Les études du CERI

Les études du CERI

Les Etudes du CERI series publishes about 10 issues per year following the strict rules of double blind peer reviewed academic publications. The editorial board is composed of members of CERI’s Unit Council.
Les Etudes du CERI is a tool for decision-making and offers to scrutinize and study the transformations of our contemporary world, in more than 200 titles addressing a variety of topics and analyzing political, social and economic questions related to a specific country/region or a global contemporary challenge. Every issue follows, and is the result of, a fieldwork undertaken by its author. In this respect, this publication illustrates CERI’s approach to area studies, based on a direct, empirical experience and methodology.
Previous and current issues are all available online, free of charge. As all publications of this website, Les Etudes du CERI is protected by copyright through the French law.

 

Series editor: Alain Dieckhoff, directeur du CERI

Editor of the journal: Judith Burko, judith.burko@sciencespo.fr, phone +33158717004

Media contact: Karolina Michel, karolina.michel@sciencespo.fr, phone+33158717007

Amérique latine. Political Outlook 2012
N°189
-190
December 2012
Comment citer ce volume :

Observatoire Politique de l'Amérique latine et des Caraïbes de Sciences Po

, Amérique latine. Political Outlook 2012 / Les Études du CERI, N°189-190, December 2012, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
The Syrian Crisis Shatters Turkey’s Arab Dream
N°188
November 2012
Syria, Turkey, Les études du CERI

For ideological and practical reasons the AKP government, in power since November 2002, has engaged in a policy of progressive integration of Turkey into the Muslim, and more particularly, the Arab world. This policy has been facilitated by the country’s booming economy and assertive foreign policy. Turkey, whose government embraced a political ideology similar to those, brought to power by the Arab Spring, benefitted greatly from the ideological effects of the Arab Spring. These benefits were enhanced by the fact that the political ideology of those brought to power by the « Arab Spring » was similar to that of the AKP. Turkey appeared to be becoming a model for the Arab world. However, the crisis in Syria, a country central to Turkey’s Arab policy, and the inability of the Turkish government to remain neutral has put an end to Turkey’s Arab dream. Turkish engagement in the Syrian crisis has caused deterioration in Turkey’s relations with a number of its neighbors and forced it to renew ties with its traditional western allies from whom it had hoped to distance itself in order to be an independent regional and international player.

Comment citer ce volume : , The Syrian Crisis Shatters Turkey’s Arab Dream / Les Études du CERI, N°188, November 2012, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
La relation Pakistan – Etats-Unis : un patron et son client au bord de la rupture ?
N°187
September 2012
Conflict resolution, Foreign policy, North America, Pakistan, Peace / Peacekeeping, Security policy, South Asia, State, Terrorism, United States, Wars / Conflicts, Les études du CERI

During the Cold War the US-Pakistan relationship was one in which the US considered Pakistan as a necessary part of its effort to contain communism in Asia while Pakistan considered its relationship with the US as strengthening its position vis a vis India. The high point in this relationship was during the Soviet-Afghan war. The US tried to renew this relationship after 9/11, although when Obama replaced GW Bush he stated his intention to move US-Pakistani relations off the security agenda which the Pentagone and the Pakistani army considered a priority. However, Obama rain into resistance from the Pakistani army and from the national security establishment in Washington- as can be seen from the security-oriented distribution of US aid. But not even in the area of security have the two nations been able truly to collaborate. To begin with, the strengthening of US-India relations angered Pakistan. Then Islamabad protected the Taliban in its fight with NATO. Finally, Obama violated Pakistani sovereignty (the Drone strikes in the tribal belt and the Ben Laden raid). These conflicting interest, however, do not necessary means the end of the relationship.

Comment citer ce volume : Christophe Jaffrelot, La relation Pakistan – Etats-Unis : un patron et son client au bord de la rupture ? / Les Études du CERI, N°187, September 2012, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Evelyne Ritaine

La fabrique politique d’une frontière européenne en Méditerranée. Le « jeu du mistigri » entre les Etats et l’Union
N°186
July 2012
Balkans, Borders, European Union, Greece, Italy, Malta, Migrations, North Africa, Regulation, Security policy, Spain, State, Western Europe, Les études du CERI

The political determination of the Mediterranean border of the European Union seen from the perspective of the Southern European countries (Spain, Italy, Greece, Malta) illustrates the symbolic and political importance for these nations of maintaining control of the border. It has a significant impact on the types of controls that are enacted and the interplay between national and European decisions. Placing this question on the agenda brings to light a Mediterranean perspective regarding the exterior borders of the European Union that is largely determined by the conditions of integration of the different countries into the Schengen area. This new border regime is the result of complex political games and is seen as a security issue. The actual set of controls seems to be less planned and legal-rational than simply erratic and the result of tensions between internal tactics, nation state strategies and attempts at bringing within the ring of EU.

Comment citer ce volume :

Evelyne Ritaine

, La fabrique politique d’une frontière européenne en Méditerranée. Le « jeu du mistigri » entre les Etats et l’Union / Les Études du CERI, N°186, July 2012, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
The Politics of Employment Policy Reform in the Gulf State
N°185
May 2012
Bahrain, Collective mobilizations, Identities, Kuwait, Middle East, Multinational corporations, NGOs / Civil society, Oman, Political economy, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Social policy, State, United Arab Emirates, Les études du CERI

During the first decade of the 21st century the Gulf States undertook reforms of their social policies based on the generous redistribution of hydrocarbon profits. One of the elements of the redistribution was to guarantee of employment. Beginning in the 1990s rising unemployment indicated that the traditional employment policies were ineffective, generating social tensions as evidenced in the "Arab spring". The goal of the reforms is to move nationals into salaried jobs in the private sector, currently held largely by foreign workers. The change is strongly opposed by business executives and local entrepreneurs. Having become accustomed to inexpensive foreign workers they object to the increased costs entailed by the reforms. The royal families are thus obliged to negotiate between the interests of the private sector, often aligned with their own, and the dissatisfaction of the young, the group most impacted by unemployment and the key players in the protests that erupted in 2011 in Bahrain, Saudi-Arabia and Oman.

Comment citer ce volume : Laurence Louer, The Politics of Employment Policy Reform in the Gulf State / Les Études du CERI, N°185, May 2012, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
Selling the Future in DC. Marketing Stability for International Security
N°184
February 2012
Defense policy, Expertise, International security, North America, Prospective, State, Terrorism, United States, Wars / Conflicts, Les études du CERI

What kind of future worlds do experts of international security envision? This paper studies the role of experts in DC's think tanks, a relatively small world socially and culturally highly homogeneous. It underlines the characteristics of this epistemic community that influence the way its analysts make claims about the future for security. The DC's marketplace of the future lacks diversity. The paradigms analysts use when they study international politics are very similar. Moreover, the range of issues they focus on is also relatively narrow. The paper highlights three main features of the relation between those who make claims about the future of security and those to whom these claims are addressed (mainly policymakers). First, it shows that, for epistemic but also for political reasons, the future imagined in think tanks is relatively stable and linear. This future also contributes to the continuity of political decisions. Second, the paper shows that think tanks are also "victims of groupthink", especially when they make claims about the future. Third, it underlines a paradox: scenarios and predictions create surprises. Claims about the future have a strong tunneling effect. They reinforce preexisting beliefs, create focal points, and operate as blinders when, inevitably, the future breaks away from its linear path.

Comment citer ce volume : Ariel Colonomos, Selling the Future in DC. Marketing Stability for International Security / Les Études du CERI, N°184, February 2012, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Isabelle Rousseau

Can Latin American Oil Companies Free Themselves from the Legacy of Nationalization?
N°183
January 2012
Energy / Natural resources, Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico, Multinational corporations, Political economy, State, Venezuela, Les études du CERI

Latin America's national oil companies, created at various times during the twentieth century, have each evolved in a different way. The two main companies – Petroleos de Mexico (Pemex) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) – provide excellent illustrations of the rich diversity of organizational and industrial development. Many factors – such as the importance of earth quakes – explain the diversity. Nevertheless, the role of governments during the period of nationalizations is key. It was then that the relationships between the owners of natural resources, public operators, regulators, the finance ministries, and international operators were defined. This process shaped the companies' institutional structures (path dependency) and set the parameters for future entrepreneurial dynamism. The path by which each of these enterprises developed continues to affect their culture as evidenced by the recent reforms which attempted to restructure Pemex and PDVSA.

Comment citer ce volume :

Isabelle Rousseau

, Can Latin American Oil Companies Free Themselves from the Legacy of Nationalization? / Les Études du CERI, N°183, January 2012, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Jean-Pierre Pagé

Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale et d'Eurasie 2011 (Volume 2)
N°182
December 2011
Comment citer ce volume :

Jean-Pierre Pagé

, Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale et d'Eurasie 2011 (Volume 2) / Les Études du CERI, N°182, December 2011, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Jean-Pierre Pagé

Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale et d'Eurasie 2011 (Volume 1)
N°181
December 2011
Comment citer ce volume :

Jean-Pierre Pagé

, Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale et d'Eurasie 2011 (Volume 1) / Les Études du CERI, N°181, December 2011, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
Amérique latine. Political Outlook 2011
N°179
December 2011
Comment citer ce volume :

Observatoire Politique de l'Amérique latine et des Caraïbes de Sciences Po

, Amérique latine. Political Outlook 2011 / Les Études du CERI, N°179, December 2011, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Boris Samuel

The Technocratic Trajectory and Political Instability of Mauritania, 2003-2011
N°178
October 2011
Markets / Finance, Mauritania, Political economy, Political order, State, West Africa, Les études du CERI

In 2004 the government of Mauritania admitted that for the past ten years its national macroeconomic and financial data had been falsified. This admission revealed a small part of the fraudulent practices that took place during the Taya era which ended in 2005. But it also showed that the economic management of this "good student" had become ensnared in true "bureaucratic anarchy". Beginning in 2005, when the democratic transition should have enabled the public administration's house to be put in order, reforms were often motivated by a desire to improve the image of the regime and were thus less than effective. Then, following the elections of 2007, and in the midst of financial scandals, the government developed a technocratic approach which alienated the Mauritanian public who perceived a power vacuum. A new coup d'etat occurred during the summer of 2008. The "Rectification Movement" of general Abdel Aziz acquired legitimacy as a result of its fight against terrorism in Sahel. Employing populist rhetoric and adopting the moral high ground in the fight against rampant corruption, the Movement favored lax management of resources and tight, even authoritarian, control of public finances.

Comment citer ce volume :

Boris Samuel

, The Technocratic Trajectory and Political Instability of Mauritania, 2003-2011 / Les Études du CERI, N°178, October 2011, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Rémi Bourguignon, Solène Hazouard, Martine Le Boulaire

Les entreprises françaises et allemandes en Chine : des pratiques de management contrastées dans un contexte en mutation
N°176
-177
September 2011
Comment citer ce volume : Jean-Louis Rocca

Rémi Bourguignon, Solène Hazouard, Martine Le Boulaire

, Les entreprises françaises et allemandes en Chine : des pratiques de management contrastées dans un contexte en mutation / Les Études du CERI, N°176-177, September 2011, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
L'Etat face au défi maoïste en Inde
N°175
June 2011
India, Politics / Political Systems, Poverty, South Asia, State, Terrorism, Violence, Wars / Conflicts, Les études du CERI

The Maoist movement in India began to develop in the late 1960s, taking advantage of the political space provided when the Communist Party of India (Marxist) abandoned its revolutionary fight. In the early 1970s the Maoist, also called Naxalistes, were the victims of intense factionalism and severe repression which led the militants to retreat to the tribal zones of Andhra Pradesh and Bihar, their two pockets of resistance during the 1980s. This strategy explains not only the transformation of the Indian Maoist sociology (which was led originally by intellectuals but became increasingly plebian) but also its return to power in the late 1990s. That decade, notable for economic liberalization, witnessed the exploitation of mineral resources in the tribal regions to the detriment of the interests of the inhabitants. The growth in Maoism during the 2000s can be explained also by a reunification under the banner of the Communist Party of India (Maoist) which was created in 2004. The reaction of the government in New Delhi to this phenomenon which affects half the Indian states has been to impose repressive measures. In contrast the Maoists see themselves as the defenders of a State of rights and justice.

Comment citer ce volume : Christophe Jaffrelot, L'Etat face au défi maoïste en Inde / Les Études du CERI, N°175, June 2011, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Shira Havkin

La réforme des checkpoints israéliens : externalisation, marchandisation et redéploiement de l'Etat
N°174
May 2011
Borders, Israel, Middle East, Palestine, Privatizations, Security policy, State, Violence, Les études du CERI

Since 2006 the checkpoints along the borders of the West Bank and the Gaza strip have been reorganized and equipped with a new technological platform. They are now managed by private security firms. The instigators of these reforms speak of the "civilianization" of the checkpoints and justify their program on economic, organizational and humanitarian grounds. This detailed study of the concrete means by which the management of the Israeli checkpoints has been outsourced and commodified enables one to establish links between the evolution of Israeli society in terms of the relationship between the State, the market and society and the actual changes in the operation of the occupation. It would appear that this is not a case of the State receding in the face of market forces in a zero sum game. Rather it is the redeployment in a neoliberal context of the State in which it has adopted the uniquely Israeli layering of the public and the private, the national and the international, the State and civil society.

Comment citer ce volume :

Shira Havkin

, La réforme des checkpoints israéliens : externalisation, marchandisation et redéploiement de l'Etat / Les Études du CERI, N°174, May 2011, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

SAKURAI Keiko

Les madrasas chiites afghanes à l’aune iranienne : anthropologie d’une dépendance religieuse
N°173
January 2011
Les études du CERI

As a social institution, the madras must be analyzed in terms of their relationship to social, econmomic and political change and to the public educational system whose bureaucratic organization they have copied. In the case of Afghanistan they cannot be disassociated from the war and its consequences, such as emigration and the reconstitution of ethno-religious affiliations. Financed and run by the diaspora, they enable the Shiite minority, notably Hazara, to reestablish itself in the central State and to provide a counterweight to the Pachtoune domination. They also contribute to the education of girls and children from disfavored social classes. The dependeance of Shiite education in Afghanistan on the Iranian clergy has organizational, theological, financial and symbolique benefits. But it is accompanied by a reinvention of, and separation from, the Iranian model which should, in the minds of the religous authorities, lead to a national schism in Afghanistan of which Kaboul hopes to be the spiritual capital. The asymetric Irano-Afghan interaction illustrates the relevance of the notion of « religous dependence ».

Comment citer ce volume : Fariba Adelkhah

SAKURAI Keiko

, Les madrasas chiites afghanes à l’aune iranienne : anthropologie d’une dépendance religieuse / Les Études du CERI, N°173, January 2011, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].