Les études du CERI

Les études du CERI

Les Etudes du CERI series publishes about 10 issues per year following the strict rules of double blind peer reviewed academic publications. The editorial board is composed of members of CERI’s Unit Council.
Les Etudes du CERI is a tool for decision-making and offers to scrutinize and study the transformations of our contemporary world, in more than 200 titles addressing a variety of topics and analyzing political, social and economic questions related to a specific country/region or a global contemporary challenge. Every issue follows, and is the result of, a fieldwork undertaken by its author. In this respect, this publication illustrates CERI’s approach to area studies, based on a direct, empirical experience and methodology.
Previous and current issues are all available online, free of charge. As all publications of this website, Les Etudes du CERI is protected by copyright through the French law.

 

Series editor: Alain Dieckhoff, directeur du CERI

Editor of the journal: Judith Burko, judith.burko@sciencespo.fr, phone +33158717004

Media contact: Karolina Michel, karolina.michel@sciencespo.fr, phone+33158717007

Gilles Lepesant

Géographies de la crise en Europe centrale
N°159
December 2009
Austria, Bulgaria, Central and Eastern Europe, Czech Republic, Debt, Economic transactions, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Markets / Finance, Multinational corporations, Poland, Political economy, Politics / Political Systems, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Social policy, Les études du CERI

The Central European model of development has until recently rested on a low interest rates, significant increases in consumption, heavy dependence on capital inflows, open markets especially towards Western Europe, and for some specialization in cyclical industries (automobiles). The crisis has highlighted on the one hand the growing divergence between the countries of Central Europe and on the other their high level of interdependence which has necessitated cooperation in their relations with the EU. While Western Europe is unlikely to experience a repeat of the 1930s, it is possible that recovery will prove illusory as it did between the two world wars. Witness the case of the automobile sector which became a major contributor to GDP and source of in Central Europe but whose future prospects are uncertain. Regional policies of which new member states are the beneficiaries should, in theory, encourage innovation, pro-employment policies, and sustainable development as means to ensuring recovery

Comment citer ce volume :

Gilles Lepesant

, Géographies de la crise en Europe centrale / Les Études du CERI, N°159, December 2009, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Adeline Braux

Politique migratoire et gestion de la diversité culturelle en Russie : l’exemple de Moscou
N°158
November 2009
Borders, Demography, Diasporas, Identities, Law, Migrations, Nationalism, Russia, Russian Federation, Social policy, Les études du CERI

Hostile, sometimes even xenophobic discourse towards migrants remains generally the norm in Russia. However, the Russian Federation’s migration policy appears relatively flexible, particularly in regards to the member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), whose nationals benefit from simplified procedures when it comes to entering Russian territory and obtaining a work permit. Russian authorities, reticent after the Western Europe experience, intend therefore to promote labor immigration and limit family immigration. At the same time, in order to encourage the cohesion of the Russian nation as a whole, the Russian Federation intends to undertake an ambitious policy to promote cultural diversity, including both the many different constituent groups among Russians and the immigrant communities in Russia. This multiculturalism “à la russe” recalls the “folklorization” during the Soviet period involving the cultures and traditions of the Soviet Union’s different populations. In the absence of a real political directive a the federal level, local authorities have been more active on the matter, notably in Moscow.

Comment citer ce volume :

Adeline Braux

, Politique migratoire et gestion de la diversité culturelle en Russie : l’exemple de Moscou / Les Études du CERI, N°158, November 2009, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
Les organisations internationales et la gestion des risques et des catastrophes « naturels »
N°157
September 2009
Disasters, Environment, Expertise, Governance, Health, International humanitarian law, International organizations, International security, Multilateralism, NGOs / Civil society, Risks, Les études du CERI

“Natural” risks and catastrophes appeared in the international arena in the early 1990s. A real « world » of “natural” catastrophes has emerged internationally and has become more and more institutionalized. This study raises questions such as: how has this space been built? How do actors legitimize its necessity? What does it tell us about the way the contemporary world manages fears globally? A diachronic approach of this double process of internationalization and institutionalization allows the author to situate the phenomenon in the historical and global context, and notably of a context of transformation of the notion of security. The sociological analysis of the main multilateral organizations that contribute to forming this space invites us to apprehend the various lines of tension that cross over, and to foresee its complexity. Despite the many attempts to make this space appear as a “community” of sense and practices, strong disparities characterize the actors’ approaches.

Comment citer ce volume : Sandrine Revet, Les organisations internationales et la gestion des risques et des catastrophes « naturels » / Les Études du CERI, N°157, September 2009, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Burcu Gorak Giquel

Les coopérations transfrontalières à l’épreuve de l’UE. Une comparaison Europe centrale-Turquie
N°156
July 2009
Borders, Central and Eastern Europe, Economic transactions, European Union, Europeanization, Governance, Identities, Networks, NGOs / Civil society, Regional integration, Territory, Turkey, Les études du CERI

Cross-border cooperation in the EU policy of regional development is crucial for three reasons: it reinforces partnerships between, on the one hand, central, regional and local agents, and on the other hand, public, private, and associative actors; it rests on the decentralized structure of states, assigning to each level of intervention a unique role in the development process. Finally, it supports local initiative. Cross-border cooperation becomes a vehicle for the “multi-level governance” that the EU intends to promote, by linking organization of regionalized action, cooperation between actors, and solid territorial establishment. For Turkey the task represents a challenge and an opportunity. A challenge, because regionalization directly affects the unitary structure of the state. An opportunity, because the EU does not impose any model of decentralization. On the contrary, the EU gives national actors the chance to create their own public structures in function of their historical path and the negotiation between the centre and the periphery. This is what this study ultimately attempts to show, stressing two aspects of Turkish transformations: decentralization is not a precondition for membership and that different forms of cooperation exist at the borders with Bulgaria and Syria, as a proof of the Europeanization of the Turkish public administrations.

Comment citer ce volume : François Bafoil

Burcu Gorak Giquel

, Les coopérations transfrontalières à l’épreuve de l’UE. Une comparaison Europe centrale-Turquie / Les Études du CERI, N°156, July 2009, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Damien Krichewsky

La régulation sociale et environnementale des entreprises en Inde
N°155
June 2009
Emerging States, Environment, India, Justice, Law, Multinational corporations, NGOs / Civil society, Norms, Poverty, Regulation, Social policy, South Asia, Les études du CERI

The post-interventionist development adopted by Indian governments from the mid-1980s onwards has enabled companies to further participate in the economic growth. Still, growth benefits are very unevenly distributed while social and environmental externalities weigh more and more on Indian society. In such a context, while public regulation tends to reduce social and environmental judicial constraints in order to encourage rapid growth of investments, civil society groups are intensifying their regulatory actions on private companies, and advocate for a balance of public policies in favor of a better protection of the social groups most affected by economic activity, and for a better protection of the environment. As a response, big companies are revising their strategies and practices of corporate social responsibility (CSR), to preserve their social legitimacy and the conciliatory attitude of the State. This study explores the recomposition of relationships and balances of power between economic actors, the State and the civil society, in a context of national modernization. It provides a detailed analysis of stakes and dynamics within public and civil society regulation, as well as companies’ self-regulations.

Comment citer ce volume :

Damien Krichewsky

, La régulation sociale et environnementale des entreprises en Inde / Les Études du CERI, N°155, June 2009, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
Aux marges du monde, en Afrique centrale...
N°153
-154
March 2009
Borders, Central Africa, Central African Republic, Conflict resolution, International organizations, International security, Political order, Poverty, State, Transnational, Violence, Wars / Conflicts, Les études du CERI

The Darfur crisis has shed light on unresolved crises at its borders in Chad and the Central African Republic. What these various conflicts most have in common is probably the existence of transnational armed movements that endure and reorganize in the fringes created by state dynamics in the region as well as the aporias of the international community’s conflict-resolution policies doubled by the choices of certain major powers. An analysis of the situation in the Central African Republic and the history of certain armed movements active in this regional space argues in favor of a less conventional approach to crisis-solving strategies. It points up a zone centered on the Central African Republic and its borders with neighboring countries as the real site for the analysis of armed factionalism since the wave of independence and the specific trajectories of state-building.

Comment citer ce volume : Roland Marchal, Aux marges du monde, en Afrique centrale... / Les Études du CERI, N°153-154, March 2009, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
Nationalizing Transnationalism? The Philippine State and the Filipino Diaspora
N°152
December 2008
Borders, Diasporas, Economic transactions, Globalization, Identities, Migrations, Philippines, Southeast Asia, State, Transnational, Les études du CERI

With over 8 million Filipinos living overseas, it could be argued that people have become the country’s largest export commodity. With their remittances making up 13% of GDP, they are as well crucially important economic actors. Has the Philippine state been instrumental in this exodus and in harvesting its fruits? Addressing such a proposition requires further refinement of three basic concepts – state, diaspora and transnationalism – through the use of three structuring templates. As a preliminary, the dichotomy of state strength and weakness is grounded in an analysis of a particular sector, namely emigration. By drawing on the typologies of Robin Cohen, Filipino overseas communities are portrayed as possessing, to some extent, the characteristics of much more readily accepted diasporas. However, a sketch of the varied experience of a heterogeneous Filipino diaspora underlines the differences between permanent migrants, contract workers, sea-based workers and irregular migrants. The diverse lived experiences of these groups – and their relations with their “home” nation – call into question the salience of notions of “transnationalism”. This questioning is reinforced by an examination of the Filipino state’s role in creating a “self-serving” diaspora through a review of the three phases in Filipino emigration policy since 1974. The characteristics that come to the fore are rather forms of “long-distance nationalism” and “rooted cosmopolitanism”. Taking cognizance of the multiple identities and loyalties in the case of the Filipino diaspora, a process of “binary nationalisms” is posited as a more fruitful avenue for future research.

Comment citer ce volume : David, Frederic Camroux, Nationalizing Transnationalism? The Philippine State and the Filipino Diaspora / Les Études du CERI, N°152, December 2008, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Jean-Pierre Pagé

Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2008 (volume 2)
N°151
December 2008
Comment citer ce volume :

Jean-Pierre Pagé

, Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2008 (volume 2) / Les Études du CERI, N°151, December 2008, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Jean-Pierre Pagé

Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2008 (volume 1)
N°150
December 2008
Comment citer ce volume :

Jean-Pierre Pagé

, Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2008 (volume 1) / Les Études du CERI, N°150, December 2008, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Chloé Froissart

Le système du hukou : pilier de la croissance chinoise et du maintien du PCC au pouvoir
N°149
September 2008
China, Justice, Law, Migrations, North-East Asia, Politics / Political Systems, Poverty, Social policy, State, Territory, Urbanization, Les études du CERI

Hukou is a system for registering and controlling the population set up under Mao to promote the socialist development program. It has created a lasting division between urban and rural areas and has given rise to differences in status that violate the Chinese constitution, which stipulates that all citizens are equal in the eyes of the law. Maintaining the hukou system and cleverly adapting this communist institution in answer to the country’s social and economic changes largely explains how the CCP remains in power. Hukou helps manage development by controlling urban expansion and favoring rapid industrialization at a lesser cost to the state. Despite accelerated reforms to the system in recent years, it has perpetuated inequality among citizens. Hukou thus remains a tool of the party’s divide-and-rule strategy. The reforms, which promote greater social mobility and help ensure that elites remain behind the central power, also curb social unrest, although in a context in which hukou has never been so criticized. The system thus remains the bedrock of an authoritarian regime, serving its two priorities: maintaining social stability and high growth rate.

Comment citer ce volume :

Chloé Froissart

, Le système du hukou : pilier de la croissance chinoise et du maintien du PCC au pouvoir / Les Études du CERI, N°149, September 2008, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Sébastien Peyrouse

La présence chinoise en Asie centrale. Portée géopolitique, enjeux économiques et impact culturel
N°148
September 2008
Caucasus / Central Asia, China, Economic transactions, Emerging States, Migrations, Multinational corporations, Political economy, Transnational actors, Les études du CERI

Since the early 2000s, The People’s Republic of China has invited itself to the “Great Central Asian Game” that traditionally counterpoised Russian and US interests. Today, Central Asia’s future lies mainly in its capacity to avoid neighbouring Middle Eastern destabilisations and integrate the Asia-Pacific Zone through China’s influence. In less than two decades, China has managed to enter significantly and in a variety of forms in the Central Asian region. The country has imposed itself as a faithful partner in terms of bilateral diplomacy and transformed the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation into a regional structure much appreciated by its members. China has moved to the fore as an economic player in Central Asia in the trade sector, hydrocarbons, and infrastructures. Nevertheless, social fears have grown linked to this ever growing Chinese presence, and a number of Central Asian experts specialising in China do not hide their political, economic and cultural apprehensions when it comes to dealing with a neighbour whose power will be difficult to manage in the long run.

Comment citer ce volume :

Sébastien Peyrouse

, La présence chinoise en Asie centrale. Portée géopolitique, enjeux économiques et impact culturel / Les Études du CERI, N°148, September 2008, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Eloi Laurent

La méthode suédoise : la cohésion sociale au défi de l’adaptation
N°147
September 2008
Education, Europeanization, Globalization, Migrations, NGOs / Civil society, Political economy, Politics / Political Systems, Social policy, State, Sweden, Western Europe, Les études du CERI

The "Swedish method" refers to the Swedes' collective capacity to adapt to the successive economic and social challenges they face in today's world. The present study attempts to raise and shed light on two issues: the inner workings of the "Swedish method"; its sustainability in the current phase of globalization. More specifically, we try to determine whether confidence and social cohesion, at the heart of Sweden's success, may be affected by the changes in public policy induced by a strategy of openness and adaptation that Sweden has considerably encouraged in recent years. We begin by surveying the literature on the relationship between confidence, social cohesion and economic performance to measure the respective importance of the factors of social cohesion. We then show how these components have been crystallized into institutions according to three socioeconomic rationales, the social democratic rationale at the heart of the Swedish system differing from the rationale of social segmentation. The study then takes a fresh look at Sweden's economic and social performance today and describes in detail the contemporary Swedish growth strategy, typical of a "small" country. We then describe the evolution of macroeconomic, fiscal, immigration and education policies and point out a weakening of collective protection schemes and the alteration of certain crucial public policies, an evolution that in the long run could call into question the Swedish governance strategy by eroding social cohesion.

Comment citer ce volume : André Grjebine

Eloi Laurent

, La méthode suédoise : la cohésion sociale au défi de l’adaptation / Les Études du CERI, N°147, September 2008, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

José Allouche, Chloé Froissart, Patrick Gilbert, Martine Le Boulaire

Les entreprises françaises en Chine. Environnement politique, enjeux socioéconomiques et pratiques managériales
N°145
-146
July 2008
Comment citer ce volume :

José Allouche, Chloé Froissart, Patrick Gilbert, Martine Le Boulaire

, Les entreprises françaises en Chine. Environnement politique, enjeux socioéconomiques et pratiques managériales / Les Études du CERI, N°145-146, July 2008, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Antoine Vion, François-Xavier Dudouet, Eric Grémont

Normalisation et régulation des marchés : la téléphonie mobile en Europe et aux Etats-Unis
N°144
April 2008
European Union, Markets / Finance, Multinational corporations, Networks, New technologies, Norms, North America, Regulation, United States, Western Europe, Les études du CERI

The study proposes analyzing the complex links between the standardization and regulation of mobile phone markets from a political economy perspective. Moreover, this study examines these links by taking into consideration, from a Schumpeterian perspective, the market disequilibrium and the monopolistic phenomena associated with innovation. It aims firstly to underline, with respect to different network generations (0G to 4G), the particularity of this industry in terms of investment return, and the key role that network standardization plays in the structuring of the market. This key variable of the standard explains in large part the income that GSM represented in the industrial and financial dynamics of the sector. The study thus explores the relations between the normalization policies, which are certainly neither the sole issue of public actors nor are they simple industrial property regulations, and the regulation policies of the sector (allocation of licenses, trade regulations, etc.). It underlines that the last twenty-five years have made the configurations of expertise more and more complex, and have increased the interdependency between network entrepreneurs, normalizers, and regulators. From a perspective close to Fligstein’s, which emphasizes the different institutional dimensions of market structuring (trade policies, industrial property regulations, wage relations, financial institutions), this study focuses on the interdependent relations between diverse, heavily institutionalized spheres of activity.

Comment citer ce volume :

Antoine Vion, François-Xavier Dudouet, Eric Grémont

, Normalisation et régulation des marchés : la téléphonie mobile en Europe et aux Etats-Unis / Les Études du CERI, N°144, April 2008, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh

International Peacemaking in Tajikistan and Afghanistan Compared: Lessons Learned and Unlearned
N°143
April 2008
Afghanistan, Caucasus / Central Asia, Conflict resolution, International organizations, International security, Middle East, Multilateralism, Peace / Peacekeeping, Security policy, Tajikistan, Les études du CERI

Changes in the architecture of international engagements in peacemaking over the last decade can be traced through a comparison of the Peace Accords of 1997 which ended five years of civil war in Tajikistan with the on-going intervention in Afghanistan which began in the context of the global war against terrorism. The comparison points to the challenges that complex interventions face today: the collapse of stabilization, transition and consolidation phases of peacemaking; the lack of clarity about motivations for engagement; the ambiguous methods of state-building and uncertain ownership of peace processes. The success of the externally-led Tajikistan peace process can be attributed to the common search for collaboration between international organizations and regional powers and the gradual sequencing of the different stages: negotiation for power sharing, followed by consolidation, and finally state-building. By contrast, the changing motivations for intervention, the isolation of the Western alliance from regional actors, and the external actors’ own role as parties to war, which provokes escalating reactions, are the potential elements of failure in Afghanistan. Ultimately, it is the national ownership of peace processes that creates the necessary legitimacy for peacemaking to be durable.

Comment citer ce volume :

Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh

, International Peacemaking in Tajikistan and Afghanistan Compared: Lessons Learned and Unlearned / Les Études du CERI, N°143, April 2008, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].