Below are useful references related to the different categories of the blog. The list includes publications and databases by international financial institutions, seminal academic papers, as well as more recent discussion papersThis library will be regularly updated to include new contributions.

Debt Levels and Structure

Several institutions maintain databases related to sovereign debt, with differences in terms of coverage, granularity, or frequency. To better understand those differences  before diving into the different data sources, you can read the IMF’s Guide to Sovereign Debt Data (2019).

IMF­ databases

  • Datasets of the IMF Datamapper
    • International Financial Statistics
      • “Government Finance” category
      • Quarterly data, mostly starting in 1990
    • World Economic Outlook
      • Updated twice a year
      • General statistics such as fiscal balance and government debt
    • Fiscal Monitor
      • Updated twice a year
      • In-depth analysis of public finances
    • Global Debt Database
      • Total gross debt of private and public non-financial sector
      • 1950-present, 190 countries
    • Public Finances in Modern History
      • 1800-2011, 55 countries

World Bank databases

OECD databases

Institute of International Finance

Bank of England and Bank of Canada

Joint databases

  • Joint External Debt Hub
    • Co-run by the BIS, the IMF, the OECD and the World-Bank
    • External public and private debt statistics

Historical perspectives

Debt sustainability analysis

Creditor landscape




Restructuring process



Debt relief

Over the past decades, the Paris Club has played a central role in the international financial architecture, overseeing 472 agreements for an overall USD 589bn of debt treated (as of January 2021). The website of the club provides reports and data related to the process and the work achieved so far.


Capital Markets

Determinants of Bond and CDS Yields and Spreads

Capital Flows, Investors and Yields

Credit Ratings

Impact of Spreads


Innovative Instruments

Credit enhancement mechanisms

State-contingent instruments


Sustainable Finance

Climate risk


ESG for sovereign debt investing

Sovereign fixed income ESG indices


Reference books