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Nature-based Solutions for climate adaptation in the European Union. Part II: Analysing Governance and Financing barriers

This is the second part of our working paper on Nature-based solutions for climate adaptation in the EU.

The first of this two-part working paper on nature-based solutions for climate adaptation in the European Union provided a mapping exercise of NBS activities at EU and Member State levels. This analysis highlighted the gap between EU ambitions for institutionalising NBS and the low uptake of the concept by Member States in their national climate adaptation policy. In this paper, we review barriers to adopting NBS, particularly those related to governance and financing aspects. We conduct a literature and case study review and 19 in-depth interviews to experts working in different aspects of NBS research and implementation to identify barriers. We find that NBS adoption faces a ‘multi-barrier situation’, where no single barrier can be pinpointed as the main cause hindering institutionalisation. Governance and financing barriers emerge in both literature and throughout the interviews as key themes underpinning these barriers. Acknowledging this and tackling barriers through an integrated approach will be crucial for the success of nature-based solutions for climate change adaptation in Europe.

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