development of our business. I talk to potential clients to introduce them to ALCIMED and our convictions, discuss their current challenges and how we can best support them to meet them. If a subject is identified, I build and submit a work methodology to them, which will then be conducted by the team of consultants. 

This dual role of director and sales representative is a real opportunity in my opinion: it allows me to take time out during my assignments, but above all to develop themes that particularly interest me, and to bring them to our team.  


I would say that my main challenge today is to pursue my career within Alcimed. I aspire to being able to manage, support a team and carry out projects, while remaining in the public health policy sector which I am passionate about. 


Sciences Po in its entirety was a particularly formative experience, in terms of the theoretical knowledge acquired (epidemiology, functioning of the health system, major public health concepts, understanding of information, etc.) but perhaps above all in terms of the reflexes that accompany me in my daily work today.

Training in oral expression, synthetic presentations such as reports and arguments, the use of Excel, and developing a critical view of a subject are all codes that enable me to become operational very quickly in the consulting profession. In other words, the training received at Sciences Po enables young graduates to quickly grasp the challenges of a new position by focusing on the substance of the subjects without having to go back to the basics acquired during their studies.  

Sciences Po also allowed me to discover the world of consulting through its forums and to test my attraction for this sector through the M2 work-study programme - a transitional year that I would recommend to anyone who has the opportunity.  

I would also say that both my dual degree and my work-study programme, apart from fuelling my curiosity, have enabled me to learn to manage a heavy workload and to be particularly organised and proactive - essential skills in my profession.  


It may sound simple, but I would say that the most important thing is to look for a job and a structure that you want to get up for every morning, that is aligned with your values, that makes you feel at home. For my part, this is the case at ALCIMED, and I am extremely grateful for it.

To do this, rely on the Sciences Po community. In my experience, we are everywhere! So do not hesitate, as soon as you are interested in an organisation, to identify a "sciencespiste" to whom you can turn to find out what is behind it, and what you are going to get involved in. 

In my sector, firms can be extremely different from one another in terms of working conditions, the number and diversity of assignments, the team atmosphere and the management style. So you need to do your homework to make an informed choice based on what will suit you best.  

This is linked to a second element that I think is essential: get to know yourself, understand your desires and expectations. Some jobs, such as consulting, require you to be curious, to enjoy working on several projects at once, to carry out a project only for a limited period of time... This is not suitable for everyone, and it is therefore essential to know what will motivate you on a daily basis.

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A role-playing game to understand cooperation in the space world

Focus on an original teaching experience
  • Artist's view of an exoplanet © NASA, ESA, and G. Bacon (STScI)Artist's view of an exoplanet © NASA, ESA, and G. Bacon (STScI)

A very... spacey cooperation! A role-playing game to learn how to cooperate between international actors in an international space mission

"Exploring the world beyond our Earth - can Europe do it alone? This was the theme of one of the sessions of the "European Space Policy and Space Law" course. To make this notion of cooperation in the space world more concrete, a negotiation simulation was organised, allowing students from 1st and 2nd years of Master to take on the role of an expert within a space agency, a scientist in charge of an instrument, or an industrialist in charge of building a satellite for a mission. A lively and instructive exercise!

The pitch - a new planet and a scientific potential to explore

Great news! A group of international scientists has just discovered a new planet, called "27RSG", located outside our solar system. Based on initial observations, “27RSG” appears to have very interesting geological and atmospheric properties. Further knowledge of this planet could lead to very important discoveries about our own planet Earth, and about the conditions for the emergence of life. Therefore, there is a shared international interest in setting up a new scientific mission to reach and observe this new planet and to make an approach to its surface. It is time for agencies, scientists and industry to mobilise for this mission, Scientific Probe for Infinite Planet Observation (S-PIPO).

The exercise - defending positions while finding compromises

Each student was transformed into an ESA expert, a plasma detector specialist, or a technical engineer for the construction of the mission's satellite... 25 different roles, and as many positions to defend, with convergences but also differences! 

With a few initial elements of position, the first step was to allocate the roles and responsibilities of each person, in order to understand the different players around the table.

Diagram of the distribution of responsibilities during the simulation

Unfortunately, the life of a space mission is not a long quiet river, and many unforeseen events occur (natural disasters, health crises and their economic repercussions, technical problems, legal constraints and social protests, etc.). Each actor has therefore had to adapt, to compromise... but also sometimes to convince partners to support their positions.

Students at work!

Feedback - the importance of good communication

First of all, the good news is that the negotiations (sometimes tough!) allowed the mission to be completed - "S-PIPO" was born!

Above all, the exercise highlighted the importance of continuous communication between the various stakeholders to avoid misinterpretation and to reach agreements that are endorsed by all. In the heat of the moment, it is sometimes tempting to take certain things for granted when they deserve to be clearly expressed!

Furthermore, everyone was able to discover the diversity of positions and points of view among the actors involved in the mission: a space agency does not always have the same priorities as its country's scientists, nor the same constraints as industrialists!

This role-playing exercise illustrated the sometimes subtle alliance that must be found between respecting one's own positions and the need to find compromises in order to make progress together.

Article written by Amélie Gravier, teacher of the European Space Policy and Space Law course

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Student Spotlight: Sciences Po-Hertie School dual degree student Camille Desrayaud

Camille reflects on her interests in social policy and sustainable development, and on what motivated her to study public policy in Paris and Berlin
  • Camille Desrayaud © C.DesrayaudCamille Desrayaud © C.Desrayaud

Testimonial collected by the Hertie School team and originally published on the Hertie School admissions blog.

When plans of studying abroad in the US during her bachelor’s degree in political humanities fell through due to the pandemic, Camille Desrayaud decided to look for international opportunities in Europe and enrolled in the Hertie School’s dual Master of Public Policy (MPP) programme with the Sciences Po School of Public Affairs. After finishing her first year in Paris, France, she is now a second-year master’s student at the Hertie School. The two-year dual degree programme combines the study of economics with public policy and management, and grants students two degrees – in half the time. After completing her studies, Camille aspires to work in public policy consulting in France and at the European level. Find out more about her experience below!

What were you doing before starting your studies this fall? 

I did an internship at the UNESCO headquarters in France, in the Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Section. It was an amazing experience. I had the opportunity to contribute to exciting projects, such as the launch of the new 2030 ESD Global Network, as well as to work with people committed to climate change education from all over the world. This experience was the perfect transition between my studies in Paris and the start of the semester in Berlin.

Why did you choose the MPP dual degree with Sciences Po and the Hertie School? 

For the third year of my bachelor’s at Sciences Po, I was supposed to study abroad in the US, but because of the COVID pandemic, I never went. As I still wanted an international experience, I started looking at the dual master’s programs between Sciences Po and other European universities and Hertie was the best match for me! During my studies at Sciences Po, I acquired a deep expertise on political theory, political science and humanities. Studying at Hertie allowed me to complement my theoretical background with hands-on knowledge and skills in data analysis in public policies. I also had never been to Berlin before, but I had heard so many great things about the city for international students. 

What have been your favourite courses so far, in both Paris and Berlin? 

My favourite course at Sciences Po was the one taught by Professor Bruno Palier on Welfare States, their Reforms and Futures, which you can choose if you are part of the Social Policy and Social Innovation policy stream. The course focuses on the theory behind welfare states and the contemporary challenges they face, such as climate change, globalisation and digitalization. Professor Palier is an expert on this topic, and he does not hesitate to foster debate within the class.

At Hertie, my favourite class so far has been Public Policy and Demographic Change, taught by Professor Michaela Kreyenfeld. This course covers how to use public policies to tackle different issues related to demographic changes, such as aging populations, migration, and changes in family structure. I most enjoyed learned how to manipulate demographic data to understand public policies better and make recommendations.

What are you looking forward to for the spring semester – and afterwards? 

I am looking forward to starting my master’s thesis on educational policies and governance in France. My thesis is the opportunity for me to use all the theoretical and practical knowledge that I have acquired at Sciences Po and at Hertie to reflect on how the governance of the French education system has been impacting social inequalities between students. Graduating from two top European public policy universities will allow me to pursue my professional ambition to work in public policy consulting in France and at the European level. 

What advice would you give prospective students interested in pursuing an international dual degree like yours? 

If you are looking at dual degree, you should carefully think about what each university will offer you. You should ask yourself: what courses and opportunities does university A offer that university B does not? Then, you should also think about the city in which you would like to study. Indeed, choosing a dual degree program is as much about courses and academic opportunities as it is about living abroad, in a different society and experiencing a different way of life. 

Berlin and Paris are quite different cities. How would you compare your experiences living in both places, and are there any favourite spots you can recommend in each? 

Berlin and Paris are different cities. What I like the most about Berlin is that it is an international and welcoming city. I love the culture, arts and aesthetics that Paris offers. In both cities, you will never get bored, there is always something going on. If one of the things you enjoy most is going to the museums, both Paris and Berlin will satisfy your curiosity. My favourite museum in Paris is the Musée d’Orsay. There, you can see beautiful paintings (my favourite is Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe by Edouard Manet) and enjoy a nice view over Paris. In Berlin, one of my favourite places is Tiergarten. It’s a beautiful park, with sculptures, big trees and flowers. Ideal if you enjoy nature as much as I do. 

Could you sum up your MPP dual degree experience for us in one word?


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Congratulations to Manon Fortemps, awarded by the French Evaluation Society for her thesis written at the School of Public Affairs

  • Manon Fortemps (7th from the left) at the award ceremony in Lille Manon Fortemps (7th from the left) at the award ceremony in Lille

Each year, about fifty students choose to write a thesis as part of their off-campus semester at the School of Public Affairs. They engage in a course of study that allows them to deepen their expertise in a field of public policy of particular interest to them, while benefiting from pedagogical and methodological support during their second year of the Masters.

This experience allows students to discover a real interest in the research field, like Manon Fortemps, who graduated in 2022, and who was awarded a prize by the French Evaluation Society for her thesis, during a ceremony held in Lille on 17 November 2022. Testimonial.


I graduated with the Master in Public Policy, Economics and Public Policy stream, from the School of Public Affairs at Sciences Po. It was during my exchange year at Georgetown University (Washington DC) that I discovered development Economics. During my time in Washington DC, I attended conferences on the topics of development aid, poverty and inequality in vulnerable states, and international solidarity policies. Being immersed in a capital city that houses the institutions at the heart of the international financial architecture for development, such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, made me aware of the central paradox of development aid. The poorest and most aid-dependent populations are located in countries where conflict, political instability and corruption hampers the flow of international aid. My thesis was an opportunity to study in depth the criteria for the allocation of official development assistance. 


My thesis investigates the relationship between the "Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA)" and the volumes of development aid received by developing countries. The CPIA was developed in the 2000s by the World Bank to support the institution in its allocation of development aid. My thesis reveals that the aid flows received by a country are positively correlated with its CPIA score, and that the better thescore on the section of the CPIA that assesses political stability and good governance, the larger the volumes received. In concrete terms, this confirms that the World Bank acts as a standard-setting institution in the development ecosystem and that the CPIA criterion has been rapidly adopted by many public and private organisations for the allocation of their development assistance. Furthermore, the premium on political stability and good governance raises the question of the relevance of using the CPIA in a context where three quarters of people in extreme poverty are located in fragile and conflict-affected countries characterised by political instability and poor governance.  


Writing a thesis was a unique opportunity to familiarise myself with social science research and to improve my methodological rigour. While writing my thesis, I joined the OECD Development Assistance Committee, which allowed me to refine my research and meet scholars and practitioners involved in development assistance. Writing a thesis also gave me a passion for research which I intend to pursue as I am currently in the process of applying for a PhD. 


The French Evaluation Society (SFE) awarded my thesis in the category "Reflection on evaluation practices". The mission of the SFE is to contribute to the development of evaluation and to promote its use in public and private organisations. This mission is in line with the School of Public Affairs' thesis, since its purpose is to formulate public policy recommendations based on rigorous and thorough scientific research. The award ceremony, organised during the Journées Françaises de l'Evaluation, was an opportunity to meet researchers and practitioners and to exchange views on the themes of evaluation and development. I encourage all students who are embarking on the adventure of writing a thesis to apply for this prize, so that their work can have a concrete impact on the field of public policy evaluation.

Manon Fortemps lors de la remise de son prix

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Representing Youth at the Women's Forum

Discover the testimony of 6 students of the Certificate in Gender Equality and Public Policy
  • 6 students of the certificate at the Women's Forum © Sciences Po6 students of the certificate at the Women's Forum © Sciences Po

At the end of November 2022, 6 students in the Master's programme at Sciences Po (School of Public Affairs and Paris School of International Affairs), all enrolled in the Gender Equality and Public Policy Certificate, participated as Youth Ambassadors in the Women's Forum for the Economy and Society. They tell us about this incredible experience. 


The Women's Forum for the Economy and Society Global Meeting 2022 is an international event that brings together leaders, professionals from various sectors (from the private and public sectors) and students. It aims to "transform the power of women's voices into forward-thinking economic and political initiatives for societal change". This year, the 17th edition of the Global Meeting, whose central theme was "Time to Act", focused on three issues: climate, peace and health.  


The Youth Ambassador mission responds to a desire to include youth in the resolution of current crises, including in the framework of the Women's Forum. In concrete terms, we were invited to take part in a workshop the day before the Forum. The aim of the workshop was to have us work on our area of "competence" - one of the three themes of the Forum - alongside activists, researchers and specialists in the field. The workshop also allowed us to work on certain 'soft skills', such as public speaking, to give us tools for success in our professional lives. The objective was therefore twofold: to allow us to explore questions that we could discuss directly with the speakers at the Women's Forum, and to give us the keys to assert ourselves in the professional world while supporting our convictions.


Yes, many of the lectures and discussions echoed the courses we had taken as part of the certificate. In particular, the teaching we had received previously gave us a better understanding of the different biases and issues to be taken into account when talking about equality. Many of the lectures we were lucky enough to attend concretised a theoretical teaching we had received. In addition, the teaching of the certificate focuses on the public setting. However, the difficulties that women face in getting into, staying in and being credible in positions of power are the same in private companies. The Forum therefore allowed us to put the achievements of the Certificate into perspective.


Julia: Enriching encounters with women from all walks of life, who act with determination to participate in collectively resolving the major crises of our time! 

Marianne: Beyond the content of the speeches, I really remember the great caring and availability of the women and men present - their ability to listen, their enthusiasm and even the desire of some to "take us under their wing" to push us to pursue our projects!

Meyya-tia: The opportunity to listen to, meet and discuss with inspiring women - and one meeting that particularly stood out for me was the discussion I had with the "climate" journalist Mélissa Godin, an enriching, inspiring and motivating discussion! 

Alexandra: That there is progress to be made in all spheres, both public and private and on all continents, and that it is only through unity that the equality we aspire to will be achieved.

Emilie: As far as women's rights are concerned, current events are a constant source of heat and cold: progress is often accompanied by a new obstacle. This forum was an opportunity to listen to and meet inspiring men and women who carry a beautiful message of hope for the future. 

Testimony of : Emilie Dufour, Julia Fertil, Alexandra Girard, Ellen Löfgren, Marianne Mignot Ogliastri and Meyya-tia Ramandraivonona.

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Digital tools and open data in public institutions for a better and more inclusive democracy

A look back at Paula Forteza's Masterclass
  • P. Forteza & students from the Digital, New Technology and Public policy streamP. Forteza & students from the Digital, New Technology and Public policy stream

On November 16, the students of the Digital, New Technology and Public Policy stream of the School of Public Affairs were delighted to welcome Ms Paula Forteza, former member of the French Parliament. Ms Forteza drafted many reports related to digital government, digital rights, and digital democracy. Additionally, she worked for Etalab, a program of the French Prime Minister in charge of open data and open government policy. Throughout her career, she stays committed to democratic innovation, engaging closely with the civic tech ecosystem and as a member of the French Parliament, she contributed to translating the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) into French law.

Ms. Forteza discussed with us the topic: "Digital and democracy: Will digital technologies save or sink democracy?". She passionately shared her experience in the French Parliament where one of her main commitments was to open the institutions to civil society in order to make them more transparent and democratic. She achieved these goals thanks to digital tools that also proved to be useful in crisis management.

First, she explained how she launched the Open Office (Bureau Ouvert) which gathered experts from various fields with the objective to open up Parliament to citizens. Several projects were developed in this framework such as “The Citizen’s Question” platform where citizens can propose questions to Members of Parliament (MPs). This formed a direct channel to question the government about certain issues. Ms. Forteza, through the Open Office, was also highly committed to increasing transparency of public life: her team created a platform “Open Parliament” (Parlement Ouvert) on which MPs can publish their expenses. 

These projects are in line with Ms. Forteza's long activism for open data. During her mandate, in order to increase transparency for citizens, she published her agenda in order to better understand the functioning of lobbyism activities in the National Assembly. Her expenses as a deputy were also made public. She worked on opening the National Assembly to citizens, notably through streaming sessions on Twitch. Still with the idea to open the National Assembly to civil society, Ms. Forteza organised and promoted hackathons at the National Assembly. They aimed at bringing together the administration and hackers to collaboratively work on solutions on various subjects such as public financial data or the results of the Great National Debate

While digital tools can become prominent for institutions to increase citizens' democratic participation and regain their trust, they also raise concerns about data privacy. Thus, in the end, Paula Forteza shared with us her experience on digital regulation issues. According to her, regulation is a powerful tool in the hands of states and institutions to help us prohibit or limit bad practices. Ms. Forteza believes that the European Union is the right level to work on regulation. Major regulatory texts such as the GDPR, the Digital Service Act (DSA) or the Digital Market Act (DMA), have shown the capability of European countries to be pioneers in this field. Alongside these efforts, Paula Forteza advocates for developing democratic or private digital tools by design in order to prevent bad practices and uses. She argues that private companies should not build the internet of tomorrow, which is why she believes that internet governance should be treated as a public good open to all.

Article written by the students: Yasmine El Ghazi, Karin Hess, Deepal Khatri, Léa Roubinet and Simonas Zilinskas.

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Book a seat for the International Organisations Career Day!

  • IOCD © Sciences Po CarrièresIOCD © Sciences Po Carrières

Sciences Po Careers, the School of Public Affairs and the School of International Affairs (PSIA) look forward to welcoming you to the 4th edition of Science Po's International Organisation Career Day!

For one day, HR representatives of various IOs are invited on campus to meet with students and alumni to discover their future career paths. You will learn the competencies and skills needed to work with them, as well as tips and guidance to stand out in their recruitment process.

Registration for students is mandatory here


  • 9.45 - 11 am > General opening and panel discussion n°1
  • 11 am - 2 pm > Individual presentations by organisations (45mn each)
  • 2 pm - 3 pm > Panel discussion n° 2
  • 3 pm - 6 pm > Individual presentations by organisations (45mn each)
  • 9.45 am - 6 pm > Exhibition Center with HR representatives open all day

participating organisations


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Lucas Hassan, Class of 2020

From the Master in Public Policy, Security and defence policy stream, to the position of cybersecurity project manager at the Directorate General for Enterprise of the Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industrial and Digital Sovereignty
  • Lucas Hassan © NexterLucas Hassan © Nexter


After a scientific preparatory class, I first entered an engineering school (ENSTA ParisTech) where I followed a course in applied mathematics. I then joined the Nexter company, which produces military equipment for the French Army, as part of a graduate programme. This enabled me to hold various positions during the two years of the programme, in particular positions at the frontier of technical and commercial subjects (innovation, creation of new products, etc.).  

At the end of my graduate program, I was admitted to Sciences Po in the Master in Public Policy, Security and Defence policy stream. I chose this policy stream because it allowed me to keep a certain logic in my career path while opening up to subjects that were far removed from those taught in engineering school! After graduating from Sciences Po and a few internships in public administration, I joined the Directorate General for Enterprise as a "cybersecurity industries" project manager. After having held this position for almost two and a half years, I will start in a few days a new position as project manager for "frequency allocation and mobile deployment". 


The most important step for me was to understand that my vocation was not to go into a particular technical field in depth (like my fellow students who had done a thesis), but rather to learn how to explain complex technical subjects to a non-specialist public and to know how to combine them with broader issues (legal, geopolitical, political, etc.) which allow a global vision of the subjects dealt with. I think that in a society in which scientific and technical subjects are becoming increasingly important, there is a need for people who are able to translate these subjects into terms that decision-makers can understand, and this is what I want to do in my career. 

Moreover, I also quickly realised that I wanted to work for the State. Firstly because it gives meaning to the work we do every day, but also because I believe deeply in the role of the State in organising society and guiding its development. 


The position I have held up to now consists of working on the development of the French cybersecurity sector. First of all, it is a question of identifying the challenges facing the industry and then proposing public policies capable of responding to them, by mobilising all the levers at the State's disposal (regulatory and financial in particular). In concrete terms, I worked in particular on the implementation of the national acceleration strategy for cybersecurity and the setting up of the Cyber Campus. The challenge of this position is to succeed in understanding the technical subjects, to be able to translate them into terms of public policy and then to defend them with our contacts (ministerial offices, other administrations, etc.)  

In a few days, I will be taking up a new post as 'frequency and mobile deployment' project manager. In this context, I will have to get involved in European and international work aimed at regulating the use of the various frequency bands and coordinate the work of a project manager on the subject of mobile network deployment in metropolitan and French overseas territories. Here again, one of the main challenges of this position will be to succeed in moving beyond technical considerations to translate these issues into public policy terms and bring them to the attention of decision-makers. It will also have a managerial dimension that interests me for the rest of my career. 


First and foremost, my training at Sciences Po enabled me to acquire a truly open mind: designing and implementing public policy requires taking into account a wide range of issues without being an expert in all of them. Having studied at Sciences Po allows you to quickly realise that something is missing or has been poorly taken into account and, if necessary, to be able to ask an expert. The quality of the speakers at Sciences Po and the opportunity to discuss their backgrounds also helped me a lot, as these discussions give a better understanding of the way decision-makers think and how they make decisions. 

In particular, the Security and Defence policy stream gave me a good general knowledge of the issues involved in this field. Working in the cybersecurity sector means working in a sector where the organisation is very complex and constantly changing. The courses in the policy stream gave me the basis for understanding the issues underlying these changes and enabled me to better understand the role of the various players in the sector. 


My first piece of advice would be to have self-confidence: coming from an engineering background, I was very surprised by the fact that many students at Sciences Po doubt their professional skills, whereas most of them seemed to me to be extremely bright. Sciences Po students have the ability to learn quickly and to mix knowledge in very diverse fields, which are essential skills in the professional world! We should not think that employers are necessarily looking for people who know the smallest details of the positions they offer. The important thing is to be able to learn quickly and my experience in the general management of companies has shown me that Sciences Po students are capable of doing this. 

My second piece of advice would be to start thinking early on about what you want to do in the future, even if it means changing your mind regularly: the idea is not to set yourself today to know what you will be doing in 20 or 30 years, but to set yourself a direction that will make it easier to move forward, even if it means branching off later according to opportunities or your desires.

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Discussion on the State of the European Union address: promoting democracy and solidarity

  • Arancha González, Olivier Rozenberg, Valérie Drezet-Humez, Philippe Martin © DRArancha González, Olivier Rozenberg, Valérie Drezet-Humez, Philippe Martin © DR

Article originally published on the Sciences Po website by the Sciences Po editorial team.

Wednesday, 14 September, the President of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen, gave her yearly State of the European Union address (SOTEU) to the Parliament. On this occasion, she invited the First Lady of Ukraine, Olena Zelenska, and renewed the undivided support of the UE to Ukraine, among other strong announcements.

The Paris School of International Affairs (PSIA) and the School of Public Affairs of Sciences Po, along with the cooperation of the European Commission representation in France, organised an insightful event to discuss the SOTEU and its implications for France, Europe and the rest of the world. Valérie Drezet-Humez was present as Head of the European Commission Representation in France, replaced during the conference by her Deputy Jessica Larsson. As respectively Dean of PSIA and Dean of the School of Public Affairs, two Sciences Po’s schools particularly interested in European and international matters, Arancha González and Philippe Martin were the two other speakers of this conference. 


Valérie Drezet-Humez sees this iconic annual address, that exists since 2010, as a “political and democratic moment”. It isn’t the opportunity for Ursula von der Leyen to trace her steps on her past achievements but rather to express her view on the challenges at stake. More than one detail showed clearly that this time of war was a first in the history of the SOTEU, a time for the President of the European Commission to deliver a “message of hope”, of solidarity and courage. She needed to embody the European Union, as a carrier of solutions to ease the worries of its citizens. 

Arancha González identified four main messages in the SOTEU, one was addressed to Russia. The Dean of PSIA, a school well versed in analysing international issues and power moves, saw a reaffirmation through the SOTEU of the European Union’s unconditional support of Ukraine, against Russia. Regarding Russia using energy as a weapon to attack the European Union, it seems to Arancha González that the President of the European Commission wanted to make known that they would “not sit idle” and that they would “achieve European energy”, thus cutting their “dependence to Russia, with solidarity”, and at the same time “accelerating decarbonisation”.

Indeed, if the means to achieve this goal are still pending, which is frustrating to Philippe Martin who does not understand why the embargo on Russian energy was announced six months in advance while the price caps are still not implemented, Valérie Drezet-Humez explains that the solution to seek is not only on the prices of energy but on the type of energy, on the “model we want to live in”.

The Dean of PSIA believes that another message, “the European Union locomotive will roar”, is also meant for strong players such as China and the United States, to express that the EU will give itself the tools to be competitive, such as flexibility on fiscal rules, trade agreements and investments on raw materials…


If there is one element that the three speakers all agree on, it is the importance of democracy, as a core value of the European Union. Valérie Drezet-Humez states that the EU support towards Ukraine is not only military and humanitarian (for the refugees), it is a fight for European values such as democracy, freedom, media freedom… This fight that was the beginning of the European project is still very much valid today and she adds that young generations should never “take it for granted”. Philippe Martin salutes as well the strong power that European democracies represent against the Russian aggression, but he does warn about the relative weakness of democracy when the stakes are smaller. 

Arancha González also identified in the SOTEU a message to the European citizens that “Europe is serious about democracy”. In order to have “credibility outside”, the EU needs to have “credibility at home”, and for the Dean of PSIA, this could come from measures such as fighting against corruption, speeding up the accession process (for North Macedonia and Albany in particular), following on the idea of a convention and building a political community of Europe. Sciences Po is doing its part by building alliances with other European universities through initiatives such as CIVICA.

The message that Ursula von der Leyen is addressing towards the rest of the world is for Arancha González that Europe takes its responsibility to care for “global public goods”, for human and labor rights, for concluding “the migration pact in a dignified manner” at heart. Such goals cannot be reached without cooperating with other continents such as Africa and South America.

The two deans of Sciences Po conclude their interventions on the fact that although the SOTEU was a most needed “strong message”, it should also leave some space for nuance and debate. Philippe Martin underlines the importance of being able to raise critics and discuss the sanctions against Russia, wishing they were more severe. Arancha González wars against dividing the world between good and bad actors and explained that a “space for dialog and cooperation” needs to be maintained with some autocraties, even if it “does not mean we need to like each other”.

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