Valuing empires in the 19th and 20th centuries | CHSP

AAC | deadline : 15/06/2022
  • Actualité Sciences PoActualité Sciences Po

Mettre en valeur les empires : XIXe-XXe siècles

9-10 novembre 2022
Centre d'histoire de Sciences Po

Organisateurs :

Comité scientifique :

  • Hélène Blais (École normale supérieure)
  • Emmanuelle Sibeud (Université Paris-8) 
  • David Todd (Sciences Po)
  • Moritz von Brescius (Université de Berne et université d’Harvard)

Argumentaire

L’activité économique, entendue dans son sens le plus large, a longtemps préoccupé l’histoire impériale et coloniale de langue française, au point que certains auteurs nouèrent explicitement le dialogue avec l’économie politique de leur époque [Suret-Canale, 1961 ; Marseille, 1984 ; Bouvier et al., 1986]. Ce thème a ensuite été relativement délaissé dans la littérature des décennies 1990-2000 [citons cependant Bonin et al. (dir), 2008 ; Lefeuvre, 1997 ; Etemad, 2000], alors même que l’histoire coloniale et impériale gagnait en visibilité et connaissait des débats passionnés en dialogue avec les théories post-coloniales [Cooper & Stoler, 1997; Sibeud, 2007]. Sans doute le même constat de marginalisation vaudrait-il pour l’espace académique anglophone, mais avec une nuance supplémentaire : là, après des débuts tout aussi incertains, les pratiques économiques paraissent désormais bien intégrées au renouveau de l’histoire des empires, de même que les représentations, théories, et discours dont elles s’accompagnent [voir par exemple Cooper 1996 ; Goswami 2004 ; Tomlinson 2014 ; Young 2018 ; Todd, 2021].

Ce colloque aurait pour ambition de contribuer à ce dialogue en plein essor en incluant à l’histoire économique des empires les apports de deux champs de recherches particulièrement dynamiques depuis quelques années: la nouvelle histoire du capitalisme d’un côté et l’histoire environnementale de l’autre. La nouvelle histoire du capitalisme a défendu l’intérêt des méthodes développées en histoire sociale, culturelle et politique pour mieux analyser les phénomènes économiques contemporains [Barreyre & Blin, 2017]. Elle a contribué à replacer le concept de capitalisme au cœur de la recherche en sciences sociales [Kocka & Van der Linden, 2016; Piketty, 2019; Lemercier & François, 2020]. Si elle s’est développée à partir d’études sur le terrain étasunien [Beckert & Desan, 2018], elle s’efforce de plus en plus de réfléchir à l’intégration de parties croissantes du monde dans le système capitaliste, notamment en étudiant le rôle joué par les impérialismes occidentaux dans ce processus [Parisot, 2020; Jakes, 2020]. Initialement critiquée pour ne pas proposer de définition du terme de capitalisme, elle s’est récemment, sous l’impulsion de certains auteurs, attelée à conceptualiser cette “forme de vie économique où la logique économique du processus capital [soit “l’assignation à une propriété légale d’une valeur pécuniaire par anticipation d’un probable revenu pécuniaire dans le futur”] devient à la fois habituelle et dominante” [Levy, 2017]. 

De son côté, l'histoire environnementale a replacé les interactions entre les hommes et leur environnement au coeur des préoccupations historiographiques. Elle a notamment étudié les processus par lesquels des ressources naturelles acquièrent une valeur économique et s'est penchée sur l'agency de ces mêmes éléments naturels (l'eau, les animaux, le feu...) dans l'histoire des sociétés humaines [Blackbourn, 2006; Baratay 2012; Pyne, 2019]. Les spécialistes de ce champ s'intéressent par ailleurs depuis longtemps aux sociétés coloniales, qui ont fait l'objet de politiques d'extraction conduites au détriment de l'écologie locale et des peuples colonisés (Beinart & Hughes, 2007; Ross, 2017; Blais, 2019).

Ce colloque aurait alors pour objectif d’analyser comment l’expansion impériale entraîne, et est entraînée par, des processus de valorisation économique d'éléments naturels situés hors de métropole (forêts, terres, minerais, céréales, cheptels…). Son ambition serait ainsi de réinterroger l’histoire impériale à l’aune de l’extension du “processus capital” aux environnements et aux sociétés que dirigent formellement ou qu’influencent informellement les grandes puissances impériales. Il se proposerait ce faisant d’étudier la manière dont les empires sont, littéralement, mis en valeur. Si nous reprenons volontairement cette expression de l’âge d’or des empires coloniaux [par exemple Sarraut, 1923], c’est parce qu’elle nous paraît faire écho aux préoccupations historiographiques actuelles. Par ce terme, nous souhaitons en effet mettre l’accent sur les processus par lesquels les empires acquièrent une valeur économique en raison de l’identification de ressources en leur sein. Ce colloque entreprendrait par ailleurs évidemment d’étudier les empires européens d’outre-mer, mais accueillerait aussi très volontiers des communications sur les empires continentaux russe, ottoman ou austro-hongrois [Dullin, 2021; Türesay, 2013; Judson, 2021] ainsi que sur les empires américains ou japonais [Moore, 2017; Fedman, 2020]. Se concentrant sur les xixe et xxe siècles, il encouragerait à la fois la soumission de propositions basées sur des études de cas précises et la proposition de projets comparatifs, de plus long terme et/ou historiographiques. 

Axes problématiques

Il serait suggéré aux intervenants d’articuler leur réflexion autour des axes problématiques suivants:

  • Les acteurs, les techniques et les objets de la mise en valeur économique des empires. Il s’agirait ici de se demander ce qui fait qu’un territoire impérial est à un moment donné valorisé. Qu’est-ce qui est jugé comme ayant potentiellement de la valeur ? Comment extraire ou maximiser cette dernière ? Et quels groupes sociaux sont moteurs dans ces processus ? Cela pourrait être l’occasion de revenir sur les travaux consacrés au rapport du patronat à l’empire, aux régimes de mobilisation de la force de travail ou au mécanisme de la concession mais également de souligner l’importance d’acteurs parfois négligés dans l’histoire impériale, comme les organisations internationales.
  • Les conséquences de la mise en valeur sur les sociétés impériales. La valorisation économique bouleverse-t-elle les rapports préexistants à l’environnement ? Si oui, comment ? Cela se fait-il sans heurts ou cela entraîne-t-il au contraire des conflits ? De la même manière, les nouveaux régimes d’exploitation des colonies sont-ils toujours bien acceptés ou sont-ils parfois contestés ? Et qu’en est-il en métropole ?
  • L’articulation étroite entre les transformations environnementales des territoires impériaux et l’insertion de ces derniers dans des connexions globales. Comment, par exemple, les investissements venus de métropole entraînent-ils la mise en valeur de nouveaux pans des sociétés impériales et comment, en retour, ces techniques de mise en valeur permettent-elles de générer des capitaux qui sont ensuite réexportés dans d’autres régions du globe ? Ou encore, en quoi les techniques de mise en valeur des environnements impériaux font-elles l’objet de circulations entre différents endroits de la planète ?

Modalités de candidature et organisation

Pour soumettre une proposition, merci d’envoyer un résumé de la communication envisagée (entre 100 et 500 mots) ainsi qu’un court CV d’ici au 15 juin à valuing.empires@gmail.com.

Le colloque junior, organisé par des doctorants, est à destination des jeunes chercheuses et chercheurs (doctorant.e.s ou jeunes docteur.e.s). 

Les frais de déplacement et/ou d’hébergement pourront être pris en charge dans la limite du budget disponible. Merci de signaler lors de votre candidature si vous souhaitez que nous participions à financer votre séjour à Paris et si oui d’où vous arriveriez.

Bibliographie

  • Baratay, Éric, Le point de vue animal: une autre version de l’histoire, Le Seuil, 400 pages.
  • Barreyre, Nicolas et Blin, Alexia, « À la redécouverte du capitalisme américain », Revue d’histoire du XIXe siècle, 2017, no 54, p. 135‑148.
  • Beckert, Sven et Desan, Christine (dir.), American Capitalism: New Histories, New York, Columbia University Press, 2018, 432 pages.
  • Beinart, William & Lotte Hughes, Environment and Empire, Oxford University Press, 2007, 416 pages.
  • Blackbourn, David, The Conquest of Nature: Water, Landscape and the Making of Modern Germany, W.W. Norton, 2006, 480 pages.
  • Blais, Hélène, « Pépinières coloniales : de la valeur des plantes des jardins botaniques au XIXe siècle », Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine, 2019, vol. 663, no 3, p. 81‑102.
  • Bonin, Hubert, Hodeir, Catherine et Klein, Jean-François (dir.), L’Esprit économique impérial (1830-1970). Groupes de pression et réseaux du patronat colonial en France et dans l’empire, Paris, Publication de la SFHOM, 2008, 844 pages.
  • Bouvier, Jean, Girault, René et Thobie, Jacques, L’impérialisme à la française, 1914-1960, La découverte, 1986.
  • Colpitts, George, Pemmican Empire: Food, Trade, and the Last Bison Hunts in the North American Plains, 2014, 317 pages.
  • Cooper, Frederick, Decolonization and African Society: the Labor Question in French and British Africa, Cambridge University Press, 1996
  • Cooper, Frederick, Stoler, Ann Laura (dir.), Tensions of Empire, University of California Press, 1997
  • Cronon, William, Nature’s Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West W.W. Norton, 1991, 556 pages. 
  • Dullin, Sabine, L'ironie du destin. Une histoire des Russes et de leur empire (1853-1991), Paris, Payot, “Petite bibliothèque Payot”, 2021, 300 pages.
  • Etemad, Bouda, La Possession du monde: poids et mesures de la colonisation (XVIIIe-XXe siècles), Bruxelles, Complexe, 2000, 352 pages.
  • Fedman, David, Seeds of Control: Japan’s Empire of Forestry in Colonial Korea, University of Washington Press, 2020, 320 pages.
  • François, Pierre et Lemercier, Claire, Sociologie historique du capitalisme, Paris, La Découverte, 2021, 428 pages.
  • Goswami, Manu, Producing India: from Colonial Economy to National Space, University of Chicago Press, 2004
  • Jakes, Aaron, Egypt’s Occupation: Colonial Economism and the Crises of Capitalism, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 2020, 352 pages.
  • Judson, Pieter M., L’Empire des Habsbourg: une histoire inédite, traduit par Johan-Frederik Hel-Guedj, Paris, Perrin, 2021, 750 pages.
  • Kocka, Jürgen et Van der Linden, Marcel (dir.), Capitalism. The Reemergence of a Historical Concept, London ; New York, Bloomsbury Academic, 2016, 281 pages.
  • Lefeuvre, Daniel, Chère Algérie. Comptes et mécomptes de la tutelle coloniale, 1930-1962, Société française d’histoire d’outre-mer, 1997
  • Levy, Jonathan, « Capital as Process and the History of Capitalism », Business History Review, 2017, vol. 91, no 3, p. 483‑510.
  • Marseille, Jacques, Empire colonial et capitalisme français. Histoire d’un divorce, Albin Michel, 1984
  • Moore, Colin, American Imperialism and the State, 1893-1921, Cambridge University Press, 298 pages.
  • Parisot, James, « Introduction: The Intersections of Capitalism and American Empire », Journal of Historical Sociology, 8 mars 2020, vol. 33, no 1, p. 1‑8.
  • Piketty, Thomas, Capital et idéologie, Paris, Éditions du Seuil, 2019, 1197 pages.
  • Pyne, Stephen, Fire: a brief history, University of Washington Press, 2019, 240 pages.
  • Ross, Corey, Ecology and Power in the Age of Empire: Europe and the Transformation of the Tropical World, Oxford University Press, 2017, 488 pages.
  • Sibeud, Emmanuelle, « Du postcolonialisme au questionnement postcolonial: pour un transfert critique », Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine, 2007, n°4, p. 142-155.
  • Suret-Canale, Jean, Afrique Noire - l’ère coloniale (1900-1945), Editions Sociales, 1961
  • Todd, David, A Velvet Empire: French Informal Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century, Princeton University Press, 2021
  • Tomlinson, Jim, Dundee and the Empire: ‘Juteopolis’ 1850-1939, Edinburgh University Press, 2014
  • Türesay, Özgür, « L’Empire ottoman sous le prisme des études postcoloniales. À propos d’un tournant historiographique récent », Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine, 2013, vol. 602, no 2, p. 127‑145.
  • Young, Alden, Transforming Sudan: Decolonization, Economic Development and State Formation, Cambridge University Press, 2018

Appel à communications (PDF, 159 Ko)

Cogito #17

Latest Issue
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4 new Visiting Scholars in April

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Quatre nouveaux chercheurs invités au mois d'avril

Bent Boel

1 avril au 30 juin 2022
Bent Boel, maître de conférences à l’Université de Aalborg (Danemark), est l’auteur de The European Productivity Agency and Transatlantic Relations, 1953-1961, Museum Tusculanum Press, 2003, et d’articles concernant la coopération Européenne, les relations transatlantiques, la politique extérieure française et le soutien occidental aux dissidents de l’Est pendant la guerre froide. Ses publications récentes incluent : “The International Sakharov Hearings and Transnational Human Rights Activism, 1975-1985” (Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2021), “Western Journalism in the Soviet Bloc During the Cold War: Themes, Approaches, Theses" (Cold War History, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2019) et “Western Trotskyists and Subversive Travelling in Soviet Bloc Countries, 1956-1989" (Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe, vol. 25, No. 2, 201).
Contact : boel@ikl.aau.dk

Helen Tilley

2 avril au 1er mai 2022
Programme d'échange Sciences Po / Northwestern University
Helen Tilley is an associate professor of history at Northwestern University with a courtesy appointment in the Pritzker School of Law. She is author of Africa as a Living Laboratory: Empire, Development, and the Problem of Scientific Knowledge (2011) and several articles and edited collections including the most recent issue of Osiris, Therapeutic Properties: Global Medical Cultures, Knowledge, and Law (2021). She is currently completing a transnational history of “traditional medicine” that pays close attention to pan-African precedents and global governance.

Daniel Ciudad Canales

2 avril au 1er juillet 2022
Daniel Canales is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Zaragoza with a contract financed by the Spanish Science and Innovation Ministry. He has been a visiting researcher at the Università degli Studi de Perugia, Italy, and has participated in several national and international seminars and congresses. His main line of research is the processes of the social, political, and cultural transformation of university youth during the Franco regime, through the experience of University Labor Service and departing from the transnational framework of the “Global Sixties”.

Cristiano La Lumia

15 avril - 15 juillet 2022
Cristiano La Lumia is a Ph.D. Candidate in Global History and Governance

Scuola Superiore Meridionale and University of Naples, Federico II. Ph.D. Thesis: Owners and Citizens. Property Rights and Citizenship of the German Ex-Enemy Aliens (1918-1932), supervisor Professor Daniela L. Caglioti (Scuola Superiore Meridionale, Napoli). In his research, he aims to examine the relationship between property rights and citizenship in the case of the former German enemy aliens who had been persecuted with the internment and the deprivation of goods by the Entente countries during WWI and in the aftermath of the conflict. In particular, by tracking down the fate of confiscated properties in Western Europe, Poland and the United States, he highlights how the economic persecution impacted the boundaries of national belonging in terms of exclusion and inclusion, as well as in the relationship between Germany and its citizens living abroad, during the interwar period.

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Visiting Fellowship at the Maison Française in the History of Science, Technology and Medicine 2023

Deadline: 15/04/2022

Bourse 2023 en Histoire des sciences, de la médecine et des techniques | Maison française d'Oxford

A Visiting Fellowship is offered each year in Trinity Term (8 weeks from 25th April to 19th June with a possible extension to the full three months) at the Maison Française in the History of Science, Technology and Medicine.

Applications for 2023 (a research proposal – maximum 1000 words – with a CV in French and English) should be sent before 15th June 2022 to the History of Science Committee for the Maison Française d’Oxford (secretary@mfo.ac.uk). We encourage all senior academics who hold a permanent position in France to apply (Assistant Professor, Professor, Tenured Researcher). The candidate will have to demonstrate the relevance of their presence in Oxford to the research to be carried out (university resources, collaborative projects, etc.).

The Visiting Fellow will take part in the research programme of the Maison Française in collaboration with the Oxford Centre for the History of Science, Medicine and Technology, academics from the University of Oxford and Oxford Brookes University. During their stay, they are expected to give a seminar at the Centre and a public lecture at the Maison Française. Within six months, they will also be asked to make a substantial research production or deliver a position paper resulting from the research carried out during their stay, which will be included in the open-access database of the CNRS, namely HAL.

The Visiting Fellow will have free accommodation at the Maison Française, office space and access to Oxford libraries as well as affiliation to Wolfson College. The travel cost will be paid (one return ticket).

We aim at promoting women in Research and Science. Applications are particularly welcome from women and minority ethnic candidates, who are under-represented in academic posts.

For any further information, please contact judith.rainhorn@history.ox.ac.uk.

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AAC | Network of Labour

Deadline: 15/06/2022
  • Actualité Sciences PoActualité Sciences Po
Appel à communication suivant pour un colloque intitulé Networks of labour. International officers and social networks in the history of the International Labour Organization. 
Le colloque aura lieu le 27 et 28 octobre à Rome, dans les locaux du bureau italien de l'OIT, et les propositions de communication devront pervenir au plus tard le 15 mai 2022.

NETWORKS OF LABOUR

International officers and social networks in the history of the International Labour Organization

Over the last 20 years, historiography has observed that international institutions are ideal case-studies for the study of transnational connections. Such an analysis can be made on several levels: in addition to investigating institutional structures or founding principles, an examination of the concrete functioning of these bodies allows us to analyze not only the forms and strategies of interstate political relations, but also the transnational circulation of problems, proposals, and people. From this point of view, the emergence of international organizations after WWI is linked to the appearance of a new figure in the world of work: the international officer, embedded within – and in turn the producer of – broader political and epistemic networks. The concept of "epistemic network" was introduced by Jasmien Van Daele and then adopted by Sandrine Kott to define and analyze a part of the social linkages revolving around the International Labour Organization (ILO), which was founded in 1919 to strengthen the protections of workers and the triangular dialogue between trade unions, business representatives, and public authorities. Against this setting, epistemic networks are defined by intense exchanges and debates characterized by high specialization, by sharing practices that are first spontaneous and then slowly formalized, and by the aim to elaborate proposals that move beyond the dimension and purpose of the single nation state.

The main objective of the conference is to study the history, individual and collective, of the officials and experts who collaborated within the ILO; we will focus on the social, political, and epistemic networks where their activity took place, and observe their paths, origins, socio-economic and educational backgrounds, debates, political loyalties, personal motivations, technical skills, and diverse trajectories. This will allow us:

(a) to ascertain in depth the composition of the ILO bureaucracy, exploring its ordinary functioning and internal mechanisms;

(b) to observe the construction, extension, and functioning of the transnational epistemic networks embedded in the ILO, mapping the development and functional articulation of the various committees and study groups and their exchanges;

(c) to study the interactions between individuals of different ages, origins, skills and perspectives, who were nevertheless united as part of the bureaucratic body of an international organization that was to some extent autonomous from its member-states;

(d) to measure the convergences and potential conflicts created within these bureaucracies due to pre-existing and divergent political or disciplinary affiliations;

(e) to analyze the ways in which “experts” from different scientific-disciplinary fields and activities used and enhanced their expertise to participate in the construction of the legal and cognitive tools of the ILO, and contributed to their dissemination by presenting them as indispensable tools for the resolution of national and international social problems;

(f) to evaluate the specificities of female participation in these networks and the dynamics of the change in gender relations over the 100-year history of the ILO;

(g) to rebuild the dialogue and exchanges between the ILO and other international organizations – inter-governmental and non-governmental – through various types of formal or informal networks;

and finally (h) to evaluate the different loyalties developed by international officers in relation to the national / international nexus.

On the one hand, institutions such as the ILO presupposed a bureaucracy of officials who were dedicated to the cause of the organization; on the other, this plurality of individuals, trained in different national contexts and with divergent political and economic interests, ended up giving life to complex networks of relationships characterized by the convergence of a multiplicity of identity and belonging. Finally, the national / international nexus can also be read through the ways in which experts operating in the transnational sphere dialogued with their respective national political spheres in order to promote the adoption of specific measures in their own country.

The scientific committee is particularly interested in contributions relating to the following topics, which will be the subject of the respective sessions:

1. Occupational medicine
The session dedicated to occupational medicine in the ILO will try to answer the question of whether the model of epistemic community, as set out above, can be adapted to the reality of relational networks and initiatives promoted by the Industrial Hygiene Division of the organization, from its inception to the most recent years. Therefore, the committee welcomes proposals that seek to shed light on the concrete relations between occupational medicine and the ILO, through the analysis of professional practices and networks, especially in reference to the preparation and drafting of the Encyclopedia of Occupational Wealth and Safety coordinated by the heads of the Division, Luigi Carozzi (1920-1940) and Luigi Parmeggiani (1962-1973). It also seeks to address the actual consistency and characteristics of the professional networks that revolved around this branch of activity, aims to elucidate the dynamics and success of the major initiatives introduced concretely by the Division in the various periods of its activity, and finally tries to engage with the contrasts and influences of the ILO member states when defining specific initiatives, as in the well-studied case of the long process of recognizing silicosis as an occupational disease, which saw opposing positions held within the same medical front.

2. Boundaries of work
This session will be dedicated to the debates and discussions within the ILO on the types of work that should fall within its scope. From 1919 onward, a fundamental question revolved around the definition of wage labor from both economic and juridical points of view. With the crisis of the 1930s, this definition work was also stimulated by the explosion of unemployment, the reforms of social protection, and the affirmation of collective bargaining; meanwhile, further problems arose in the colonial spaces, especially regarding the distinction between free and non-free work. These questions did not cease after WWII; there was an expansion of regional assistance programs and an emergence, in the 1970s, of discussion about the formal and informal labor market that still characterizes part of the ILO's activities today. Proposals should revolve around the following questions: what was the role of the ILO in providing a univocal and universal definition of work? Which employment relationships were included in the Conventions and Recommendations, and which were excluded? Can we speak of the 'formalization' and 'objectification' of work as an economic, administrative, and political category? In what terms?

3. Social justice
The ILO constitution drawn up in 1919 states that universal and lasting peace can only be founded on social justice. This principle has undergone several variations; the best known is that of the Philadelphia Declaration of 1944, which imposed social security as the objective of the organization's actions and as an international model of social protection. The session aims to explore the forms in which the basic principles of social security have been theoretically developed within the ILO and then concretely applied in the approved conventions. While the study of social protection systems has so far mainly concentrated on the various national cases, it is also advisable to reconstruct their exchanges and interactions at a global level. The scientific committee is interested in contributions that analyze the epistemic networks built around the ILO regarding the issues of welfare and social rights. The organization, in fact, played a central role in this area, both with the creation of the first social insurance systems in the interwar period, in particular after the economic crisis, and with their post-WWII attempts to generalize the social security model together with the entry, and then the growing protagonism, of new members from among non-European countries.

The scientific commission invites the submission of proposals in English or Italian by 15 May 2022, by sending an abstract of 500 words and a one-page curriculum to ilo-networks-of-labour2022@sns.it. The Conference will be held in English or Italian; slideshow in English is required. Daniel Maul (University of Oslo) and Isabelle Lespinet-Moret (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne) will be the keynote speakers.

The Conference will take place on 27-28 October 2022 at the ILO Office in Rome.

No fees are required. Limited travel grants are available for PhD students and post-doctoral fellows: please ask if interested.


Scientific commission: Virginia Amorosi (Università Federico II Napoli), Eloisa Betti (Università di Bologna), Giacomo Canepa (Scuola Normale Superiore Pisa), Federico Del Giudice (Scuola Normale Superiore Pisa), Stefano Gallo (Cnr-Ismed Napoli), Isabelle Lespinet-Moret (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne), Sandrine Kott (Université de Genève), Francesco Maccelli (Università di Firenze), Daniel R. Maul (University of Oslo), Roberto Mazzagatti (Università Milano Bicocca), Lorenzo Mechi (Università di Padova), Francesca Piana (Université de Genève), Bruno Settis (Scuola Normale Superiore Pisa), Valerio Torreggiani (ICS-Universidade de Lisboa)
Deadline for proposals: 15 May 2022

Bien cordialement,
Giacomo Canepa, pour le Comité scientifique
ilo-networks-of-labour2022@sns.it
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