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Brazil, Collective mobilizations, Emerging States, Energy / Natural resources, Globalization, Governance, Latin America and the Caribbean, Political economy, Politics / Political Systems, Poverty, Power, Regional integration, Social policy, Les dossiers du CERI
Economic transactions, Emerging States, Energy / Natural resources, Globalization, International organizations, Markets / Finance, Multinational corporations, Political economy, Poverty, Privatizations, Regional integration, Transnational actors, Les dossiers du CERI
China, Economic transactions, Emerging States, Globalization, Markets / Finance, Multinational corporations, NGOs / Civil society, North-East Asia, Politics / Political Systems, Poverty, Social policy, Les études du CERI
Stéphanie Balme, Jean-Luc Domenach, Jean-Louis Rocca, Yuxin Jiang, Martine Le Boulaire, Denis Segrestin
Debt, Japan, NGOs / Civil society, North-East Asia, Political economy, Poverty, Les dossiers du CERI
India, Politics / Political Systems, Poverty, South Asia, State, Terrorism, Violence, Wars / Conflicts, Les études du CERI
The Maoist movement in India began to develop in the late 1960s, taking advantage of the political space provided when the Communist Party of India (Marxist) abandoned its revolutionary fight. In the early 1970s the Maoist, also called Naxalistes, were the victims of intense factionalism and severe repression which led the militants to retreat to the tribal zones of Andhra Pradesh and Bihar, their two pockets of resistance during the 1980s. This strategy explains not only the transformation of the Indian Maoist sociology (which was led originally by intellectuals but became increasingly plebian) but also its return to power in the late 1990s. That decade, notable for economic liberalization, witnessed the exploitation of mineral resources in the tribal regions to the detriment of the interests of the inhabitants. The growth in Maoism during the 2000s can be explained also by a reunification under the banner of the Communist Party of India (Maoist) which was created in 2004.
The reaction of the government in New Delhi to this phenomenon which affects half the Indian states has been to impose repressive measures. In contrast the Maoists see themselves as the defenders of a State of rights and justice.
Collective mobilizations, East Africa and The Horn, Nationalism, Political order, Poverty, Sociology, Somalia, State, Terrorism, Transnational actors, Violence, Les analyses du CERI
Governance, Morocco, NGOs / Civil society, Norms, North Africa, Politics / Political Systems, Poverty, State, Les études du CERI
In Morocco describing an activity as having a « participative » character vests it with all the virtues of civil society and implies it is a panacea. The launch in 2005 of the National Initiative for Human Development (NIHD), a program calling for the mobilization of everyone in the fight against poverty, can be considered a symbol of this « participation phenomenon ». By analyzing its norms and styles of action on which they are based it is possible to discover the internal logic of the participatory phenomenon and to see how it shapes politics. The promotion of certain styles of action, those combining the virtues of civil society with the technical support of participative policies, transforms the criteria of legitimation. Also, the moral values ascribed to participation justify the violation of other social norms, both economic and political, which have nothing to do with participation. Such an approach, developed here on the basis of the INDH at El Hajeb, brings to light the complex ideology on which the subject of participation is based as well as its active and creative role in the political configurations which draw their legitimacy from the value placed on participation.
Emerging States, Environment, India, Justice, Law, Multinational corporations, NGOs / Civil society, Norms, Poverty, Regulation, Social policy, South Asia, Les études du CERI
The post-interventionist development adopted by Indian governments from the mid-1980s onwards has enabled companies to further participate in the economic growth. Still, growth benefits are very unevenly distributed while social and environmental externalities weigh more and more on Indian society. In such a context, while public regulation tends to reduce social and environmental judicial constraints in order to encourage rapid growth of investments, civil society groups are intensifying their regulatory actions on private companies, and advocate for a balance of public policies in favor of a better protection of the social groups most affected by economic activity, and for a better protection of the environment. As a response, big companies are revising their strategies and practices of corporate social responsibility (CSR), to preserve their social legitimacy and the conciliatory attitude of the State. This study explores the recomposition of relationships and balances of power between economic actors, the State and the civil society, in a context of national modernization. It provides a detailed analysis of stakes and dynamics within public and civil society regulation, as well as companies’ self-regulations.