Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan
Mir Osman Ali Khan, also known as Asaf Jah VII, was the last Nizam of the princely state of Hyderabad. Born in Hyderabad, the son of Asaj Jah VI, he received his education at home from eminent scholars and maulanas. In 1911, upon his father’s death, he became the Nizam of Hyderabad, a title he held until 1948 when the princely state was finally integrated into the Indian Union. He married seven wives, and had approximately forty children. During his reign, he was counted among the world’s richest men. In 1947, as the British Empire was being partitioned, the princely states faced a difficult choice. They could claim independence or join India or Pakistan. Hyderabad was the largest Indian princely state. The Nizam was leaning towards Pakistan or independence but the fact is that the population of his state was mainly Hindu and it raised many questions. In 1947–48, pressure from the Union Home Minister Sardar Patel continuously strengthened, while the Nizam’s militia (the Razakars) became increasingly involved in tough operations. There was also severe agitation in Telangana led by the underground Communist Party, committed to insurrectional tactics. India had to send its troops. The Nizam had to flee. The state itself lost its name to be absorbed in the linguistic state of Andhra and was tripartitioned in 1956.
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GRAY, Hugh. 1966. “Andhra Pradesh.” In State Politics in India; edited by Myron Weiner, 402-12. Princeton: Princeton University Press.