Typologie et taxonomie des trajectoires de changement des pays de l'OCDE

Emanuele Ferragina, Federico Danilo Filetti
  • Image HJBC (via Shutterstock)Image HJBC (via Shutterstock)

Protection du marché du travail dans l’espace et dans le temps

Une typologie et une taxonomie des trajectoires de changement dans les pays de l’Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE)

Emanuele Ferragina, Federico Danilo Filetti

Revue des politiques sociales et familiales, 2024/2, n°151, p. 39 - 58

Cet article est disponible en ligne sur CAIRN

Emanuele FerraginaFederico FilettiL'étude interprète sur 30 ans l'évolution de la protection du marché du travail dans les pays de l'OCDE. La diversité institutionnelle et les trajectoires de changement sont comparées à travers quatre dimensions : la protection de l'emploi, la protection contre le chômage, le maintien du revenu et la politique active de l'emploi.

L'article propose une typologie des pays tenant compte des processus de changement entre 1990 et 2015, sur la base des niveaux de coordination et de solidarité, et une taxonomie caractérisant cinq évolutions : libéralisation, dualisation, flexicurité, dé-dualisation et protection renforcée.  

Parmi les enseignements, on constate que malgré un écart toujours présent, la grande majorité des économies coordonnées (idéal-type caractérisant une économie où les entreprises sont liées à acteurs et ressources hors marché) ont connu une baisse du niveau de protection du marché du travail et se sont rapprochées des économies libérales (à forte concurrence). D'autre part, une taxonomie à cinq catégories de trajectoires de changement (libéralisation, dualisation, flexicurité, dé-dualisation, protection renforcée) montre que ces trajectoires ne sont pas toujours dépendantes ni cohérentes avec les variétés institutionnelles précédemment identifiées dans la littérature scientifique.   

The paper develops a typology for processes of change between 1990 and 2015, and clusters countries on the basis of coordination and solidarity levels and a  fivefold taxonomy of countries’ trajectories of change by liberalisation, dualisation, flexibility, de-dualisation and higher protection.

Despite a persistent gap, a large majority of coordinated market economies, which have experienced a decrease in the level of labour market protection, have moved closer to liberal market economies. The taxonomy of countries’ trajectories of change shows that these trajectories are not always path-dependent and consistent with institutional varieties previously developed in the scientific literature.

Ferragina, Filetti 2024Variétés de protection du marché du travail en 2015 par pays

Congé parental, modes d’accueil petite enfance et fécondité

Lidia Panico & Anne Solaz
  • Image MarutStudio (via Shutterstock)Image MarutStudio (via Shutterstock)

Congé parental, modes d'accueil dans la petite enfance et fécondité

Lidia Panico (Sciences Po - CRIS, INED), Anne Solar (INED)

Informations sociales, 2023/3, n° 2011, p. 51-56. Disponible en ligne sur CAIRN

Information sociale 211En France, malgré la réforme du congé parental adoptée en 2015, la baisse du niveau de fécondité amorcée depuis les années 2010 s’intensifie, à l'image d'autres pays européens. Lidia Panico et Anne Solaz (INED) interrogent les déterminants du phénomène et le rôle que peuvent jouer les politiques publiques sur le niveau de fécondité. Sur quels leviers en faveur de la petite enfance les politiques peuvent-elles agir pour l'influencer positivement ? La question de l'articulation entre famille et travail est-elle un des facteurs à prendre en compte ?

L'article analyse les effets des mesures prises en matière de congé parental et d'évolution des modes d'accueil de la petite enfance. 

Au final, les auteures constatent que la mise en place de modes d'accueil peu onéreux et de congés parentaux donnent des signaux encourageants aux futurs parents, mais ne sont que quelques éléments partiels d'une politique familliale. qui n'est elle-même pas suffisante pour influer sur la fécondité. Les démographes ne peuvent que constater la multiplicité des déterminants amenant au désir d'enfant à un instant T.

L'article est disponible en ligne.

 

Sciences Po is hiring: Assistant Professor on Environmental Inequalities

Starting January 2025
Deadline September 30th, 2024
  • Image Caroline Maufroid, Sciences PoImage Caroline Maufroid, Sciences Po

We're recuiting a full-time, Assistant Professor (tenure-track). Position beginning on January 1st 2025. The successful candidate will be affiliated to the Center for Research on social InequalitieS (CRIS). Candidates should have a PhD.

This assistant professorship position is designed to reinforce and complement our expertise in the study of environmental inequalities. We welcome applications from candidates with a recent PhD in the social or environmental sciences and with an ambitious research agenda in the area of social stratification and inequality, targeting publications in leading disciplinary and interdisciplinary journals. All disciplines are welcome as far as the research has strong connections with the social sciences.

Rising inequality and environmental degradation are two critical challenges of our time. Our knowledge about the interplay between socio-economic inequality, environmental degradation, and environmental policies remains limited. More research is needed to measure these inequalities, understand their micro-, meso- and macro-level mechanisms, and identify policies to address them.

Image Saengsakaorat via ShutterstockThree research domains are particularly relevant to this position:

  • inequalities in contributions to environmental damage
  • inequalities in the impacts of environmental degradation
  • inequalities in the capacities to impact environmental policies.

This position will contribute to strengthening environmental research and teaching in the context of the Sciences Po TIERED project (Transforming Interdisciplinary Education and Research for Evolving Democracies), organized jointly by the Open Institute for Digital Transformation and the Institute for Environmental Transformations.

The successful candidate will be expected to play an active role in the center’s collective activities: seminars, academic events, participation in research networks. The candidate should also engage in responding to national and international calls to fund research projects. The successful candidate will teach in Sciences Po’s undergraduate and graduate programs (in Paris and in other campuses).

Please read the job description and application procedure here (pdf, 120 ko)

Deadline for applications September 30th, 2024. This position is expected to start on January 1st 2025. 

The ‘two lives’ of Esping-Andersen and the revival of a research programme:

Gender equality, employment and redistribution in contemporary social policy
Emanuele Ferragina, CRIS Seminar, Friday June 28th
  • Image Mongta Studio (via Shutterstock)Image Mongta Studio (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, June 28th 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K011 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

The ‘two lives’ of Esping-Andersen and the revival of a research programme:
Gender equality, employment and redistribution in contemporary social policy

Emanuele Ferragina

Full Professor
Sciences Po - CRIS

This presentation makes two conceptual contributions to social policy literature.

First, it summarises key concepts and insights from Esping-Andersen's major books, tracing his work in ‘two lives’: ‘the foundations, or the welfare state between states and markets’ and ‘the demographic turn’.
Analysing the ‘first life’, it revisits the centrality of the decommodification and social stratification concepts and the seeds of the social investment approach. Further, it explores Esping-Andersen's masterful analysis of the double bind of the welfare state (supporting full-employment and redistributional harmony) in a post-industrial era and how countries belonging to different regimes have dealt with it.
Through his ‘second life’, it explores the ‘impossible marriage’ between full employment and equality, and the development of the social investment approach.

The second contribution is to critically analyse a tension—generated by the shift from a broad to a narrow social policy perspective—between the two lives and how it raises questions for contemporary social policy. It suggests the field should take stock of Esping-Andersen's work holistically, going beyond a simplistic use of welfare regime typologies and the universal proposition of a Scandinavian-style social investment approach.
This approach tends to overlook factors related to the international context (e.g., the expansion of the market logic, and questions of exchange, inflation and debt) when assessing the impact of social policy on key outcomes.

The ultimate goal of the presentation is to revive a research programme based on the integration between social policy and international political economy, a programme geared at critically assessing issues related to gender equality, employment and redistribution.

Open Seminar. Please register here to join us!

Fatherhood and Men’s Working Hours in a Part-Time Economy

Thijs Bol
CRIS Scientific Seminar, Friday June 21st
  • Image Dusan Petkovic (via Shutterstock)Image Dusan Petkovic (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, June 21st 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K011 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

Fatherhood and Men’s Working Hours in a Part-Time Economy

Thijs Bol

Professor of Sociology
University of Amsterdam

Thijs Bol How do fathers adjust their working hours after the birth of their first child?
Though the impact of childbirth on women’s employment is well-established, less is known about its effect on fathers.
We investigate this question in the Netherlands (2006-2017), a country characterized by a high prevalence of part-time work. We focus on two contexts that might shape the extent to which first-time fathers reduce their working hours after childbirth: the household and the organization. For this purpose, we use detailed longitudinal register data.

The results reveal that men’s employment displays a high degree of stability around the first childbirth: even in the Dutch “part-time economy,” the vast majority of fathers remain full-time employed.
We do find substantial heterogeneity in labor market responses following childbirth. Fathers earning relatively less than their partner pre-childbirth are more likely to scale down their working hours. The organizational gender composition is also associated with working hours reductions following childbirth. Although we find that fathers’ employment is contingent on both the household and organizational context, the substantial stability in men’s labor supply remains an obstacle to a more equal division of (un)paid labor.
Personal Website

Open Seminar. Please register here to join us!

A Silver Handle of Wishes: Social and Spatial Stratification in Early Colonial Bombay

Sukriti Issar
CRIS Seminar, Friday June 14th
  • The Bombay Commercial Gymkhana (1905 - Public Domain)The Bombay Commercial Gymkhana (1905 - Public Domain)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, June 14th 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

A Silver Handle of Wishes: Social and Spatial Stratification in Early Colonial Bombay

Sukriti Issar

Associate Professor
Sciences Po - CRIS

Sukriti Issar (CRIS)In this talk I will discuss work-in-progress on enumeration, occupations and stratification, and segregation in early colonial Bombay. What were the categories used for enumerating populations? What can we say about spatial segregation in this period? Was there a middling ‘sort’? Using previously unexplored archival data (qualitative and quantitative) I analyse segregation, and use new data to classify occupational structure and consumption practices in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The talk will reflect on methods of history writing and archival research.

Sukriti Issar is Associate Professor in CRIS (Center for Research on Social Inequalities) at Sciences Po, Paris. She is the scientific advisor of the Governing the Large Metropolis master's program at the Urban School. Her research interests focus on urban policy, regulations, property and law, and social history. To find out more about Sukriti Issar

Open Seminar. Please register here to join us!

 

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Estimating the Impact of Prenatal Opioid Exposure on Infant Health: Evidence from Multiple Identification Strategies

Lawrence (Lonnie) Berger
CRIS Scientific Seminar, Friday June 7th
  • Image Maria Sbytova (via Shutterstock)Image Maria Sbytova (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, June 7th 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

Estimating the Impact of Prenatal Opioid Exposure on Infant Health:
Evidence from Multiple Identification Strategies

Lawrence (Lonnie) Berger

Vilas Distinguished Achievement Professor
Associate Vice Chancellor for Research in the Social Sciences
Sandra Rosenbaum School of Social Work, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Lawrence (Lonnie) BergerThe adverse effects of the opioid epidemic in the United States are well documented. Moreover, high rates of prenatal opioid exposure, particularly among disadvantaged populations, has generated concern that a large number of children may be at risk of poor prenatal and, potentially, lifelong health and development. Whereas research has established that maternal opioid use during pregnancy is associated with a host of negative child outcomes, prenatal exposure is also strongly correlated with other socioeconomic and psychosocial risks to child development. As such, existing studies have yet to identify plausibly causal effects. This study uses longitudinal administrative data from Wisconsin and six identification strategies—standard (e.g., OLS) regressions with extensive controls; propensity score matched regressions; inverse probability (of prenatal exposure) weighted regressions; sibling fixed-effects regressions (comparing exposed and nonexposed siblings); cousin fixed-effects regressions (comparing exposed children to unexposed children of their mothers’ sisters), and instrumental variables regressions—to produce bounded estimates of the plausibly causal effects of prenatal opioid exposure on multiple domains of child health during the first year of life. Comparing estimates produced using each strategy provides new insights into whether associations of prenatal opioid exposure with specific aspects of infant health are likely causal and, if so, at what orders of magnitude. 

To find out more about Lawrence (Lonnie) Berger (cv)

Open Seminar. Please register here to join us!

 

Job Talks

Assistant Professor in Sociology
Thursday, June 13th 2024
  • Image Didier Pazery / Sciences PoImage Didier Pazery / Sciences Po

These job talks follow the Assistant Professor position published in March 2024.

Schedule:

  • Thursday June 13th 2024 – Room B108 (Salons scientifiques) - 1, Place Saint-Thomas d’Aquin 75007 Paris
    Open to Sciences Po community - Please register here

8:45am - Welcome Coffee

9:00 - 9:45  Mélusine Boon-Falleur, Understanding the socioeconomic gradient in patience: evidence from higher-education choices

9:50 - 10:35  Alessandro Ferrara, The Immigrant Selectivity Hypothesis: Measuring Immigrant Health Selection and its Consequences at Destination

10:40 - 11:25 Nathan Hoffmann, How Policy Shapes Queer Migration and Union Formation

11:25 - 11:40 - Coffee Break

11:40 - 12:25  Alejandra Rodriguez Sanchez, Algorithms of our Social Fabric: Machine Learning in Computational Social Science Research

12:30 - 1:15pm Ioana Sendroiu, Making a market to save the planet

1:15 - 2:30pm - Lunch

  • Thursday June 13th 2024 – Internal

2:30 - 4:40 Interviews by the Selection Committee

4:40 - 6pm Selection Committee meeting - ranking of the candidates

Please contact us if you have any questions: info.cris@sciencespo.fr

 

 

About inequalities and the digital divide... Jen Schradie

Conversation with Sergei Guriev (podcast)
  • Image pathdoc (via Shutterstock)Image pathdoc (via Shutterstock)

Conversations with Sergei Guriev

What is the digital divide today, and its evolution since the 1990s, given the emergence of new technologies? Should be talk about digital inequalities?
Today mobile broadband internet is accessible pretty much everywhere. Why is class still mattering? Why does that still a social divide around people of different class, ethnicity, gender?
What is going to happen to digital inequalities as, digital technology becomes cheaper and cheaper, more available, better, speed is available, better devices, are available at lower prices ?
What inequalities in the use of artificial intelligence?

Listen the podcast On Digital Inequality and its Political implications, 40 min., may 2024, part of the Sergei Guriev conversations [Ausha - Also available on Spotify, Apple Podcasts, Amazon Music...]

Jen Schradie (image Alexis Lecomte / Sciences Po)As a digital scholar, It's been both fun and challenging to track digital inequalities because they're changing so rapidly!

From the 1990s to 2000, Twitter was launched, YouTube was diffused... and so there was all this utopianism around, how anyone can, be a content producer, but I sought to really look at who are these people creating online content.

I do want to challenge this idea that everyone is online.

There's a lot of arguments around how, especially among youth, too much digital technology can impact, negative, have a negative impacts on mental health. But it's actually, people that have less internet access that have, lower self-reports of social well-being.

My research switches the causal arrow and really looks at how do societal differences shape the use of technology itself.

People who are in more precarious work positions, are much less likely to feel safe posting online something that might be perceived as as controversial.

Communal Sustainability: A socio-material approach to elucidating the links between inequality and the environment

Manisha Anantharaman
CRIS Scientific Seminar, Friday May 31st
  • Image PradeepGaurs (via Shutterstock)Image PradeepGaurs (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, May 31st 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

Communal Sustainability:
A socio-material approach to elucidating the links between inequality
and the environment

Manisha Anantharaman

Assistant Professor

Sciences Po - CSO

Manisha AnantharamanHow do Bengaluru’s middle-class environmentalists envision and enact green practices and communities, and what consequences does this have for the (re)production of inequality in the city?

Based on a recently published book Recycling Class: The Contradictions of Inclusion in Urban Sustainability, this talk will draw on interviews, participant observation and community-engaged research methods to present detailed case studies of green lifestyle movements and communities articulating around mobility and waste in Bengaluru, India.

I develop the term communal sustainability to describe neighborhood-based interventions into the city’s waste metabolisms. I show how housewives, retired men, and other unlikely suspects deploy affective and reproductive labor to change household behavior, build small-scale infrastructures, and convene collaborative systems of governance.
Examining communal sustainability through the lens of social reproduction theory, I reveal how the socially reproductive labor of middle-class women and the working poor produces zero-waste management as a form of sustainability. In its material solutions to environmental problems, communal sustainability mobilizes metabolic divisions of community that are gendered, classed, and casted; just as its symbolic registers portray only well-to-do sustainability practitioners as ecologically legitimate, othering the poor and deepening stigmas over poverty.
At the same time, I caution that there are limits to seeing communal sustainability solely as a site for the reproduction of material and symbolic difference. What is also operative here is a sense of empowerment, a building of shared identity, and an enactment of politics for those engaged in this work, which cannot be reduced to narrow economism or top-down governmentalization. Rather, under some conditions, communal sustainability, with its metabolic reliance on volunteer effort and manual labor, undermines neoliberal agendas and opens new avenues for political participation by marginalized groups in urban environmental politics.

To find out more about Manisha Ananthatraman  

 Open Seminar. Please register here to join us!

La culture du consentement

Recompositions des rapports de genre et de la sexualité depuis MeToo
Soutenance de thèse de Rébecca Lévy-Guillain
  • Image 4 MP production (via Shutterstock)Image 4 MP production (via Shutterstock)

Soutenance de la thèse La culture du consentement : Recompositions des rapports de genre et de la sexualité depuis MeToo, par Rébecca Lévy-Guillain, à Sciences Po, le mardi 11 juin 2024, 14h30. 

Composition du jury :
Marie Bergström, chargée de recherche INED (codirectrice)
Sébastien Chauvin, professeur associé, Université de Lausanne
Marta Domínguez-Folgueras, associate professor, Sciences Po - CRIS (codirectrice)
Christophe Giraud, professeur des universités, Université Paris Cité (rapporteur)
Camille Masclet, chargée de recherche, CNRS/EHESS/CESSP
Emmanuelle Santelli, directrice de recherche, CNRS-Centre Max Weber (rapportrice)

Rébecca Lévy-Guillain (Image Studio Cabrelli)Depuis le début du moment MeToo, la question du consentement sexuel devient centrale dans les débats publics et s’accompagne de la diffusion d’un modèle de « bonne » sexualité égalitaire, imprégné par les savoirs féministes et thérapeutiques. La sexualité et les rapports de genre s’en trouvent-ils transformés ?

Au croisement de la sociologie du genre, de la sexualité et de la socialisation, et à partir de l’analyse d’un corpus de sources écrites et de la conduite de 130 entretiens biographiques auprès de femmes et d’hommes âgé.es de 18 à 65 ans issu.es de milieux sociaux différents, cette thèse s’intéresse aux réceptions individuelles socialement différenciées de la morale sexuelle égalitaire.

Celles et ceux qui s’approprient la morale sexuelle égalitaire ont en commun d’avoir vécu des violences symboliques dont l’effet est intense ou durable, de trouver légitimes les savoirs féministes et thérapeutiques, et de se trouver dans des configurations relationnelles rendant possible le changement de leurs représentations.
Bien que les hommes continuent de prendre les initiatives et que les femmes parviennent difficilement à dire non, elles et ils problématisent dorénavant l’inadéquation entre leurs pratiques et leurs aspirations morales.
Les hommes résolvent rapidement cette dissonance et déploient des stratégies de présentation de soi pourvoyeuses de prestige. Les femmes en revanche s’engagent dans des spirales d’autodévalorisation qui limitent leur latitude d’action et cherchent activement à mettre en cohérence leurs conduites sexuelles avec leur idéologie. Le contrôle de la sexualité féminine ainsi que les inégalités de genre sont alors reconduits sous de nouvelles formes.

Accès aux personnes invitées et publics internes à Sciences Po.Le désir est un sport de combat, éditions Arkhé

Rébécca Lévy-Guillain est l'auteure de l'ouvrage Le désir est un sport de combat aux éditions Arkhé. 

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Neighbourhood peer effects in school choice and variations by socioeconomic background and grade

Quentin Ramond, CRIS Scientific Seminar, May 24th
  • Image Lara Brow (via Shutterstock)Image Lara Brow (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, May 24th 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K011 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

Neighbourhood peer effects in school choice and variations
by socioeconomic background and grade

Quentin Ramon

Assistant Professor
Universidad Mayor (Santiago, Chile) - Center for Economics and Social Policy
Adjunct Researcher
Center for Social Conflict and Cohesion Studies (COES)

Quentin RamondThis presentation examines the extent to which neighbourhood peers influence school choice, and whether this effect varies according to socioeconomic background and grade.
Using geocoded administrative data from Chile, I build a unique longitudinal dataset linking four applicant cohorts (2020-2023) to their census tract and to their nearest neighbours and grademates who applied to the same grade the year before, which allows me to control for endogeneity issues when measuring peer effects. I estimate logistic regressions to analyse similarity in application as well as similarity in the ranking of these applications.

Results show that low socioeconomic status (SES) students are more likely to conform to their neighbours’ choice, particularly when those neighbours also come from socially disadvantaged backgrounds. Similarity in school choice is also higher at pre-school levels. Then, using propensity score matching methods, I found that conforming to low-SES neighbours’ school choice is associated with application and enrolment in lower-SES and lower-performing schools. Overall, I argue that geographically embedded social interactions influence the process of school choice and thereby contribute to sustaining school segregation, with potential far-reaching consequences for the reproduction of social inequality.

The results also stress the need for public policies to consider local social interactions to mitigate spatial and social disparities in educational opportunities.

To find out more about Quentin Ramond

 Open Seminar. Please register here to join us!

The emergence of health gaps in early life: the role of multidomain childhood deprivation

Lidia Panico
CRIS Seminar, Friday May 17th
  • Image Studio Romantic (via Shutterstock)Image Studio Romantic (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, May 17th 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

The emergence of health gaps in early life:
the role of multidomain childhood deprivation

Lidia Panico

Professeure des Universités, Sciences Po - CRIS

Lidia PanicoEvidence suggests that inequalities in health begin from the starting gate and that early childhood is crucial to understand the production of health inequalities in later life. A body of research has put an emphasis on multi-domain deprivation as a tool to better understand the lived experience of childhood disadvantage, rather than classic measures such as income poverty. However, the health inequalities literature still uses relatively simple concepts of (parental) “socio-economic status”, such as income, to describe health gaps in the early years.

In previous work, we proposed a conceptual framework and methods to construct multidomain, longitudinal indicators of early childhood deprivation (see below). In this paper, we apply these indicators to describe how multidomain deprivation links to early health. We will present results from the nationally representative French birth cohort Elfe, as well as preliminary results with harmonized data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth cohort (ECLS-B) and the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to examine whether different national settings produce different patterns of inequalities across countries.

 Open Seminar. Please register here to join us!

From Workplace to Home: How Maternal Job Demands affect Cognitive and Non-cognitive Early Child Development

Gundula Zoch
CRIS Seminar, Friday May 3rd
  • Image santypan (via Shutterstock)Image santypan (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, May 3rd 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

From Workplace to Home:
How Maternal Job Demands affect Cognitive and Non-cognitive
Early Child Development

Gundula Zoch

Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of Oldenburg
Research Fellow, Leibniz Institute for Educational Trajectories, Bamberg

Increased maternal employment and modernised labour market have altered the physical and psychological challenges for mothers, yet, evidence on the role of job demands for child development remains limited.

This presentation provides initial evidence whether and how maternal job demands are associated with early child development in Germany.

Drawing on theories on early dynamic skill production, status attainment, time-availability and work-family conflict, we formulate contrasting hypotheses on the link between higher job strain and child development as well as its mediators and moderators.

We utilize longitudinal data from the Newborn Cohort of the National Educational Panel Study, and its link with administrative records on mothers’ employment biographies (NEPS-SC1-ADIAB, person-years ≈ 5300) and the BIBB/BAuA-job-exposure matrix, measuring occupational physical and psychosocial work strain.

We examine cognitive as well as non-cognitive child development during the first ten years after birth using linear regressions, thereby exploring potential mediating factors such as parent-child interaction and quality.

Finally, we exploit occupational changes in our longitudinal data and assess the impact of altered job demands on child development over time using fixed-effects models.

To find out more (personal website)

 Open Seminar. Please register here to join us!

Du désir de l'accès aux biens culturels...

Que conclure du Pass Culture ?
Philippe Coulangeon
  • Voix croisées sur l'économie - Philippe CoulangeonVoix croisées sur l'économie - Philippe Coulangeon

Que conclure du Pass Culture ?

Voix croisées sur l'économie, podcast, 3 mars, 34 minutes

En écoute sur la plateforme Spotify

Cet épisode animé par Aurélie Lachkar reçoit Philippe Coulangeon et Françoise Benhamou (Professeure d'économie, Présidente du Cercle des économistes).

Le Pass culture, inspiré d'un précédent italien, est l'une des réalisations phare de la politique culturelle menée sous les gouvernements d'Emmanuel Macron. Doté de 260 millions d'euros, il comporte deux volets, individuel et social. Il permet d'acheter des biens culturels pour les jeunes, et de financer des projets d'éducation artistique et culturelle dans le cadre scolaire. Mais quels sont ses objectifs, qu'en est-il de son usage, de son impact ? Ces questions font débat.

Conçu pour favoriser l'accès des jeunes à la culture pour renforcer et diversifer les pratiques culturelles sur tout le territoire, il prête à controverse dès que l'on aborde la question de son évaluation, plusieurs notions étant sujette à interprêtation dans ce domaine.

Les chercheurs sont donc invités à poser les termes du débat :

  • Le frein majeur pour accèder à l'offre culturelle est-il d'ordre financier ? Le Pass est-il une incitation à la pratique culturelle ?
  • Quels sont les autres facteurs qui déterminent ces usages, consommations et pratiques ? Où sont les barrières ?
  • Quelles sont les limites d'une politique culturelle tournée vers la demande ?
  • Quelle prise en compte des inégalités liées à la socialisation familiale et celles liées à la médiation de l'accès aux biens culturels ?
  • Y-a-t'il des inégalités territoriales ?
  • Quels dispositifs d'accompagnement (y compris une offre de transport) ?
  • Quels effets d'aubaine ? Faut-il questionner son aspect universel ?
  • Que dire des choix faits par les jeunes ? Le Manga superstar... Quels sont les producteurs qui bénéficient indirectement de ces subventions ? Est-ce justifié ?
  • Le Pass permet il une légitimation, une labellisation, de produits et pratiques jusque là non prises en compte par la politique culturelle ?
  • Qu'apporte le nouveau volet orienté vers le cadre scolaire ? Est-ce une évolution correctrice ? S'orienter vers le système éducatif, est-ce un tournant historique ?
  • Son coût est-il excessif ? Le Pass est-il pérenne, notamment s'il y a plus de demandes ?

Philippe Coulangeon amène des éléments de réflexion sur la difficulté d'appréhender par les pouvoirs publics le "désir de biens culturels" et la nécessité d'une évaluation et d'une expérimentation pour quantifier finement et sur le long terme (y compris à l'âge adulte) les effets induits par ce dispositif.

Transition écologique, justice et inégalités sociales

Le parcours pionnier de James K. Boyce, co-lauréat du Prix GiRA
  • GiRA with James K. Boyce (image B. Corminboeuf, Sciences Po - CRIS)GiRA with James K. Boyce (image B. Corminboeuf, Sciences Po - CRIS)

Dans le cadre de la première remise du Global Inequality Research Award (GiRA), James K. Boyce, professeur émérite en économie à l’Université du Massachusetts à Amherst, était l'invité de Sciences Po le 5 avril. L’occasion de revenir sur sa carrière, ses travaux pionniers dans la compréhension des liens entre dégradations environnementales et inégalités sociales et ses outils conceptuels pour entrer en action.

James Boyce est co-lauréat de ce prix porté par le CRIS et le World Inequality Lab, aux-côtés de Bina Agarwal, Professeure en développement économique et environnement à l'Université de Manchester qui sera à son tour invitée début 2025.

Pendant plus de deux heures, l'économiste est revenu sur ses intuitions puis les nombreux travaux qu'il a fallu mener pour démontrer le lien entre les problématiques environnementales - pollutions, changement climatique, disparition de la biodiversité par exemple - et celles des inégalités sociales. Ce sont les populations pauvres, vulnérables, sous-représentées politiquement qui en sont les premières victimes et supportent les coûts des atteintes environnementales. Ses travaux se basent sur des indicateurs de mesure des revenus et des richesses, croisés avec les origines raciales et ethniques de populations géolocalisées. Diverses modalités comme le genre, le taux d'alphabétisation et de scolarisation, des données de santé ou fiscales y sont ajoutées.  

Le chercheur est le témoin et l'acteur d'une lente évolution des mentalités, que ce soit au niveau scientifique (les économistes se sont longtemps polarisés sur la croissance, et les environnementalistes sur la relation homme / nature), politique ou sociétal. Dans les années 80-90, désintérêt et scepticisme dominent, avant la production dans les années 2000 de données officielles sur les dégradations environnementales, et l'identification des zones à risque pour les habitants (après la catastrophe chimique de Bhopal notamment).

James K. Boyce revient sur son parcours institutionnel de chercheur : seul étudiant en 1983 d'un nouveau cours sur l'économie de l'environnement pendant son doctorat à Oxford ; un de ses premiers articles marquant, Inequality as a Cause of Environmental Degradation écrit en 1994 après une bourse Fulbright au Costa-Rica ; son cours d'économie politique de l'environnement lorsqu'il est nommé à l'Université du Massachussets ou les actions de protection de l'environnement au bénéfice de populations locales, menées par la Fondation Ford. 

Tout au long de sa présentation l'orateur illustre ses propos d'exemples qui nous permettent de saisir les enjeux : les 4 millions de femmes décédées chaque année par la pollution de leurs foyers (données OMS) ; les flux d'exportation de déchets des pays riches vers les pays pauvres ; le dilemme du consommateur qui privilégie les produits à prix bas nocifs pour l'environnement ; le programme d'immersion de blocs de béton au large de l'Inde pour empêcher les chalutiers d'épuiser les ressources halieutiques et créer un nouveau éco-système ;  la réforme agraire en Asie de l'Est qui permet de redistribuer des terres confisquées par une oligarchie foncière.
James K. Boyce regrette toutefois de ne pas avoir toujours pu convaincre des pratiques nocives des firmes agro-alimentaires, semenciers ou fabricants de produits phyto-sanitaires et des tenants d'une agriculture productiviste favorisant l'érosion génétique. 

Au milieu des années 2000, les travaux de James K. Boyce peuvent être appréhendés sous le concept de justice environnementale. Il suggère un droit pour une égalité d'accès à un environnement propre et sain, un respect des ressources naturelles et une répartition équitable des dividendes tirés de leur exploitation.
La source d'inspiration est Peter Barnes, ancien journaliste puis entrepreneur dans l’énergie solaire, promoteur du Sky Trust, un dispositif calqué sur le Fonds permanent de l’Alaska. Ce dispositif bénéficie depuis les années 80 à tous les habitants de cet État. Entre 1000 et 2000 $ annuels sont versés en échange de l'expoitation des forages pétroliers car les ressources naturelles de l’Alaska appartiennent à tous les Alaskiens, notamment les Amérindiens.
Le Sky Trust est baptisé “Dividendes Carbone”. Il est basé sur des permis à polluer mis aux enchères permettant de faire entrer ce carbone fossile dans l’économie et de redistribuer les revenus de ces permis aux habitants. Des économistes ont validé l’impact distributif, très progressif, du dispositif, en Chine puis aux États-Unis. Certes, les producteurs répercutent le coût des taxes sur les prix de vente des produits, mais ce sont les gros consommateurs, ceux à forte empreinte carbone qui sont exposés. Les petits consommateurs - notamment en raison de leur faible pouvoir d'achat - sont bénéficiaires de la redistribution des revenus.
Deux projets de loi sont déposés au Congrès, à Washington en 2009 pour mettre en place un système d'échange de quotas d'émission (un marché carbone, comme en Europe), plus un dispositif de fléchage de 25% des recettes vers les énergies propres. Ils n’ont hélas jamais abouti, notamment du fait de la puissance des entreprises utilisant des combustibles fossiles et de la frilosité des politiques.

Un autre concept est développé par James K. Boyce, celui de la propriété universelle. La biosphère peut être considérée comme un bien appartenant à tous. En rationnant, limitant son usage, on peut en tirer des revenus répartis entre tous. Le système financier lui-même pourrait générer des revenus sur les mouvements de capitaux et avoir des effets incitatifs pour limiter l’utilisation des ressources rares. La propriété universelle s’adresse aux individus, pas aux états, elle est inaliénable.

En conclusion, James K. Boyce a consacré toute sa carrière scientifique à répondre aux 2 grands défis de notre époque : inverser, sinon arrêter, la dégradation de l’environnement, notamment du climat et réduire les inégalités.
Il affirme avec conviction qu’il est possible de combiner les deux puisque les deux vont de pair.

En complément

3 questions à James K. Boyce (en anglais, 3 min.)

Focusing in on life course processes to understand how racism patterns ethnic inequities in health

Laia Becares, CRIS Scientific Seminar, Friday, April 26th
  • Image Ink Drop (via Shutterstock)Image Ink Drop (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, April 26th 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

Focusing in on life course processes to understand
how racism patterns ethnic inequities in health

Laia Becares

Professor, King's College London

 

Laia BecaresEthnic inequalities in health are entrenched and persistent in the UK and elsewhere.

This seminar explores the role of racism, experienced over the life course, in structuring ethnic inequalities in health.

Anchored around key tenets of life course theory, this presentation will discuss findings from multiple studies that centre racism as the root cause of ethnic inequalities, exploring life course mechanisms that pattern stark ethnic inequities in later life.

 Open Seminar. Please register here to join us!

Le désir est un sport de combat

Rébecca Lévy-Guillain
  • Image Cool_photo (via Shutterstock)Image Cool_photo (via Shutterstock)

Le désir est un sport de combat

Rébecca Lévy-Guillain

240 p., isbn 978-2383411260 (imprimé ou Ebook), février 2024

Lien vers l'éditeur Arkhé

Rébecca Lévy-Guillain, Image: Studio CabrelliLes discordances liées à l’affaiblissement du désir sexuel chez les femmes et à sa persistance chez les hommes donnent lieu à des conflits conjugaux au sein des couples, déclenchant parfois ruptures et divorces.
Fondé sur des entretiens biographiques conduits auprès de 130 femmes et hommes âgé.es de 18 à 65 ans, cet ouvrage propose une analyse sociologique des discordances de désir au sein des couples hétérosexuels.

Le désir est un sport de combat - Arkhé éditeurDepuis ces dernières décennies et notamment depuis le début du moment MeToo, les approches envisageant les différences de désir sous le prisme de la domination masculine se diffusent : les femmes n’auraient naturellement pas moins de désir mais elles seraient contraintes par la société. Dans ce contexte, les femmes, en particulier celles qui appartiennent aux nouvelles générations ou à la bourgeoisie culturelle, sont de plus en plus nombreuses à considérer leurs rapports sexuels non désirés comme un indicateur de leur soumission et font donc du respect de leur désir une exigence éthique.
Pour les hommes toutefois, l’accès à la sexualité est à la fois un gage de leur appartenance au groupe des hommes, un vecteur de création d’intimité (et donc un moyen de lutter contre le sentiment de solitude) et une façon de faire l’expérience d’émotions codées comme positives.

Au sein du couple, l’effritement du désir féminin est interprété comme un signe de désamour et un indicateur de mauvaise santé conjugale. Cependant, la régularité sociale d’une telle configuration (moindre désir des femmes par rapport à leurs partenaires) invite à se défaire d’une lecture purement individuelle et contextuelle. Sans nier le rôle de facteurs interpersonnels, propres aux constructions conjugales individuelles, cet ouvrage déplace le regard vers des facteurs structurels en examinant les processus sociaux à l’œuvre. Il montre notamment comment l’apprentissage du désir se décline différemment pour les femmes et pour les hommes, que ce soit au cours de l’enfance ou après l’entrée dans l’âge adulte.
L’ouvrage met par ailleurs au jour plusieurs facteurs sociaux contribuant à expliquer pourquoi ces discordances de désir au sein des couples sont vécues comme étant éminemment problématiques par les femmes et par les hommes.

Image : Studio Cabrelli

Is high culture delegitimized?

Cohort variations in participation rates in the arts in France and the United States (1973-2018)
Stéphane Dorin, Philippe Coulangeon - CRIS Seminar, Friday April 12th
  • Image Stock for You (via Shutterstock)Image Stock for You (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, April 12th 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

Is high culture delegitimized?
Cohort variations in participation rates in the arts in France and the United States (1973-2018)

Stéphane Dorin

Professor, University of Limoges

Philippe Coulangeon

Senior Scientist, CNRS, Sciences Po - CRIS

Stéphane DorinPhilippe Coulangeon

This study examines the decline in highbrow cultural participation since the last decades of the 20th century with regard to the debates and cross-fertilization of European, especially French, and American cultural sociology.

We use data from four decades of large-scale surveys in France and the US to compare the two countries with regard to the role of high culture in social stratification and the relation of more recent cohorts to what is usually considered 'high culture.' (i.e., the most institutionalized and broadly recognized forms of prestigious culture throughout Europe and the Americas).

Focusing on two emblematic and debated high culture practices – reading literature and attending classical music concerts – we implemented the APC-I model (Luo and Hodges, 2022) to disentangle the age, period, and cohort dimensions of the observed temporal change. We identified significant inter-cohort differences and intra-cohort dynamics in the evolution of participation in high culture in both the US and France, even though educational attainment remains a major driving factor of high culture participation rates.

These cohort effects reflect the time lag observed in the chronology of secondary education expansion in the two countries. However, they are stronger in France, and there are two different patterns for older cohorts between the two countries, whereas younger cohorts tend to converge in their declining participation rate in artistic activities.

We also address the sociological question of cohort behavior and identify various patterns of intra-cohort life course dynamics that both confirm and challenge the usual notions of temporal dynamics of taste formation and cultural participation, beyond the assumption of constant and additive cohort effects.

The comparison between the two countries highlights the changing definition of cultural capital over time and place and its relationship to educational expansion, which leads us to challenge the idea of a decline in the arts as the major form of cultural capital in France and the US.

 Open Seminar. Please register here to join us!

Enquête sur l'articulation entre handicap et genre sur le marché de l'emploi en France

Soutenance de thèse
Mathéa Boudinet
  • Image AnnaStills (via Shutterstock)Image AnnaStills (via Shutterstock)

Quand le genre travaille le handicap :
enquête sur l'articulation entre handicap et genre sur le marché de l'emploi en France

Soutenance de thèse de Mathéa Boudinet le 14 mai 2024 à Sciences Po

Membres du jury : Pierre Brasseur (Université Libre de Bruxelles - METICES), Didier Demazière (Sciences Po - CSO), Aude Lejeune (Université de Lille - CERAPS), Sophie Pochic (ENS - Centre Maurice Halbwachs), Anne Revillard (Directrice de recherche, Sciences Po - CRIS & LIEPP), Maud Simonet (Université Paris Nanterre - IDHES).

Mathéa Boudinet (CRIS)Cette thèse s’intéresse aux situations des femmes handicapées sur le marché de l’emploi en France.  Qu’implique l’appartenance à plusieurs catégories dominées dans les rapports sociaux, sur les positions occupées sur le marché de l’emploi ? Elle s’inscrit dans la sociologie de l’emploi, du genre, du handicap et au champ des recherches consacré à l’articulation des temps sociaux.

La littérature en sociologie a principalement étudié les inégalités professionnelles liées au genre et au handicap de manière séparée, et, quand elle croise explicitement ces variables, elle se divise quant à la manière de qualifier les positions des femmes handicapées : « double discrimination » ? Désavantages liés au handicap tellement importants et structurants que les inégalités de genre sont quasiment inexistantes ?

La thèse étudie la manière dont s’articulent concrètement genre et handicap sur le marché de l’emploi et en emploi, et permet de distinguer les mécanismes sociaux s’appliquant de manière différenciée à la population handicapée ou féminine, de ceux qui seraient spécifiques aux femmes handicapées.

Elle s’appuie sur des méthodes mixtes, croisant l’exploitation de 51 entretiens biographiques individuels auprès de femmes et hommes ayant une déficience visuelle, motrice ou une maladie chroniques, et l’analyse de la vague 2018 de l’enquête INSEE « Emploi en continu ».

La thèse souligne l’intérêt d’analyser les situations professionnelles des personnes handicapées en termes d’articulation des temps sociaux, et met en lumière la prégnance de formes de travail supplémentaires que celles-ci doivent gérer : le travail de santé - l’ensemble des activités contraignantes relatives aux soins et à la gestion de la santé à une échelle individuelle - et le travail de handicap, qui correspond aux activités en lien avec la dimension sociale du handicap, notamment l’adaptation de la personne aux contraintes imposées par son environnement. L’investissement des personnes handicapées dans le travail rémunéré se module selon l’importance que prennent ces deux formes de travail en plus à effectuer pour elles, mais, pour les femmes handicapées, également par le travail domestique induit par la conjugalité et la parentalité. Leur surreprésentation dans l’inactivité économique et le temps partiel s’explique en partie par les effets de la division sexuée du travail.

La thèse met également en lumière les phénomènes de ségrégation horizontales et verticales qui structurent l’emploi des personnes handicapées par rapport aux personnes valides, mais également en fonction du genre au sein de ce groupe. Les personnes handicapées se concentrent plus dans des emplois situés en bas de l’échelle sociale, et leur répartition est cohérente selon le genre : les femmes handicapées sont principalement des employées, et les hommes des ouvriers. En termes de partitions verticales, les femmes handicapées sont désavantagées par rapport aux hommes handicapés, et aux hommes et femmes valides, que ce soit dans l’accès aux professions et catégories professionnelles les plus hautes (cadres, chef-fes d’entreprise, professions intellectuelles supérieures), ou dans l’accès aux responsabilités d’encadrement.

Certaines formes de discriminations en lien avec le handicap se retrouvent à la fois chez les hommes et les femmes handicapées, comme les licenciements, les discriminations à l’embauche, les insultes, ou les refus de promotions. Ces traitements inégalitaires se superposent à ceux relatifs à la race pour les personnes racisées. Cependant, certaines discriminations prennent des formes spécifiques en fonction du genre, et particulièrement du croisement entre genre et handicap. En plus des expériences sexistes « classiques » dont font l’objet l’ensemble des femmes (harcèlement sexuel, inégalités de salaires, violences conjugales), les femmes handicapées font l’objet de stéréotypes au croisement du genre et du handicap (figure de femmes « folles », soupçon d’incompétence). De plus, leurs parcours professionnels sont freinés par leur inadéquation aux critères d’évaluation masculins et valides, et par leur mobilisation des politiques d’aménagements relatives à la maternité et aux aménagements de poste. Enfin, les structures du service public de l’emploi semblent moins adaptées à ce public, du fait de leur représentation implicitement masculine de l’usager-ère typique, et de la prégnance des représentations genrées traditionnelles en termes de division sexuée du travail.

La thèse contribue à une sociologie de l’intersectionnalité. Elle met en lumière l’intériorisation des systèmes de domination par les hommes et femmes handicapées, qui se manifestent notamment par des phénomènes d’euphémisation des discriminations en lien avec le genre et le handicap et par le peu de recours au droit. De plus, ce travail montre que les interprétations en termes d’intersection sont rares dans les discours des personnes handicapées, et que le handicap semble constituer le principal facteur explicatif des inégalités vécues sur le marché de l’emploi pour cette population.

Les soutenances sont réservées aux personnes invitées et aux publics internes de Sciences Po (étudiants, enseignants, chercheurs, salariés).

Socioemotional Development during Adolescence: Evidence from a Large Macro Shock

Ghazala Azmat
CRIS Scientific Seminar, April 5th 2024
  • Image Fizkès (via Shutterstock)Image Fizkès (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, April 5th 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

Socioemotional Development during Adolescence:
Evidence from a Large Macro Shock

Ghazala Azmat

Professeure des Universités
Sciences - Po, Department of Economics

(joint with Katja Kaufmann and Yasemin Ozdemir)

Ghazala AzmatWe take advantage of a large quasi-exogenous shock to study the development of socioemotional skills during early adolescence and their links to long-term behavior and labor market outlook. Using novel, longitudinal, microdata on cohorts of East German adolescents before and after a large macro shock (the German Reunification), we causally estimate the impact on socioemotional skills (self-confidence and impulse control), finding negative effects in the short run.
These effects are substantially larger among those affected by the shock in early adolescence (13/14 years old), relative to later adolescence (16/17 years old). Changes in socioemotional skills have a lasting (negative) impact on them as adults, especially among those affected early in their adolescence, in terms of externalizing behavior (e.g., physical fighting), behavioral control problems (i.e., substance abuse), internalizing behavior (i.e., mental health) and in their (labor-market) optimism and expectations.
This study highlights the permanent effects of uncertainty on socioemotional skills during formative years.

To learn more about Ghazala AZMAT, consult her website

Open Seminar. Please register here to join us!

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Are occupations “bundles of skills”? Identifying latent skill profiles in the labor market using topic modeling

Marie Labussière
CRIS Seminar, Friday March 29th
  • Image Robert Kneschke (via Shutterstock)Image Robert Kneschke (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, March 29th 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

Are occupations “bundles of skills”?
Identifying latent skill profiles in the labor market using topic modeling

Marie Labussière

Postdoctoral researcher
University of Amsterdam, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences

Marie Labussière Occupations are a central unit for understanding inequalities in the labor market. In the literature, it is often assumed that workers in different occupations obtain different labor market returns because they perform different skills and tasks. However, this premise that occupations form distinct bundles of skills has never been empirically tested.

In this study (co-authored with Thijs Bol), we use a unique dataset of millions of online job postings in the United Kingdom to map the skill structure of the labor market and analyze its relationship to existing occupational classifications.

While previous literature has often defined skills as unidimensional and independent factors, we conceptualize and operationalize the notion of "skill profile", which refers to the combination of general and specialized skills that workers are required to master for their jobs.
Using topic modeling on highly detailed job skill requirements, we identify the skill profiles of job postings and analyze the extent to which they vary within and between occupational categories.

Our results reveal both overlap in skill content between occupations and significant heterogeneity within occupations, even using the detailed 3-digit occupational classification. These findings challenge the often assumed role of occupations as distinct bundles of skills, and instead offer new perspectives for analyzing labor market stratification.

Open Seminar. Please register here to join us!

Belonging to the nation, belonging to Europe?

Maricia Fischer-Souan
  • Image Lightspring (via Shutterstock)Image Lightspring (via Shutterstock)

Belonging to the nation, belonging to Europe?
Varieties of particularism and universalism in migrant identity negotiation

Maricia Fischer-Souan
Marie Skłodowska-Curie Post-doctoral Fellow
CRIS & CÉRIUM (Université de Montréal)

Journal of Contemporary European Studies
Published online 2024, February 8th
doi: 10.1080/14782804.2024.2311200 (Taylor & Francis Online)

Maricia Fischer-SouanThis article focuses on the relationship between migrants’ identification with the national (destination) community and European identification. How first-generation ‘immigrant patriots’, who consider themselves to be French, British, or Spanish (regardless of formal citizenship status) relate to European identity.

Through a series of case studies of South Asian, North African, and South American migrants’ identity narratives in the metropolitan areas of Paris, Madrid, and London, Maricia Fischer-Souan  argues that immigrant relationships to Europe vary a great deal. In addition, she finds that (dis)inclinations toward the supranational dimension have a lot to do with how migrants achieve and conceive of belonging in the new homeland in the first place.
Beginning with the ambivalent figure of the postcolonial migrant subject as a starting point for the analysis, she sketches out two different pathways toward inclusion at the (sub)national level that produce different relationships to the supranational level. One involves particularistic and culturally-defined orientations to belonging, while the other takes a universalistic and civic-based understanding of membership. Whether or not Europe is included in the identity equation depends on whether the conception of European membership is coherent with the identity work undertaken to achieve a sense of national belonging.

An important contribution of this article is to highlight how elements of national (host society) cultural repertoires resonate with migrant vocabularies of belonging, yet – crucially – are filtered by experiences and processes of racialization and Othering.

Consciousness and experience of stigmatisation and exclusion can be offset by personal narratives of postcolonial cultural proximity. European colonial legacies can thus be construed in terms of cultural and human connections, in addition to oppression and violence. Whether postcolonial migrants view these historical connections as being undermined or not by intra-EU connections may depend on the ways in which they achieve a sense of belonging with respect to their society of adoption.

Do Children Perform Better in Religious Schools?

Christiaan Monden (Oxford University)
CRIS Scientific Seminar, March 22nd 2024
  • Image Yakobchuk Viacheslav (via Shutterstock)Image Yakobchuk Viacheslav (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, March 22th 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

Do Children Perform Better in Religious Schools?

Christiaan Monden

Professor of Sociology and Demography
University of Oxford and Nuffield College

Christiaan Monden Religious schools enjoy a high academic reputation among parents in many societies. Previous studies that assessed the effect of religious schools mostly focused on Catholic schools and were conducted in countries where religious schools are private or where they charge fees and set admission criteria. As a result, the effect of religious schooling could not be separated from the effect of private schooling.

We contribute to the literature by studying the effect of six most prominent religious school denominations in the Netherlands, a country in which both public and religious schools have been publicly funded since 1917, schooling is free of charge and admission is independent of the child’s religious or ideological character.

We use Dutch data that include the entire population of children born between 1999 and 2007.

Combining postcode fixed effects models with treatment effect bounds, we find that children in religious schools outperform children in public schools on a high-stakes standardized test in primary education. The benefits of primary religious schooling were largest for children in Orthodox Protestant, Islamic and Hindu schools, which mostly attract children from a disadvantaged socioeconomic background.

However, the influence of religious schooling fades out by the end of secondary education.

Please register here to join us!

Conférence James K. Boyce

Co-lauréat du GiRA - Global Inequality Research Awards
Vendredi 5 avril 2024, 19h15
  • Bina Agarwal & James K. BoyceBina Agarwal & James K. Boyce

L’étude des inégalités globales a connu ces dernières décennies un essor remarquable : inégalités économiques, sociales et environnementales ont fait l’objet de travaux théoriques et empiriques de plus en plus nombreux, visibles et influents partout dans le monde. Le Laboratoire sur les inégalités mondiales (World Inequality Lab) et le Centre de Recherche sur les Inégalités Sociales (CRIS) s’associent pour la première édition du Global Inequality Research Award (GiRA). Remis tous les 2 ans, il distingue des chercheuses et chercheurs de toutes disciplines, ayant contribué de manière décisive à la compréhension des inégalités globales.

Le GiRA valorise des travaux majeurs dans le domaine des inégalités mondiales comprenant deux dimensions clés : des recherches sur les inégalités menées aux quatre coins du monde ; et le traitement de l’inégalité en tant qu’objet complexe qu'il convient d'aborder sous tous les angles pour être pleinement appréhendé, compris et finalement atténué.

Pour cette première édition, le prix GiRA est décerné conjointement à Bina Argawal et James K. Boyce pour leurs travaux essentiels dans le champ des inégalités sociales et environnementales.

Bina Agarwal
Bina Agarwal
(Professeure en développement économique et environnement, Université de Manchester), est l’auteure de travaux pionniers sur les inégalités de genre, la gouvernance environnementale, l’environnementalisme féministe et les inégalités environnementales.

James K. BoyceJames K. Boyce (Professeur émérite en économie, Université du Massachusetts à Amherst) est l’auteur de travaux fondateurs sur les relations entre inégalités sociales et dégradations environnementales et a largement contribué à structurer le champ de l’économie politique de l’environnement.

Les deux lauréats sont invités à recevoir leur prix et à donner un aperçu de la portée de leurs travaux lors d’une conférence à Paris, respectivement à l’automne et au printemps 2024, organisée en lien avec l’initiative Social-Ecological Transitions (SET) de Sciences Po.

James Boyce recevra le prix GiRA le vendredi 5 avril 2024 à Sciences Po en Amphithéâtre Claude Erignac à 19h15 et dressera un panorama de ses travaux, 30 ans après la parution de "Inequality as a cause of environmental degradation (pdf, 159 ko)".
La conférence sera introduite par Lucas Chancel et Éloi Laurent.
L’entrée est libre dans la limite des places disponibles. Inscription obligatoire pour les publics externes à Sciences Po.

Le comité scientifique de la première édition du Prix GiRA est composé de Lucas Chancel (Sciences Po/CNRS, CRIS and World Inequality Lab, Paris School of Economics), Éloi Laurent (Sciences Po/OFCE), Thomas Piketty (EHESS & World Inequality Lab, Paris School of Economics) et Mirna Safi (Sciences Po/CNRS, CRIS).

Cette conférence est organisée dans le cadre de l’initiative SET (Social-Ecological Transitions) portée par l’OFCE, le CEE et le CSO, qui vise à encourager les collaborations entre chercheur(e)s travaillant à la frontière des questions sociales et environnementales, au-delà des limites disciplinaires ou institutionnelles. En savoir plus sur la SET

They have Black in their blood: Exploring how genetic ancestry tests affect racial appraisals and classifications

Marissa Thompson, CRIS Seminar, Friday, March 15th
  • Image Hyejin Kang (via Shutterstock)Image Hyejin Kang (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, March 15th 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

They have Black in their blood:
Exploring how genetic ancestry tests affect racial appraisals and classifications

Marissa E. Thompson

Assistant Professor of Sociology at Columbia University

Marissa E. ThompsonHow do genetic ancestry tests (GATs) affect how Black Americans decide when others can – or cannot – identify as Black?

This study explores the role of GATs in shaping racial appraisal and classification logics.
Using a pre-registered nationally representative survey experiment that integrates causal inference with computational text analysis, we disentangle how ancestry (as measured by a GAT) affects how U.S.-born Black Americans draw boundaries around group membership and how these effects vary across setting and prior identification.

We find that, though higher levels of Sub-Saharan African ancestry predict higher likelihoods of approval and classification as Black, even individuals with low levels of such ancestry are likely to have their self-identification validated by respondents, consistent with the practice of hypodescent.
Furthermore, ancestry treatment effects are primarily mediated by perceptions of the integrity of the individual’s self-identification, suggesting that respondents believe there exists an underlying legitimate and honest way to identify that is partially based on one’s GAT result.
However, we also find that the aspects that affect approval and evaluations differ from those that affect classification; the ways that respondents selectively integrate different sources of information, including ancestry, occurs via a dual appraisal and classification process which we term racial contextualism.

Please register here to join us!

The Startup Nation Paradox:

How the French Welfare State Amplifies Gender Inequalities
Jen Schradie, CRIS Seminar, March 8th
  • Image OPOLJA (via Shutterstock) Image OPOLJA (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, March 8th 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

The Startup Nation Paradox:
How the French Welfare State Amplifies Gender Inequalities

Jen Schradie

Assistant Professor, Sciences Po - CRIS

Jen Schradie (image Alexis Lecomte / Sciences Po)Does the welfare state paradox apply to the startup tech sector? If so, how?

This theory posits that welfare states improve gender equality but not with leadership positions because women are perceived to overuse state-supported family leave policies. At the same time, digital technology was supposed to flatten societal differences. An early view of the dot-com era was that anyone with a novel idea or a computer could launch a startup. This Silicon Valley Ideology suggests that Internet technology can help overcome previous work-place hierarchies and inequalities because the playing field is more level in a networked capitalist society.

In this multi-method analysis of the French digital startup ecosystem, I find that the welfare state paradox does not operate with the tech sector in the same way as with existing corporate structures. Instead, the French state, in this case, indirectly benefits men more than women but not at the point of hiring or promotion. Instead, the mechanism is through the welfare state itself: government-funded unemployment and childcare benefits. Men are more strategically able to leverage employment payments as an investor while women wrestle with whether or not to make use of these payments at all, and due to family responsibilities women cannot always take advantage of limited childcare options as a new entrepreneur. Simply, a mismatch has emerged between policy design and market forms, especially with less formal, higher-risk work arrangements. The result is a startup nation paradox.

Please register here to join us!

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Losing Your Apartment and Losing Your School:

Prevalence and Consequences of Eviction-Led Forced Mobility for School-Age Children in Houston
Peter Hepburn, CRIS Seminar, Friday March 1st
  • Image Vectorium (via Shutterstock)Image Vectorium (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, March 1st 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

Losing Your Apartment and Losing Your School:
Prevalence and Consequences of Eviction-Led Forced Mobility for School-Age Children in Houston

Peter Hepburn

Assistant Professor, Rutgers University - Newark
Research Fellow, Eviction Lab, Princeton University

Peter Hepburn (Rutgers University - Newark)Eviction cases are concentrated among renter households with children, yet we know little about the repercussions of these cases for those children’s educational trajectories. Despite a large body of literature on the negative impacts of residential and school mobility on children’s educational outcomes, little research has been conducted specifically on involuntary moves, which are the moves likely to be most consequential to students.

In this study, we link eviction records in Harris County, TX to educational records of students enrolled in the Houston Independent School District between 2002 and 2016.

At least thirteen thousand public school students in Houston lived in households that were filed against for eviction during this period, with many facing repeated eviction cases. We describe the socio-demographic characteristics of these students, the school moves precipitated by eviction filings, and the effect of both eviction filings and school moves on the risk of absences and suspensions.

Please register here to join us!

Choisir l'école privée ?

Autour de l'ouvrage "À l'école primaire catholique. Une éducation bien ordonnée"
Lundi 4 mars 2024, 17h30
  • Image olrat (via Shutterstock)Image olrat (via Shutterstock)

Choisir l'école privée ?
Discussion autour de l'ouvrage
À l'école primaire catholique: Une éducation bien ordonnée

Émilie Grisez, Éditions PUF, EAN 9782130836391, 2023, 280 p.

Lundi 4 mars 2024, 17h30-19h, Sciences Po, Campus Saint-Thomas, salle K011

Couverture "A l'école primaire", PUF

Cette table ronde propose une réflexion sur les dynamiques éducatives de l'enseignement privé catholique, en explorant l'ouvrage paru en novembre 2023 aux PUF "À l'école primaire catholique. Une éducation bien ordonnée".

L'autrice de l'ouvrage, Émilie Grisez, sera accompagnée de deux chercheuses en sociologie de l'éducation pour aborder les thèmes et questions traités dans l'ouvrage, en particulier dans les chapitres portant sur l'imbrication des instances de socialisation et le projet éducatif de l'école.

Elles examineront les spécificités de l'éducation dispensée dans les écoles privées catholiques, et notamment ce qui les distinguent des écoles publiques et d'autres écoles privées dites "alternatives".

Cette rencontre offrira une plateforme d'échange pour explorer diverses perspectives sur l'éducation privée et le rôle de l'enseignement catholique dans le paysage éducatif contemporain.

Emilie Grisez, Amelia Legavre et Audrey Chamboredon

Émilie Grisez est doctorante en sociologie au Centre de Recherche sur les Inégalités Sociales (CRIS, Sciences Po – CNRS) et à l’Institut national d’études démographiques (Ined). Ses recherches portent sur la sociologie de l’éducation, de l’enfance, de la famille, des religions et des inégalités.

Amelia Legavre est Maîtresse de conférences à l'Inspé de Bretagne, laboratoire CREAD.
Elle s'intéresse aux méthodes pédagogiques de la petite enfance à l'université, en particulier celles faisant appel à l'expression personnelle des enfants et des jeunes.Elle mobilise la sociologie du curriculum, des émotions, et de la famille. Sa thèse a porté sur les pédagogies dites "alternatives" au niveau du primaire, et leurs modalités visant à permettre aux élèves de partager leurs intérêts et leurs besoins au sein de la classe.

Audrey Chamboredon est doctorante en sociologie au Centre de Recherche sur les Inégalités Sociales (CRIS, Sciences Po – CNRS). Ses recherches portent sur l'articulation des choix résidentiels et scolaires des familles dans les métropoles de Lille et Toulouse.

Cette table ronde est ouverte sur inscription préalable : merci de vous enregistrer ici

Handbook of Human Mobility and Migration

Ettore Recchi & Mirna Safi Editors
Edward Elgar Publishing, 2024
  • Image Sergii Gnatiuk (via Shutterstock)Image Sergii Gnatiuk (via Shutterstock)

Handbook on Human Mobility and Migration

Edited by Ettore Recchi
Professor of Sociology, Sciences Po - CRIS, and Part-time, European University Institute - MPC and
Mirna Safi, Full Professor of Sociology, Sciences Po - CRIS

Edward Elgar Publishing, 320 p., ISBN 978 1 83910 577 7

Human Mobility & Migration - Cover 1Human Mobility & Migration - Cover 416 chapters - 21 contributors

This book is organized in three major sections dubbed Rethinking, Mapping, and
Governing. The first section aims to establish the scene theoretically, discussing the historical,
sociological and political backdrop of migration and rethinking some conventional categories
of migration studies that are challenged by a mobility perspective. The second section intends
to describe the geographic scope of transnational human movements and the characteristics of critical mobile populations.
The third section revolves around the regulation and control of mobility and migration on a supra-national and global scale.

In each section the contributions are designed to answer what the editors of this volume deem to be key research questions in the field – a list that constitutes a first building block of readings for anyone wanting to explore mobility and migration studies.

·Is Homo sapiens a growingly mobile species (in the very long run)? Massimo Livi Bacci
·Have migrants become a distinct category in social stratification research? Mirna Safi
·Are migrants a select population?  Mathieu Ichou
· Is there an end to mobility? Circular and onward migrants Louise Caron
· Are international and internal migration distinct phenomena? Marine Haddad and Haley McAvay
· How global is international mobility? Emanuel Deutschmann and Ettore Recchi
· Are high-speed rail and airplane mobilities socially stratified?  Yoann Demoli and Frédéric Dobruszkes
· Where, when and why are students internationally mobile? Christof Van Mol, Joep Cleven and Benjamin Mulvey
· Child migration: who, where, when and why? Chiara Galli
· International retirement migration: who, where, when and why? Russell King
· Public opinion on immigration: is it converging globally or regionally? James Dennison and Alina Vrânceanu
· Visas and border infrastructures: what makes them tighter or looser? Fabian Gülzau and Steffen Mau
· Does the forced/voluntary dichotomy really influence migration governance? Hélène Thiollet, Ferruccio Pastore and Camille Schmoll
· Free movement regimes: is the EU experience exportable? Rainer Bauböck
· Transnational mobility and welfare rights: are they compatible? Maurizio Ferrera and Anna Kyriazi
· Who governs migration and mobilities globally? Andrew Geddes


Interview with editors to describe the project and its added value

 

 

The multiverse of social class:

Multi-scheme, multi-outcome and multi-country analysis of class stratification
Carlo Barone, CRIS Seminar, February 16th
  • The Micro Socio-Economic Class SchemeThe Micro Socio-Economic Class Scheme

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, February 16th 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

The multiverse of social class: a multi-scheme, multi-outcome
and multi-country analysis of class stratification

Carlo Barone

Professeur des universités, Sciences Po, CRIS, LIEPP

Carlo Barone (CRIS) - Image Alexis lecomte, Sciences PoSocial class is a central concept in sociology but sociologists have paid limited attention to its measurement.

This study contrasts the traditional ‘big class’ approach with more recent meso- and micro-class approaches to class analysis with respect to their capacity to explain inequalities in education, income and labor market outcomes, social attitudes and voting.

Different class theories suggest competing mechanisms behind social class stratification and assume primacy of different levels of occupational aggregation. Assessing 10 class schemes across 13 outcomes using data from up to 66 countries and more that 650.000 individuals, we offer the most comprehensive multi-scheme, multi-country analysis of class stratification.

We measure scheme performance in terms of average effect strength and model fit and carry out both pooled analyses and cross-national comparisons to assess whether the construct validity of class schemes varies across countries.

Please register here to join us!

Partager les données de la recherche

Entre enjeux et obstacles
  • Image Mircea Moira (via Shutterstock)Image Mircea Moira (via Shutterstock)

La question du partage des données de la recherche est depuis plusieurs années devenue centrale dans le monde académique. Pour encourager la transparence, l’intégrité scientifique, la mise en partage et la ré-employabilité des données, les chercheur‧es sont encouragé‧es à rendre accessibles les données de leurs recherches. Mais quelles sont les conséquences de cette pratique ? Comment la mettre en place concrètement ? 

Célia Bouchet est post-doctorante au CEET (Centre d'études de l'emploi et du travail) du CNAM. Ses recherches, menées notamment au CRIS et au LIEPP (au sein de l'axe Discriminations et Politiques catégorielles), portent sur les mesures et les mécanismes des inégalités sociales, notamment celles liées au handicap et au genre. Depuis la soutenance de sa thèse, elle a largement contribué à disséminer ses résultats de recherche, en facilitant l'accès à ses données. Elle est lauréate du Prix de thèse du Défenseur des Droits 2023 et du Prix science ouverte des données de la recherche 2023, remis par le Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche. 

  • Aviez-vous dès le départ de votre travail de thèse l'idée de conserver, documenter, permettre une réutilisation de vos données ? 

Non, je pense que cette idée est venue parce que je n’avais pas vraiment de modèles d’ouvertures de données de thèse à disposition. Je n’ai pas été formée à la mise à disposition des données lors de mon master. J’avais plutôt des réflexes de protection des données allant à l’encontre d’une ouverture : protéger l’anonymat des personnes rencontrées en entretien, respecter l’engagement de non-partage des données passé avec l’Adisp (Archives de Données Issues de la Statistique Publique, qui gère la mise à disposition des enquêtes de la statistique publique). Cela étant, c’est une idée qui est arrivée tout de même assez rapidement, au bout d’un an de thèse environ, par deux intermédiaires différents. D’abord, j’ai participé à une formation de l'École de la recherche sur la gestion des données de la recherche, où cette question du devenir des données à l’issue de la recherche était évoquée. Ensuite, au moment du lancement de ma campagne d’entretiens quelques mois plus tard, ma directrice de thèse, Anne Revillard, m’a conseillé de profiter de la fiche d’information que je comptais distribuer aux personnes interrogées afin d’obtenir leur accord explicite pour que d’autres chercheur‧es puissent réutiliser les entretiens. Ces deux influences ont eu un rôle important.

  • Est-ce que du personnel support vous a accompagnée dans la gestion de ces données ? 

J’ai pu m’appuyer sur plusieurs collègues des équipes de soutien à la recherche. Cyril Heude, data librarian à Sciences Po, s’est rendu disponible pour créer mon compte sur Data Sciences Po, répondre à mes questions, émettre des suggestions, et publiciser mes jeux de données avec Guillaume Garcia, ingénieur de recherche au CDSP de Sciences Po. Paul Colin, anciennement responsable de la gestion et de l’ouverture des données pour le PPR Autonomie, m’a aussi conseillé lorsque j'ai commencé à rédiger un article méthodologique sur mon travail d’ouverture des données. Enfin, deux déléguées à la protection des données de Sciences Po, Marion Lehmans puis Nawale Lamrini, m’ont accompagnée pour garantir la conformité de ma recherche doctorale et du processus d’auto-dépôt au cadre réglementaire.

Légende: Page d’accueil de data.sciencespo, l’entrepôt de données de Sciences Po

  • Aujourd’hui, comment gérez-vous les données de recherche que vous produisez ? 
J’ai développé le réflexe d’ouvrir mes données, mais aussi mes productions scientifiques au sens large. Par exemple, j'ai créé un carnet Hypothèses où j’ai mis à disposition les annexes électroniques de ma thèse, les diaporamas que j'utilise pour mes présentations, mes supports d'enseignement, etc. Sur ce point, d’ailleurs, j'ai pu m’inspirer des pratiques de plusieurs collègues du CRIS dont j’avais déjà consulté les sites personnels, notamment Anne Revillard et Olivier Godechot. Maintenant, j’ai aussi pu constater que, selon les contextes de recherche, il est plus ou moins facile de recevoir les autorisations nécessaires pour ouvrir des données—même pseudonymisées. Par exemple, lorsque l'enquête se fait au sein d’une organisation, la simple permission de publier les résultats de la recherche peut faire l’objet de négociations… et, dans ce cas, l’ouverture des données récoltées est une perspective assez lointaine.

 

Légende: Page d’accueil du carnet Hypotheses de Célia Bouchet.
URL: https://celiabouchet.hypotheses.org/ 


  • En tant que jeune chercheuse, comment vivez-vous le contexte croissant d’incitation à l’ouverture des données de la recherche ? 
Je distingue l’objectif d’ouverture des données et la façon dont il est mis en œuvre. L’objectif, je l’approuve et je m’y reconnais. J’estime beaucoup la “culture libre”, d’ailleurs j’utilise principalement des logiciels libres au quotidien. Il y a aussi des raisons qui, peut-être, sont plus spécifiques à mon sujet et mon terrain de recherche. Les études sur le handicap sont encore un champ de recherche assez minoritaire, et il me tient d'autant plus à cœur de faciliter la diffusion de connaissances sur le sujet. J’y vois aussi un enjeu déontologique, car, lorsque j'ai demandé aux personnes rencontrées lors de mon enquête qualitative la permission de verser les contenus pseudonymisés de leur entretien sur un entrepôt pour que d’autres chercheur‧es puissent les utiliser dans leurs travaux, les réactions ont très souvent été enthousiastes. Plusieurs des personnes rencontrées avaient par exemple la conviction que la recherche était importante pour informer les politiques publiques et les faire évoluer. Dans cette perspective, l'idée que leur récit puisse resservir dans d’autres recherches leur permettait de contribuer d’autant plus à un changement social positif.

  • Quels aspects vous semblent poser problème ?
Comme d'autres collègues, j'ai de vraies inquiétudes sur la façon dont l’ouverture des données est organisée. Dans le fonctionnement actuel, les jeunes chercheur‧es sont particulièrement visé‧es par les incitations à ouvrir des données, sans que cette activité soit vraiment discutée collectivement au sein de la communauté de recherche en sciences sociales, et sans que des moyens économiques et humains suffisants y soient alloués. Je l’ai dit, j'ai eu la chance d’avoir l’appui de plusieurs collègues, et j’en éprouve beaucoup de gratitude mais cela n’a pas toujours été suffisant. Il me semble qu’il y aurait besoin de réflexions plus collectives et de ressources matérielles plus conséquentes, si on veut éviter que la politique d’ouverture des données ne repose sur les chercheur‧es les plus précaires.

  • Est-il chronophage pour vous de préparer ces données ? Comment articulez-vous ce travail avec votre temps de recherche ?

C’est un travail d’une ampleur que je n’imaginais pas. Pour contextualiser, j’ai mis en ligne deux jeux de données : un jeu centré sur les matériaux qualitatifs de ma thèse, notamment les transcriptions d’entretiens, la fiche d’information que j’ai transmise aux personnes rencontrées, la grille d’entretien, etc ; et un jeu centré sur une exploitation statistique de l’Enquête emploi en continu, réalisée dans le cadre du volet quantitatif de ma thèse. Pour le volet qualitatif, comme je récoltais mes propres données, il a fallu beaucoup d’anticipation et de formalisation. Pour le volet quantitatif, j’ai pris la décision plus tard et j’avais davantage de marge de manœuvre. Mais dans les deux cas, cela impliquait un gros travail : changer tous les noms propres sur 1400 pages d’entretiens (pour une pseudonymisation renforcée) ; trier et nettoyer mes scripts de code, puis ajouter des explications didactiques au fur et à mesure ; déterminer les autres documents méthodologiques pertinents et les mettre en forme ; documenter tout ce processus dans des fichiers Read-Me… Cela m’a pris plusieurs centaines d’heures au total. Comme j’avais un contrat de recherche en journée, sur un projet différent, je prenais ce temps sur mes pauses déjeuners, mes soirées, mes week-ends. Je l’ai vécu comme long et fastidieux, et je n’encouragerais pas nécessairement quelqu’un d’autre à se lancer dans ces conditions.

  • Avez-vous été confrontée à d’autres obstacles liés au partage de données ?  
Oui, je pense à deux types d’obstacles. Premièrement, j’ai eu des incertitudes juridiques sur le périmètre de ce que j’avais le droit de partager. Concernant le jeu qualitatif, comme je ne précisais pas aux personnes enquêtées à quoi correspondait “le contenu de l’entretien” que j’allais déposer sur l’entrepôt, je ne savais pas si je devais me limiter à la transcription de l’enregistrement ou si je pouvais inclure les notes d’observations que j’avais prises pendant l’entretien. Dans le cas du jeu quantitatif, comme mes statistiques sont calculées à partir d’une enquête de l’Insee, je ne savais pas si j’avais les droits de propriété suffisants pour décider du versement. J’ai eu des difficultés à accéder à ces renseignements : les démarches d’ouverture des données étant relativement nouvelles, les personnes ressources que j’ai contactées étaient un peu dans le flou elles aussi. Sur un deuxième plan, j’ai aussi eu des questionnements scientifiques, lors du processus de transformation des données. Par exemple, au cours de la pseudonymisation des transcriptions d’entretien, je me suis demandé par quoi substituer les noms propres. Typiquement, pour un nom de ville, j’avais l’option de renseigner à la place le département, la taille de la ville, le niveau de vie moyen… Cela posait un certain nombre de dilemmes, sur les indicateurs les plus importants à conserver et la délimitation des catégories (à partir de quel nombre d’habitants parler de “grande ville”?) Là encore, le manque de protocole établi me laissait un peu seule face à mes choix.
Légende: Tableau des choix de remplacements de noms propres, dans le document 0-README-Guide du jeu de données qualitatif. DOI: 10.21410/7E4/IIQYAR

  • Vos jeux de données facilitent-ils d'après vous la valorisation de vos travaux ?

Oui, mais de façon indirecte. J’ai été frappée par l’intérêt qu’a suscité mon travail d’auto-dépôt, davantage peut-être que les données déposées. J’ai été invitée à plusieurs reprises pour présenter ce processus d’ouverture des données : lors de la semaine DataSHS 2022, dans le cadre d’un séminaire CIVICA Open Science… J’ai aussi publié un article méthodologique dans la revue Genèses, où j’analyse mon expérience d’auto-dépôt. Ce sont de belles opportunités. En revanche, je n’ai pas connaissance de projets de recherche en cours qui envisagent de réutiliser mes données. Et je peux le comprendre, car on n’apprend pas vraiment à utiliser ce type de sources lors des formations en sciences sociales.

Je pense que ma démarche a une double originalité à laquelle le jury a été sensible. D’un côté, il y a la mise à disposition de données variées et nombreuses sur une thématique encore trop peu couverte, le handicap. D’un autre côté, il y a un effort pour décrire et analyser le processus d’auto-dépôt en sciences sociales d’un point de vue de chercheuse, dans un contexte où l’essentiel du travail d’ouverture des données est accompli par les équipes de soutien à la recherche. Le dialogue avec les équipes de Sciences Po, notamment Cyril Heude, Guillaume Garcia et Sophie Forcadell, m’a été très précieux pour mettre l’accent sur ces deux apports dans ma candidature au prix. En un sens, la boucle est bouclée : ce prix souligne que, même dans le cadre d’un auto-dépôt, la gestion des données ne concerne pas qu’une seule personne mais appelle à des réflexions collectives.

Légende: Couverture de deux numéros de revues récents abordant l’ouverture des données de la recherche.

Tracés, 2019, numéro spécial 19, “Les sciences humaines et sociales au travail (ii): Que faire des données de la recherche ?” DOI: 10.4000/traces.10518

Genèses, 2022, numéro 129, “Le procès des données”. DOI: 10.3917/gen.129.0003

Propos recueillis par le Centre de Recherche sur les Inégalités Sociales et le Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire d'Evaluation des Politiques Publiques de Sciences Po.
Publié dans la collection des Entretiens, notes & analyses du LIEPP

EN SAVOIR PLUS :

BENDJABALLAH Selma, GARCIA Guillaume, CADOREL Sarah et al., « Valoriser les données d’enquêtes qualitatives en sciences sociales : le cas français de la banque d’enquête beQuali », Documentation et bibliothèques, 2017/4 (Vol. 63), p. 73-85

BOUCHET, Célia. « Comment j’ai déposé les données de ma recherche (sans savoir ce qui m’attendait) » Genèses, 2023/4 (Vol 132), p. 113-129.

BOUCHET, Célia. Rendre accessible et visibiliser ses données et ses codes : retours sur une expérience d'entreposage. Semaine Data-SHS. Traiter et analyser les données quantitatives en sciences humaines et sociales 2022, Plateforme Universitaire de Données des Grands Moulins; Université Paris Cité; Centre de Données Socio-Politiques, Dec 2022.

LEPRINCE, Chloé. Butin à monnayer ou manne à partager : avec les données, les chercheurs peuvent-ils faire feu de tout bois ?, France Culture, 2023.

REBOUILLAT, Violaine. Ouverture des données de la recherche : de la vision politique aux pratiques des chercheurs. Sciences de l'information et de la communication. Conservatoire national des arts et metiers - CNAM, 2019.

REVELIN, Florence, LEVAIN, Alix, MIGNON,  Morgane, NOEL, Marianne, QUEFFELEC, Betty, et al.. L'ouverture des matériaux de recherche ethnographiques en question. Rapport d'enquête du projet "Partage et protection des données qualitatives à l’ère du numérique : expériences, enjeux, stratégies". Rapport de recherche. Centre national de la recherche scientifique. 2021.

Guide thématique, Données de la recherche : suivez le guide, Bibliothèque de Sciences Po

Guide thématique, Qu’est ce que la science ouverte ?, Bibliothèque de Sciences Po

Guide thématique, Actualités de la science ouverte, Bibliothèque de Sciences Po

Guide thématique, Demande des bailleurs de fonds pour les projets financés, Bibliothèque de Sciences Po

Plus d’informations sur l’entrepot de données Nakala : https://www.nakala.fr/about

 

Pivots, Populism, and Moral Panics:

The Impact of Trump’s Position Reversal on Facemasks
Bartholomew Konechni, CRIS Seminar, February 9th
  • Image JessicaGirvan (via Shutterstock)Image JessicaGirvan (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, February 9th 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

Pivots, Populism, and Moral Panics:
The Impact of Trump’s Position Reversal on Facemasks

Bartholomew Konechni

PhD Student, Sciences Po - CRIS

 

Bartholomew Konechni (CRIS)Populist leaders are often held responsible for their followers' poor compliance with public health recommendations. But what happens when populist leaders change position and endorse previously discouraged behaviours? This scenario is understudied in extant literature.

To fill this gap, the present work examines Trump’s pivot over masks on 1st July 2020, when he first encouraged their use.

Using a difference-in-differences (DiD) design, the paper finds that whilst Trump’s pivot lifted Republican’s propensity to wear facemasks, it didn’t change views about facemasks’ efficacy.
However, this study does find that Trump’s intervention was more impactful amongst Republicans living in parts of the country worst hit by the early-summer 2020 spike in COVID cases, suggesting that his capacity to shape behaviours lay not so much in persuading followers but in capitalising on a moment of moral panic when individuals were open to adopting new behaviours.

Please register here to join us!

Sciences Po is hiring an Assistant Professor

Social stratification and inequality
Beginning on September 2024 - Deadline: March 11th
  • Sciences Po, 1 Saint-Thomas CampusSciences Po, 1 Saint-Thomas Campus

The position of Assistant Professor in Sociology (tenure-track) is affiliated to the Sciences Po - CRIS with the aim to reinforce and complement our expertise in the study of social inequality.The sucessful candidate is expected to play an active role in the center’s collective activity. He / she should also engage in responding to national and international calls to fund research projects and will teach in Sciences Po’s undergraduate and graduate programs.

Applications are due by March 11th 2024. Job talks expected in June 2024 (Paris). Position starting on September 1st, 2024.

We welcome candidates engaged in any of our faculty members' fields, such as education, gender, life course, labor market and economic inequality, social mobility, urban segregation, migration, ethnoracial minorities, cultural, digital, health, criminal justice and environmental inequality. 

We particularly encourage applicants capable of stimulating new expertise in the center on algorithm and AI related inequalities, environmental inequalities or on labor market inequalities.
Profiles that broaden our comparative perspectives by adopting global approaches and/or focusing on low- and middle-income countries are also welcome.

Please download the complete job description and application procedure here (pdf, 121 ko)

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Why Do Young Adults Co-Reside with Their Parents?

Arthur Acolin
CRIS Scientific Seminar, February 2nd 2024
  • Image Monkey Business (via Shutterstock)Image Monkey Business (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, February 2nd 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

Why Do Young Adults Co-Reside with Their Parents?

Arthur Acolin

Associate Professor, Runstad Department of Real Estate,
College of Built Environments, University of Washington

Arthur Acolin Nearly one in every two adults aged 18–29 currently lives with their parents in the US, compared to slightly more than one in four in 1960.
The literature focuses on changing labor market conditions and marriage- childbearing delays to account for this shift.
Using a Blinder-Oaxaca procedure, we identify a role for housing affordability, measured by market level median housing rent or price to median household income ratios, as an additional factor in the increase in co-residency since but not before 2000.
We endogenize the marriage-childbearing decision with a Heckman selection model and attribute up to a quarter of the observed 9-percentage-point increase in the co-residence share between 2000 and 2021 to a decrease in housing affordability.

We find a non-linear relationship between affordability and co- residence with the relationship strongest in the least affordable metros where affordability constraints might be more binding. Overall, these results show changes in market level housing affordability are associated with the increase in young adult co-residence in the US over the first two decades of the 21 st century.

(Co-authors: Desen Lin, Cal State Fullerton, and Susan Wachter, University of Pennsylvania)

Please register here to join us!

Migrant Farmworker Injury: Temporality and Eventfulness

Seth M. Holmes
CRIS + LIEPP Talk, Thursday, February 8th, 5pm
  • University of California Press , CNRS Editions, Dedovstock/ShutterstockUniversity of California Press , CNRS Editions, Dedovstock/Shutterstock
CRIS + LIEPP TALK

Migrant Farmworker Injury: Temporality and Eventfulness

Professor Seth M. Holmes

Cultural and medical anthropologist, Physician
University of California, Berkeley
ERC FOODCIRCUITS (2023-2028)
University of Barcelona, ICREA Catalan Institution of Research and Advanced Study

Thursday February 8th, Sciences Po, room C210/d'Innovation, 5 p.m. - 7 p.m.

How do social structures and social hierarchies impact bodies, health, injury, and disease for different categories of people? 
How do social hierarchies and socially structured health assymetries come to be understood as normal and natural in society and in medicine?  And when are they confronted or resisted? 

Seth Holmes (Berkeley)The Centre for Research on social InequalitieS and the Laboratory for Interdisciplinary Evaluation of Public Policies are pleased to invite Professor Seth Holmes, anthropologist and physician at the University of California at Berkeley. During his talk, Professor Holmes will share with us some of his original ethnographic work, partly explained in the book Fresh Fruit, Broken Bodies: Migrant Farmworkers in the United States, recently updated and published by the University of California Press (2nd ed. nov. 2023). This work has been translated in French by CNRS Editions (Fruits frais, corps brisés: Les ouvriers agricoles migrants aux États-Unis).   

Professor Holmes explores the ways in which social differences come to count – and be counted – in various senses. His main problematics are the gaze, racialization and racism; the subjectivation of the health professional and the embodied production of the clinical and epidemiological gaze; the legitimation, normalization and naturalization of social inequality.

He shared the daily life, suffering and resistance of Mexican migrants in the United States. He treked with his companions clandestinely through the desert into Arizona, lived with Indigenous families in the mountains of Oaxaca State and in farm labor camps. Exploited by the contemporary food system he planted and harvested corn, picked strawberries, and accompanied sick workers to the hospitals.

During this talk, Professor Holmes will expand on his experience and discuss ths various ways in which social inequities come to be perceived as normal in society and in health care.

Please register here to join us. Thanks.

Daily use of social media increases body dissatisfaction of adolescent girls in a large cross-cultural survey

Thomas Breda
CRIS Scientific Seminar, January 19th 2024
  • Image Victor Velter (via Shutterstock)Image Victor Velter (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, January 19th 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

Daily use of social media increases body dissatisfaction of adolescent girls
in a large cross-cultural survey

Thomas Breda

CNRS - Paris School of Economics

We provide a large-scale investigation of the relationship between social media consumption and body dissatisfaction among a sample of more than 50,000 teenagers between 15 and 16 y.o.
This relation is positive and large for girls—higher use of social networks is associated with higher dissatisfaction about their body—and negative for boys.
The positive relation for girls is observed in all eight countries included in the study, covering very different cultural contexts (e.g., Georgia, Ireland, Spain, Mexico, Panama or Hong Kong).

It is observed for all girls, no matter their body mass index (BMI), their academic performance, and their socioeconomic background. Instrumenting social networks consumption by students’ or students’ peers’ internet access at home while controlling finely for other students’ or students’ peers’ household characteristics finally suggests that the relationship between social media consumption and girls' body dissatisfaction could be causal.

Please register here!

How do transparent admission standards increase the application to the college-bound upper-secondary school track:

A series of randomized field experiments
Tamás Keller - LIEPP/CRIS Scientific Seminar - January 12th
  • Image StockImageFactory.com (via Shutterstock)Image StockImageFactory.com (via Shutterstock)

CRIS & LIEPP Scientific Seminar

Friday, January 12th 2024, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K011 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

How do transparent admission standards increase the application
to the college-bound upper-secondary school track:
A series of randomized field experiments

Tamás Keller

HU-REN - Institute of Economics at the Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Budapest

Tamas KellerStudents require accurate information to navigate the education system. In response to this need, various information campaigns have emerged in different fields of social science, with the goal of providing students with essential details. A growing body of empirical literature suggests that schools’ admission standards may discourage students from applying due to the associated risk of non-admission, which students tend to avoid.

This study makes two key contributions to the literature on educational decision-making.
Firstly, we examine how the perception of schools’ admission standards influences students’ perceived admission chances, potentially dissuading them from applying.
Secondly, we conduct a series of pair-matched, cluster-randomized field experiments, revealing schools’ actual admission standards to qualified students to encourage their application.

Our findings indicate that our light-touch treatment led to a small and statistically insignificant main effect.
The paper further delves into heterogeneity in the treatment effect and speculates on reasons why pure information campaigns may not be fully effective.

Please register here!

Inequality and the Environment Symposium for Early-Career Researchers

Thursday, 18 January 2024
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Inequality and the Environment Symposium for Early-Career Researchers

Organized by Sciences Po's Center for Research on social InequalitieS,
in partnership with the World Inequality Lab - Paris School of Economics
and the Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy - Harvard Kennedy School

Thursday, 18 January 2024
Sciences Po, 1 Place Saint-Thomas d’Aquin 75007 Paris

Inequality and the Environment Symposium, Paris, January 18th

Rising inequality and environmental degradation are two critical challenges of our time. The social sciences have increasingly focused on their interactions over the last two decades (Martinez Alier 2003, Laurent 2012, Chancel 2020). Nevertheless, our knowledge about the interplay between socio-economic inequality, environmental degradation, and environmental policies remains limited. The literature on inequality and the environment presents various conceptual, empirical, and theoretical gaps hindering societies’ ability to effectively address these issues.

Substantively, important questions remain unanswered, such as: How can governments address inequality while averting the exacerbation of climate and biodiversity crises, both domestically and internationally? Which welfare regimes could be compatible with deep decarbonization? What types of political coalitions can support these changes? What role have income and wealth inequality played in accelerating or slowing environmental degradation? How can public policies promote changes in citizens’ environmental behaviour while taking social inequalities into account? 

This symposium aims to present, discuss, and foster innovative approaches to social science research on environmental inequality across three broad research streams : (i) Inequalities in the impacts of environmental degradation; (ii) Inequalities in contributions to environmental damage; and (iii) Inequalities in capacities to act against pollution or to cope with environmental policies.

PROGRAM

  • Welcome and introduction
  • Session 1 Global Inequality of Contributions (9:10-11:10, plenary, location B108 Salon scientifique)

- Federica Cappelli - Unequal Contributions to CO2 Emissions along the Income Distribution Within and Between Countries

- Markus Nabernegg - Environmental Engel Curves with Predicted Consumption of High-Income Households, Applied to Ecuador

- Elisa Palagi - Revisiting the Emission-Inequality Nexus across Stages of Development

- Yannic Rehm - The Carbon Footprint of Capital – Evidence from France, Germany and the US based on Distributional Environmental Accounts

  • Parallel session 2A: Inequality in Policy Impacts (11:30-13:30, location B108 Salon scientifique)

 - Philipp Bothe - Inequality in Exposure to Harmful Air Pollution

- Clara Dallaire-Fortier - A Balancing Act? Local Fiscal Resilience After Mine Closures

- Jacob Greenspon - Locally-tailored Policy Responses to the U.S. Decarbonization Job Transition

- Lena Kilian - Achieving Emission Reductions without Furthering Social Inequality: Lessons from the 2007 Economic Crisis and the COVID-19 Pandemic

  • Parallel session 2B: Inequality of Impact: Climate Shocks (11:30-13:30, location CS16)

- Filippo Pavanello - Adapting to Heat Extremes with Unequal Access to Cooling: Evidence from India

- Risto Conte Keivabu - Temperature and School Absences: Evidence from England

- Matteo Coronese - Raided by the Storm: Impacts on Income and Wages from Three Decades of U.S. Thunderstorms

- Giulia Valenti - Temperature and Health Capital: Long-Term Consequences of Exposure in Early Childhood

  • Parallel session 3A: Inequality of Capacity to Act and Political Representation (14:30 - 16:30, location B108 Salon scientifique)

- Mélusine Boon-Falleur - Leveraging social cognition to promote effective climate change mitigation

- Matthias Petel - Litigating for Future Generations... and for the Just Transition? The Unequal Integration of Climate Justice Dimensions by the Courts

- Laura Silva - Climate Extremes and Socio-Political Attitudes: A European Social Survey Analysis

- Nathalie Vigna - Who is ready to pay for protecting the environment? Social and spatial divides in Western countries

  • Parallel session 3B: Climate Inequalities: Contributions, Impacts, Capacities (Urban segregation, elite strategies, policies) (14:30 - 16:30, location CS16)

- Jens Ergon - Inequality and Emissions: Managing the Interlinked Challenges of a Just Transformation

- Thomas Neier - The Green Divide: A Spatial Analysis of Segregation-Based Environmental Inequality

- Shay O’Brien - Parasite: The Relational Continuity of Extraction in a Settler Colonial Upper Class

- Martina Pardy - Climate Impacts and Wealth Inequality: Global Evidence from a Novel Subnational Dataset

  • Session 4: Climate Inequalities and Poverty and Concluding Remarks (16:45-18:00 plenary, location B108 Salon scientifique)

- Thomas Bézy - The Incidence of Flood Risk

- Manisha Mukherjee - Scorching Heat and Shrinking Horizons: The Impact of Rising Temperatures on Marriages and Migration in Rural India


Organizing committee

Carlo Barone (co-chair), Lucas Chancel (co-chair), Eloi Laurent, Allison Rovny.

Registration for this event is closed. However, if you are interested in attending, please send us an email, and we will do our best to accommodate your request.


Digital Divides? The Heterogeneous Effect of Broadband Internet Expansion on Adolescent Educational Outcomes

Pablo Gracia
CRIS Scientific Seminar, December 15th 2023
  • Image from pathdoc (via Shutterstock)Image from pathdoc (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, December 15th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

Digital Divides?
The Heterogeneous Effect of Broadband Internet Expansion on Adolescent Educational Outcomes

Pablo Gracia

Professor, Trinity College Dublin

Pablo GraciaThe expansion of internet is likely to influence adolescent academic outcomes. Yet, how internet coverage impacts students’ educational performance remains poorly understood.
The present study addresses this major knowledge gap by using a quasi-experimental approach to causally assess how the gradual introduction of home broadband internet across Norwegian municipalities impacted the academic outcomes of graduates from lower-secondary schools (N = 103,796).
Analyses apply sibling fixed-effects models with micro-level registry data from adolescents aged 15 to 16, and compare differences by gender, social background, migrant status, and achievement levels.

Findings show that the introduction of broadband internet across municipalities led to moderate grade improvements, concentrated on boys in the subject areas of Mathematics, Arts and Crafts, Social Sciences, and Norwegian. The positive effect of broadband internet coverage on academic performance was three times larger for boys than for girls. For boys, broadband internet coverage led to strong grade improvements among students of lower-achievement levels and from disadvantaged socioeconomic background, and to moderate grade increases in boys of Norwegian background, while boys from higher-achieving groups and privileged socioeconomic backgrounds reduced their grades moderately.
By contrast, for girls, the expansion of broadband internet coverage worsened substantially the academic performance of those from disadvantaged socioeconomic background, but led to higher grades among girls of migrant origin.

These findings imply that broadband internet growth impacts adolescent educational performance, but differently across population groups, revealing a complex intersection across gender, social background, migrant status, and achievement levels.
The implications of the study are globally discussed by considering literature on digital divides, stratification, and adolescent academic outcomes.

Please register here!

To find out more

Women in Times of Crisis

Call for proposals
Conference (deadline 29Feb)
  • Image by Mary Long (via shutterstock)Image by Mary Long (via shutterstock)

Women in Times of Crisis: Rethinking the Extraordinary and the Everyday

Columbia University, Sciences Po, Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne University

Alliance on-line conference, Friday, October 18, 2024

Logos institutions

The 21st century has been one of crisis, including the geopolitical shock of September 11, 2001, the global financial crisis (2007-2008), the Covid-19 pandemic, the war in Ukraine (2022) and the new war in Israel and Gaza (2023). These events have come on top of disasters associated with climate change, and the anxieties stemming from populist political discourses. Such multiple, extraordinary phenomena have led to extraordinary policy responses, stretching governmental powers; they have altered distributions of resources, and disrupted the organization of everyday life. As they have hardened inequalities, crisis politics and policies have also exacerbated polarization and favored rising illiberalism.

In these contexts, women have often, though not always, been disadvantaged: the pandemic, for example, brought increased gender-based violence as well as excess burdens of care; climate change- related displacement has affected women and children disproportionately; war and conflict have – yet again – been marked by sexual violence and casualities among women as non-combatants; while illiberalism has been characterized by direct attacks on gender-related rights (regarding sexual and reproductive health, freedom of expression and mobilization in the public square).

Researchers and advocates have examined the impacts of these crises on gender relations, and, specifically, on the status of women in relation to the intersectional factors that determine their life chances. Such analyses explore specific situations (e.g., the pandemic or the war in Ukraine), uncovering the gender-differentiated effects of the policies and politics they have led to. The specific crises to which they refer provide a temporal/spatial frame – but the significance of ‘thinking through’ crisis as an episteme is rarely thematized. Turning points that alter pre-existing equilibria and which are located in specific series of events, that we denote as “crises,” are often framing devices whose implications remain unexamined.

Two sets of implications of these analyses need to be discussed. Substantively, this research often reveals how the effect of a particular crisis reflects underlying structural factors. The crisis, in other words, illuminates the everyday as much as the extraordinary. As such, looking at crises ought to allow us to re-examine our perspectives on social organization more broadly, and not simply at a particular moment: we can debate feminist theory by ‘thinking through’ the literature on crisis.
Epistemologically, the literature of crisis invites a reflection on crisis as an episteme: as a way of making sense of the world that simultaneously highlights rupture in social life, and which justifies such rupture as driving political and policy responses. The “work” that “crisis” does is worth investigating per se. What does it mean for feminist scholarship as well as policy-making that we lurch from crisis to crisis? How useful is the notion of “crisis” really? What does it allow us to think, and what does it obscure?

This on-line conference, co-organized by Columbia University, Sciences Po (Paris), and Paris 1 Sorbonne-University, seeks to bring together scholars in the Alliance network who have examined the impacts of recent crises on women to ask both what we have learned substantively about gender relations when policies are formulated in apparently extraordinary – and dire – contexts, and how our frames of reference have held up. In this rapid succession of critical moments, does the distinction between the extraordinary and the everyday, or, to put it somewhat differently, between ordinary life and times of crisis, continue to make sense? In which contexts is the distinction relevant? The conference seeks, therefore, to address both the substantive and the epistemological lessons for the analysis of women’s conditions of the recent past.

Independent of the type of crisis, women seem disproportionately vulnerable. As a result, equity between women and men is under further pressure, in all regions of the world (including in high income countries), and women’s economic, social and political participation is increasingly at risk.
Feminist scholars traditionally aim to understand the nature of gender inequalities in societies which are often at the intersection of income, country-of-origin, age and family status.
This conference intends to bring together social scientists in the Alliance network who work on gender-specific topics related to crises such as:
• climate change
• the global pandemic
• economic downturn and/or economic change (linked to AI, for example)
• demographic shocks linked to migration, fertility and/or mortality
• war and conflict
• illiberalism and/or political radicalization

Besides assembling empirical work about the impact of crises on women across the world, the conference will allow a holistic theoretical framework of women in times of crisis to be formulated. By considering different crises not only as risks of pushback, but as potential turning points, we may discuss how different crises affect feminist thinking, what the constant risk of crisis implies for feminism today, and what work on women in crises has brought and can bring in terms of policy reactions, dangers and opportunities.

The conference will take place on Friday, October 18th, 2024, as an on-line webinar, between 2 pm CET/8 am EST and 8 pm CET/2 pm EST.

The conference is part of the Alliance Program, but external submissions are also welcome. It aims to produce scientific contributions to the field, as well as policy-briefs for government, public institutions and other actors. The conference will also help to link up researchers in view of creating a more or less formal network of persons working in the areas covered by the conference. The conference will eventually figure as kick-off meeting for work on a joint publication (not mandatory).

Submission deadline: February 29, 2024. Proposals for communications should be about 300 words long and include a short biography of authors (institution, position, main research and teaching activities). Communications should be sent to Angela Greulich (angela.greulich@sciencespo.fr) and Nicholas Sowels (nicholas.sowels@univ-paris1.fr).

Scientific committee: Laurie Breban (Université Paris 1), Ariane Dupont (Université Paris 1), Yasmine Ergas (Columbia), Marta Dominguez Folgueras (Sciences Po - CRIS), Angela Greulich (Sciences Po - CRIS), Emmanuelle Kalfon (Université Paris 1), Hélène Périvier (Sciences Po - PRESAGE), Nadeera Rajapakse (Université Paris 1), Nicholas Sowels (Université Paris 1).
Organization committee: Angela Greulich (Sciences Po - CRIS), Nicholas Sowels (Université Paris 1).

PDF Version here (165Ko)

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Racial-Ethnic Stratification in Work-Family Strategies among Black, Hispanic, and White Couples

Léa Pessin
CRIS Scientific Seminar, December 8th 2023
  • Image GingerKitten (via Shutterstock)Image GingerKitten (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, December 8th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

Racial-Ethnic Stratification in Work-Family Strategies among Black, Hispanic, and White Couples

Léa Pessin

Assistant Professor of Sociology, ENSAE-CREST

Léa Pessin (ENSAE-CREST)This presentation builds on work-family scholarship and intersectional frameworks to document racial-ethnic variation in couples’ work-family strategies, i.e., the strategies couples deploy to respond to their work and family demands.

Existing research on the division of labor finds traditional gender norms continue to dictate how couples share paid and unpaid work in the United States. Yet, this narrative relies primarily on the structural conditions and cultural expectations of white and middle-class women. Black and Hispanic women and men face different labor market opportunities and hold different cultural expectations about gendered responsibilities in families.

We use the 2017-2019 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (https://psidonline.isr.umich.edu) and multi-group latent-class analysis to determine typical work-family strategies for paid work, housework, and carework among U.S. different-sex couples, as well as how the prevalence of these strategies vary across racially homogamous Black, Hispanic, and white couples.

Results illustrate the variety of work-family strategies employed by different-sex Black, Hispanic, and white couples, with some following gender traditional norms, and others sharing their domestic load more equitably. Compositional differences between couples explain little of the racial-ethnic differences in work-family strategies prevalence, though parenthood emerges as an important stratifying mechanism of how couples spend their time.

This work provides support for an intersectional, couple-level approach to explaining how racialized couples spend time in work and family domains.

Please Register Here. Thank You

A l'école primaire catholique

Emilie Grisez mène une enquête ethnographique
  • Image Monkey Business (via Shutterstock)Image Monkey Business (via Shutterstock)

À l'école primaire catholique
Une éducation bien ordonnée

Émilie Grisez


PUF, Collection Éducation et société, 290 p.
Code ISBN: 978-2-13-083639-1
Lien vers l'éditeur

PUF, 2023Le secteur d'enseignement privé sous contrat prend en charge 17,6 % des élèves du primaire et du secondaire, soit plus de deux millions d’élèves. Il accueille deux enfants sur cinq au cours de leur scolarité. À Paris, l’enseignement catholique sous contrat scolarise plus de 80 000 élèves, soit 23 % des élèves parisiens (rentrée 2021).

L’attachement des familles aux écoles catholiques et leur importance numérique ont constitué deux éléments motivant l’étude de leur mode de socialisation, auxquels s’ajoute un troisième : l’intérêt pour leur « caractère propre ». Chaque école promeut un projet éducatif fondé sur l'Évangile imbriquant apprentissages, connaissances, valeurs et vérités. 

L'ouvrage propose de rendre compte de la socialisation des enfants dans ce type d’établissement, c’est-à-dire de la façon dont ils sont formés et transformés par l’institution. Une école primaire privée catholique sous contrat, dans un quartier privilégié, a été choisie pour mener une enquête de terrain. L'ouvrage analyse le processus de socialisation des enfants entre école, famille, paroisse et groupe de pairs. Il décrit la construction en train de se faire de dispositions socialement différenciées et différenciatrices. Le terme dispositions recouvre ici les façons d'être, de faire, de voir le monde, comme les inclinaisons à agir de telle ou telle manière ou de ressentir les choses. 

D’octobre 2019 à mars 2020, l'auteure a mené un travail ethnographique mêlant observations, entretiens et questionnaires, au contact de tous les aspects de la vie scolaire : classes, cour de récréation, cantine, séances de sport et sorties, mais aussi catéchèse et célébrations religieuses. Au total, 214 heures d’observation et plusieurs centaines de pages de journal de terrain ont été saisies.

L'ouvrage vise à contribuer à la sociologie de l’école, des styles éducatifs parentaux et de la différenciation
sociale durant l’enfance, en se focalisant sur un contexte de socialisation spécifique, celui de l’école catholique, et un milieu particulier, celui des classes supérieures à fort capital culturel et économique.
Une question a guidé l’enquête : quel type de personne l’école et les parents visent-t-ils à former, par quels moyens, et y parviennent-ils ?
Ce travail scientifique a pour ambition d'étudier ce que le dispositif "école catholique" fait aux enfants, mais également ce que les enfants font dans et de ce dispositif.
Les concepts d’éducation globale, de contrôle social, de coordination, de disposition et d’épreuve de socialisation sont mobilisés.

Il est à noter que les travaux sociologiques sur ce type d'établissements sont largement moins nombreux que ceux consacrés à l'école publique. 

En conclusion l'auteure évalue un dispositif socialisateur des parents et de l'école particulièrement puissant et efficace. Quand les enfants quittent l'école primaire, ils ont acquis à la fois des dispositions valorisées sur le plan scolaire et des compétences relationnelles qui leur permettent de vivre dans une société de pairs partageant un même statut social. On remarque leur capacité à adapter leur attitude aux situations et à l’adulte référent, selon la légitimité qu’ils accordent à l’activité qui leur est proposée et à la personne qui l’encadre. Ils développent un statut collectif élevé et un sens de leur position privilégiée. Ils ont de grandes ambitions pour leur futur et un sens social qui leur permet de se repérer dans le monde.  

Measuring the educational gradient of period fertility

A new approach based on parity-specific fertility estimates
Angela Greulich, Laurent Toulemon
  • Image Ground Picture (via Shutterstock)Image Ground Picture (via Shutterstock)

Measuring the educational gradient of period fertility in 28 European countries:
A new approach based on parity-specific fertility estimates

Angela Greulich, Laurent Toulemon (INED)

Demographic Research, vol. 49, art. 34, p. 905-968, doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2023.49.34

By delivering a new method for measuring the educational gradient of fertility for women who are of childbearing age (15-49) rather than for women who have already completed their reproductive years, the research enables a timely analysis of within-country differentials of period fertility behavior.

To measure period fertility by education for 24 EU and 4 non-EU countries in Europe, data from the European Union’s Survey of Income and Living Conditions, EU-SILC (Eurostat 2020) have been used. With a semi-retrospective approach, the authors observe the parity-specific fertility behavior of cohorts that are of childbearing age, while at the same time recording the educational level correctly. Bayesian statistics allow to obtain credible intervals for the age-, education-, and parity-specific birth probabilities for each country. These birth probabilities are then combined into a multi-state life table in order to obtain parity-specific and total birth intensities by education. A post-stratification of birth probabilities allows consistency with national fertility estimates, enabling international comparisons of specific groups (e.g., highly educated women) or of particular dimensions of fertility behavior (e.g., childlessness).

The analytical-setup reveals whether there are significant differences in fertility behavior between education groups in each European country and how these differentials vary between countries.
The authors answer the question of whether heterogeneity in period fertility behavior is greater among the higher- or the lower-educated. In addition, they show for which parity the heterogeneity between education groups is the largest.

Even if low-educated women have the highest period fertility levels in almost all covered European countries, the educational gradient is not always negative. In one-third of European countries, period fertility levels in 2010 exhibit a U-shaped pattern, with the middle-educated having the lowest fertility. The diversity in period fertility levels among highly educated women in Europe is due to the transitions to first and second childbirth of highly educated women being higher in some countries than in others, while higher-order childbirths exhibit a more negative educational gradient across Europe.

The Politics of Nationhood: A Theory of Diversity Culture in the Contemporary United States

Mitchell Stevens
CRIS Scientific Seminar, December 1st 2023
  • Image based on melitas (via Shutterstock)Image based on melitas (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, December 1st 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1, St-Thomas-d'Aquin)

The Politics of Nationhood:
A Theory of Diversity Culture in the Contemporary United States

Mitchell L. Stevens

Professor, Stanford Graduate School of Education

 

Mitchell L. StevensThe idea that ethno-racial and cultural diversity is a positive attribute in organizational life has become deeply divisive in contemporary US culture.

Elites in many institutional domains of US society — higher education, tech, corporate America and the Democratic Party — perform strong commitment to the diversity idea.

Yet diversity also engenders fierce opposition among cultural and political conservatives.

Sociologists have amply investigated the rise of the diversity idea but have little explanation for the strong emotions and costly activism it engenders across the political spectrum.

Drawing on institutional theory, political-historical sociology, cultural theory, and the sociologies of nationalism and religion, my coauthors and I develop a syncretic theory of diversity culture as a strand of American civil religion: an ongoing tradition of practice and discourse about who constitutes the American nation.

Developed initially among academic elites in the 1970s, diversity culture has sought to extend the idea of e pluribus unum to explicitly include people who are not white.

While obvious to many, the hegemony of this idea has never been absolute, and is increasingly challenged by populist movements anchored in enduring traditions of racial hierarchy. 

About The Pathways Network

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Non-standard work and children’s education consequences

Paper by Bastian Betthäuser (et al.) on German data
  • Fig 1 - Parents’ temporary contracts and children’s school track (B. Betthäuser)Fig 1 - Parents’ temporary contracts and children’s school track (B. Betthäuser)

The temporal dimension of parental employment: Temporary contracts, non-standard work schedules, and children’s education in Germany

Bastian Betthäuser, Nhat An Trinh, Anette Eva Fasang

European Sociological Review, jcad073, https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcad073

Even though non-standard employment is on the rise, we still know little about how common non-standard work is amongst parents, and whether its negative consequences are further transmitted to their children. Using data from the German Microcensus (2012-2019), this article documents the prevalence and concentration of temporary employment and non-standard work schedules in households with children in Germany. It also examines the extent to which variation in this temporal dimension of parental employment is associated with children’s school track.

Results show that in about half of all German households with children in lower-secondary school at least one parent has a temporary contract or regularly works evenings or Saturdays. The authors find that children whose mother always works evenings or Saturdays are substantially less likely to transition to the academic school track. By contrast, they find no significant association between fathers’ non-standard work schedules and children’s school track and no evidence of an association between parents’ temporary employment and children’s school track placement.

These divergent findings highlight the importance of disaggregating non-standard work into its specific components and differentiating between mothers' and fathers' non-standard work when investigating the consequences of parental non-standard work for children’s educational and life chances.

Displacing Refugees: Resettlement and the Reconstitution of Families

Molly Fee
CRIS Scientific Seminar, November 24th 2023
  • "Families Belong Together" protest, Image Jana Shea (via Shutterstock)"Families Belong Together" protest, Image Jana Shea (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, November 24th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room F. Goguel (27, St Guillaume)

Displacing Refugees: Resettlement and the Reconstitution of Families
Molly Fee

Postdoctoral Prize Research Fellow in Sociology
Nuffield College, University of Oxford

Molly FeeSociologists traditionally use integration as the framework for studying the benefits and shortcomings of refugee resettlement, which is considered a durable solution for forced migrants.

This paper problematizes dominant narratives of resettlement as a time of integration and a solution to displacement.

Based on over one thousand hours of ethnographic fieldwork and 102 interviews with refugees and services providers in two U.S. cities, I show how displacement extends through initial resettlement.
By using families as the unit of analysis, this paper demonstrates how the U.S. Refugee Admissions Program reconstitutes kinship structures in three distinct ways,
 1) by prolonging earlier separations caused by forced migration,
 2) by creating new separations that become difficult to rectify, and
 3) by bringing together outdated family units.
Consequently, resettlement engenders social, emotional, and economic consequences that are further disruptive to refugees’ lives.

This paper offers a novel framework for understanding the early stages of a refugee's resettlement. I center refugees’ experiences to make visible all of the tensions caused by this humanitarian program. By focusing on how resettlement reconstitutes refugee families, I contribute to the scholarship on immigrant families and advance sociological understandings of displacement.

Please Register Here

Réception du congé de paternité, parentalités et masculinités de la grossesse à la petite enfance

Alix Sponton
Soutenance de thèse, 15 décembre 2023
  • Image Fumika Shibata (via Shutterstock)Image Fumika Shibata (via Shutterstock)

Se montrer présent
Réception du congé de paternité, parentalités et masculinités
de la grossesse à la petite enfance

Soutenance de thèse de Alix Sponton

Vendredi 15 décembre 2023 à 14h30, à l'IEP de Paris, 1 place Saint-Thomas d'Aquin (présentiel uniquement).

Alix SpontonLes congés postnataux destinés aux pères sont aujourd’hui considérés comme des leviers d’action clés pour réduire les inégalités femmes-hommes, notamment parce qu’ils contribueraient à un meilleur partage des responsabilités familiales. À partir d’enquêtes quantitatives et d’entretiens répétés auprès d’hommes avant et après la naissance de leur premier enfant, cette thèse questionne dans quelle mesure, et par quels procédés, le congé de paternité de deux semaines (2002-2021) favorise effectivement la participation masculine aux tâches parentales et ménagères en France. Elle croise sociologie de l’action publique, de la famille et du genre.

Alors que la littérature a davantage examiné les effets de la durée des congés posés par les hommes sur leur engagement parental, cette thèse souligne l’importance de considérer les différentes manières dont les pères emploient la politique publique, en pratique. La période à laquelle les deux semaines sont mobilisées révèle des interprétations et usages variés du congé, qui n’ont pas les mêmes implications. Lorsqu’il est posé dès la naissance, le congé de paternité entraine un pic d’engagement paternel et un meilleur partage du sommeil au cours de l’après-accouchement. Par contraste, lorsque le congé de paternité est reporté de quelques semaines, avant que les mères n’aient repris leur activité professionnelle, les pères l’utilisent le plus souvent au cours de périodes de vacances pour profiter de moments conviviaux en famille, souvent loin du domicile et du quotidien.
À plus long terme, les hommes qui ont posé un congé participent légèrement plus aux tâches parentales les plus valorisées, mais leurs compagnes ne réduisent pas leur propre investissement temporel. Ainsi, sans la mise en place d’autres arrangements professionnels durables, le recours perturbe peu la division genrée des rôles parentaux. Par ailleurs, le suivi des trajectoires parentales souligne que la façon dont les pères s’approprient la politique préfigure, plus qu’elle n’influence, les pratiques paternelles.

Finalement, le recours au congé est particulièrement emblématique des normes de « présence paternelle » actuelles, en ce qu’il permet à la plupart des pères de rendre visible un intérêt pour l’enfant sans compromettre l’activité professionnelle.

Composition du jury:
Laura Bernardi, professeure ordinaire, Université de Lausanne (rapportrice)
Marta Domínguez Folgueras, associate professor, Sciences Po, CRIS (codirectrice)
Alban Jacquemart, maître de conférences, Université Paris Dauphine, IRISSO (examinateur)
Agnès Martial, directrice de recherche, CNRS, CNE/EHESS (rapportrice)
Ariane Pailhé, directrice de recherche, Ined (codirectrice)
Olivia Samuel, professeure des universités, Université Paris Nanterre, Cresppa (examinatrice)

Call for Two PhD Candidates

A Social Demography of Widowhood across Ageing Societies
Deadline: December 10th
  • Image Antonio Guillem (via Shutterstock)Image Antonio Guillem (via Shutterstock)

The Center for Research on Social Inequalities (CRIS) at Sciences Po invites applications for two three-year PhD fellowships within the remit of the ERC project: A Social Demography of Widowhood across Ageing Societies.

This ground-breaking research moves beyond the state-of-the-art in at least four ways to establish a social demography of widowhood.
The foundation of the project lies in an innovative conceptual and methodological approach to the risk and vulnerability to widowhood. While risk aims at the probability and duration of widowhood, vulnerability focuses on its mental health and economic consequences. Current assessments of widowhood effects are limited to change in wellbeing directly after bereavement with a special focus on unexpected deaths. However, the most prevalent scenario entails a process of terminal health decline in the years before death. The consequences of the often neglected longer process of expected widowhood may be larger than the shorter process of unexpected widowhood.
Three ground-breaking pillars build on risk and vulnerability to examine social inequalities by socioeconomic status, race-ethnicity and nativity, social support networks, gender and age, as well as country differences and change over time.
High-quality cross-sectional and longitudinal data sources will be harmonized and applied to an advanced set of statistical methods for up to 60 ageing countries varying in demographic trends and welfare systems from 1985 with projections to 2050. A social demography of widowhood will supplement fragmented evidence with systematic and comprehensive estimates on risk and vulnerability, provide insights into the challenges facing a growing widowed population and their family members, and facilitate new research on sustainable pension and elder care systems.

Two openings:

  • the risk of widowhood
  • the vulnerability to widowhood.

Applicants should specify whether they are applying to the position focused on the risk or the vulnerability of widowhood. It is expected that the successful applicants will contribute to research on how the risk or vulnerability to widowhood varies across social groups and across countries. Interested persons are asked to refer to the project proposals for more information and contact Zachary Van Winkle (zachary.vanwinkle@sciencespo.fr) with any questions.

Requirements:
- Master’s degree in sociology, demography, economics, gerontology or a related field,
- Background or strong interest in family sociology and/or demography as well as quantitative methods,
- Previous experience with cross-sectional and/or longitudinal data preparation and analysis in Stata, R or similar
- Ability to work independently and collaboratively
- Excellent English language skills

Start date September 1st, 2024, on the Sciences Po Campus (Paris Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin).

Please download the complete job description and application procedure here (pdf, 266 ko)

Reproduction of inequalities: the role of Justice and police institutions

Magda Boutros joins the CRIS as Assistant Professor
  • Magda Boutros (Image Alexis Lecomte / Sciences Po)Magda Boutros (Image Alexis Lecomte / Sciences Po)

Since this fall, Magda Boutros is a new permanent researcher, joining the CRIS team. 
In addition to her personal page and C.V., Magda Boutros agreed to answer a few questions to better present her field of study and her ongoing / future projects.

  • Can you tell us a little more about your background before joining CRIS?

Before getting into academia I worked as a human rights researcher in Egypt on issues of policing, criminal justice, and prison conditions, including during the 2011 revolution. I decided to get a PhD in sociology because I wanted to better understand how these institutions function, and how people organise collectively to resist the violence and inequalities that they produce. I got my PhD from Northwestern University; then I spent one year at Brown University as a postdoc, before taking on a faculty position at the University of Washington in 2021. I joined CRIS in September 2023.

  • How would you describe your area of expertise and your main field of investigation?

My research examines the violence and inequalities produced and reproduced by policing and criminal justice institutions, and how people act collectively to challenge them.
I'm currently finalising a book about French movements against racialised policing, which compares three activist coalitions. The book analyses how activists challenge the power of the police to determine what is known, and what remains unknown, about policing and the inequalities it generates - how they produce evidence of the policing practices they denounce, and how their knowledge-making practices shape their discourse and their influence on the political debate.
Previously, I studied how Egyptian activists developed novel tactics to make up for the police's failure to protect women from sexual violence in public spaces, through "intervention teams" that they deployed during protests and in large crowds.

  • What do you particularly want to develop in terms of research over the next few years? What work will mark the beginning of your career at CRIS?

So far, my work has focused on activist movements against policing. In my upcoming projects, I intend to focus more on analysing policing practices that reproduce violence and inequalities, and on the mechanisms that undergird these practices. For example, I'm currently involved in a collaborative project with Aline Daillère on the "eviction of undesirables" from public spaces (the police's term, not mine), through identity checks, detention in police custody, and monetary fines. We're looking at why these practices are growing in France over the past decade, what they look like in practice, who they target, and what their consequences are for marginalised groups. 

  • What current events are currently attracting your attention in the public arena, that you're following, or that raise questions for you?

Right now, the extreme violence and destruction unleashed in the Middle East is taking all my attention. It raises similar questions that I work on, about state violence and how racialisation processes help justify and normalise it.

The Principle of Dynastic Succession in Wealth Transmission

Nhat An Trinh
CRIS Scientific Seminar, November 17th 2023
  • Image Monkey Business Images (via Shutterstock) Image Monkey Business Images (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, November 17th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room Salle du Conseil (13, Université)

The Principle of Dynastic Succession in Wealth Transmission

Nhat An Trinh
Research Officer
Institute for New Economic Thinking
Department of Social Policy and Intervention
Nuffield College, University of Oxford

Mounting research documents that wealth strongly persists across generations. Inheritances and inter-vivo gifts from parents to children are key contributors to this persistence. Intergenerational transfers are yet not only made unequally between families. It has been shown that a substantial share of intergenerational transfers is also made unequally within families.

In this study, we address this puzzle of unequal division and empirically investigate the distribution of intergenerational transfers through the lens of what we call the ‘principle of dynastic succession’.
This principle states that intergenerational transfers are made such that the family and its wealth are carried on into the long-lasting future, leading to unequal division.
Analyzing administrative data from the German inheritance and gift tax register (2007-2020), we argue that the principle is particularly salient in the presence of structuring assets (e.g. family business) and that its application varies along the estate distribution.
Going beyond individual parent-child transactional relationships, the principle of dynastic succession allows to link intra-familial disparities to long-term persistence in overall wealth inequality more broadly. Thereby, it sheds light on a so far neglected mechanism through which the family generates inequalities both within and between generations.

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Beyond “Do neighbourhoods matter?”

Effects on youth development
Laura Silva, Thesis Defense
  • Image Andriy Blokhin (via Shuterstock)Image Andriy Blokhin (via Shuterstock)
Beyond “Do neighbourhoods matter?
Investigating heterogeneous neighbourhood effects on youth development
PhD Thesis Defence
Laura Silva
Thursday, November 30th, Sciences Po

Jury:
Lidia Panico, Professeur des universités, Sciences Po, CNRS, CRIS
Haley McAvay, Lecturer, University of York
Mirna Safi, Full Professor, Sciences Po, CNRS, CRIS (supervisor)
Geoffrey Wodtke, Associate Professor, University of Chicago (rapporteur)
Fabrizio Bernardi, Catedratico , Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (rapporteur)
Felix Tropf, Associate Professor, University College London (UCL) and Purdue University

Laura Silva (CRIS)Neighbourhoods are meso-level social structures within which individuals live and develop and are therefore known to affect youth education-related outcomes. I try to better understand the specific conditions under which neighbourhood effects may take place and the specific underlying mechanisms.

In this PhD thesis, I investigate three research questions: Does neighbourhood deprivation shape the development of cognitive and non-cognitive skills and how does this vary by gender?
Is there a multigenerational neighbourhood effect on cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes ?
Do neighbourhood conditions interact with education-related genes in affecting education-related outcomes?

I provide answers building on the UK - National Child Development Study (NCDS) data, the ongoing 1958 cohort. I use a wide range of estimation methods to identify the effects of neighbourhoods on a large range of outcomes that relate to either the cognitive or the non-cognitive youth development dimensions.
In particular, I exploit the process of allocation of social housing in the UK in the 1970s as well as regression with residuals modelling to improve the causal estimation of neighbourhood effects.

This thesis shows that growing up in relatively disadvantaged areas negatively affects both cognitive and non-cognitive development. Neighbourhood deprivation particularly negatively affects girls, as compared to boys. Moreover, individual family histories of neighbourhood disadvantage have a lingering effect.
As for the interaction with genetic predispositions, I find that living in more advantaged neighbourhoods narrows the gap between individuals characterised by high and low genetic predispositions for academic motivation and achievement. This emphasises the compensating role that advantaged neighbourhoods might play in reducing social inequalities in education.
Overall, this thesis highlights the complex interplay between individual characteristics and neighbourhood environments in shaping the production and re-production of education inequalities. I emphasise the need for policies and interventions to create supportive and equitable neighbourhood environments.

CNRS - Concours des chargés de recherche (H/F)

Soutien du CRIS pour la campagne 2024
  • © Cyril FRÉSILLON / CNRS Images© Cyril FRÉSILLON / CNRS Images

Les candidats et candidates au concours de Chargé·e de recherche 2024 du CNRS peuvent bénéficier du soutien actif du CRIS (anciennement OSC), UMR 7049. Les inscriptions sont officiellement ouvertes du 10 janvier au 9 février 2024.

Le Centre de Recherche sur les Inégalités Sociales (CRIS) est rattaché au CNRS (sections 36 et 40) et à Sciences Po. Il accueille des chercheuses et chercheurs issus de plusieurs disciplines souhaitant développer une recherche de pointe sur la stratification et les inégalités sociales.

Les travaux menés au CRIS couvrent une diversité de domaines (genre, origine, milieu social, éducation, ségrégation urbaine, politiques sociales, mobilités et migrations, pratiques culturelles, usages du numérique, inégalités environnementales, inégalités de santé) et utilisent plusieurs types de méthodologies, y compris expérimentales.

L'internationalisation, la rigueur théorique et méthodologique, le respect de l'autonomie des personnels académiques constituent les piliers de la politique scientifique du CRIS.

Les candidates et candidats intéressés par nous rejoindre sont invités à prendre rendez-vous avant le 20 novembre 2023 avec la directrice de l'unité, Mirna Safi (mirna.safi@sciencespo.fr ; mettre en copie la Secrétaire générale Linda Amrani :  linda.amrani@sciencespo.fr) en joignant : un CV, un descriptif de leur projet de recherche et une lettre d'intention explicitant le choix du CRIS.

Le Conseil du laboratoire statuera sur les demandes et pourra proposer une présentation orale en séminaire d'équipe.

Lien vers la page du concours chercheurs CNRS avec les modalités de candidature et de déroulement de la campagne

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The Changing and Uneven Landscape of Gender Gaps in STEM

Joseph Cimpian
CRIS Seminar, Friday November 10th
  • Vector from Angela Matthews, via ShutterstockVector from Angela Matthews, via Shutterstock

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, November 10th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1 St Thomas)

The Changing and Uneven Landscape of Gender Gaps in STEM

Joseph Cimpian
Professor of Economics and Education Policy, New York University

Gender disparities in science, technology, engireering and mathematics (STEM) college majors have received substantial attention, with varying gender gaps across fields.
While biology and mathematics approach a 1-to-1 male-to-female ratio, physics, engineering, and computer science (PECS) remain at a 4-to-1 gap.

This talk explores potential causes and solutions for the PECS gender disparity.

Surprisingly, low-achieving men outnumber women in PECS, which cannot be easily explained by student-level factors suggested in the literature. With this background, we turn to understanding the role of institutions in perpetuating or closing gender gaps.

Analyzing a near census of 34 million U.S. Bachelor’s degrees awarded from 2002 to 2022 reveals considerable disparities across institutions. Schools serving lower-achieving students witness a widening PECS male-to-female ratio, reaching 7:1, while those with higher-achieving students narrow the gap to below 2:1.

Despite accounting for key student-level factors including prior achievement and majoring intentions, institutional differences persist, emphasizing the need for interventions in institutions serving lower-achieving students, where men dominate PECS programs.

Please register here!

The Brilliance Barrier: Stereotypes about Brilliance Are an Obstacle to Diversity in Science and Beyond

Andrei Cimpian
CRIS Scientific Seminar, October 27th 2023
  • Image eamesBot (via Shutterstock)Image eamesBot (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, October 27th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1 St Thomas)

The Brilliance Barrier:
Stereotypes about Brilliance Are an Obstacle to Diversity in Science and Beyond

Andrei Cimpian
Professor of Psychology, New York University

Andrei CimpianI propose that a field’s diversity is affected by what its members believe is required for success: Fields that value exceptional intellectual talent above all else may inadvertently obstruct the participation of women and (some) minority groups.

The environment in these fields may be less welcoming to women and minority groups because of the cultural stereotypes that associate intellectual talent -- brilliance, genius, etc. -- with (white) men.

This proposal is supported by observational and experimental data from a wide range of fields in the sciences and the humanities, as well as by developmental data that reveal how early these stereotypes take hold.

Mandatory Registration. Thank You !
 

The Long Crisis of Black Masculinity in Racial Capitalism

Jordanna Matlon
CRIS Scientific Seminar, October 20th 2023
  • Image Anton Ivanov (via Shutterstock)Image Anton Ivanov (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, October 20th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Salle du Conseil (13 Rue de l'Université)

The Long Crisis of Black Masculinity in Racial Capitalism

Jordanna Matlon
Associate Professor, School of International Service, American University

Jordanna Matlon In this talk, Matlon examines competing constructions of modern manhood in the West African metropolis of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

Engaging the histories, representational repertoires, and performative identities of men in Abidjan and across the Black Atlantic, Jordanna Matlon shows how French colonial legacies and media tropes of Blackness root masculine identity and value within labor, consumerism, and commodification.

Matlon provides a broad chronological and transatlantic account of Black masculinity that culminates in an ethnography of the livelihoods and lifestyles of vendeurs ambulants, underemployed men in Abidjan's informal economy. In doing so, Matlon demonstrates how men's subjectivities are formed in dialectical tension by and through hegemonic ideologies of race and patriarchy.

Mandatory Registration. Thank You !

Why are there so few female executives? Evidence from the equality frontier

Øyvind Skorge
CRIS Seminar, October 13th
  • Image pics five (via Shutterstock)Image pics five (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, October 13th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1 St-Thomas)

Why are there so few female executives? Evidence from the equality frontier

Øyvind Skorge
Associate Professor of Political Science at Oslo New University College
Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Social Research (ISF)
(co-author Sigtona Halrynjo, ISF)

Øyvind SkorgeIn top executive business positions, women are rare—also in countries otherwise characterized by gender egalitarian norms and high inclusion of women in work and politics. To address this puzzle, we build on the nascent literature on overwork and assortative mating to argue that since women professionals are more likely than their male counterparts to have equally ambitious partners, they have less flexibility at home to take on leadership positions requiring long hours and constant availability.

Using unique survey, experimental, and qualitative interview data of employees and executives in ten large Norwegian enterprises, we examine the argument against other influential explanations, including implicit gender/motherhood bias, personal ambitions, and inclusion experiences.

Norway is consistently ranked among the most gender-equal countries globally, yet women's representation in top executive positions remains modest. We find no evidence of implicit bias or gender differences in stated career ambitions, negotiations for position or pay, or being heard at work. Instead, the study shows that availability for clients and colleagues beyond regular working hours is a crucial predictor of suitability for executive positions. We document that the conditions to meet these demands are skewed against women, and particularly mothers, due to demands at home.
Our findings imply that as long as career success remains dependent on 24/7 availability during childrearing years, women will remain underrepresented among top executives.

Mandatory Registration. Thank You !

Assess the effects of migrants’ initial legal status

Tianjian Lai, Haley McAvay, Mirna Safi
European Sociological Review
  • Image jef77 (via Shutterstock)Image jef77 (via Shutterstock)

Diverging pathways:
the effects of initial legal status on immigrant socioeconomic and residential outcomes in France

Tianjian Lai (University of Chicago), Haley McAvay (University of York), Mirna Safi
European Sociological Review, 28 September, doi: 10.1093/esr/jcad047

Read or download the Paper (available in Open Access)

This article provides an empirical assessment of the effects of migrants’ initial legal status on socioeconomic attainment focusing on three outcomes:

  • household income, 
  • neighbourhood disadvantage, 
  • concentration in immigrant neighbourhoods.

The regulation of migration in modern nation-states entails the sorting of newcomers along legal lines of demarcation that define residency status. These legal distinctions upon arrival grant or deny rights and opportunities and determine access to citizenship and socioeconomic resources. Certain legal statuses allow migrants to enter the labour market immediately (i.e. work permits), while others provide a faster track to citizenship (i.e. marriage permits). These classifications further shape the degree of inclusion and reception that immigrants encounter.

In this article, we draw on a unique, large-sample data source from France, the Trajectories and Origins (TeO) survey, which includes rare information on migrants’ first residency permit and a wide range of premigration variables. We focus on five initial permit categories - refugee, student, worker, spouse of a French citizen, and family reunification - and measure their impact on socioeconomic attainment and residential attainment as reported at the time of the survey.
Our empirical strategy seeks to disentangle the effects of legal status from confounding factors implementing a series of different methodological approaches.

The results first show that immigrants’ outcomes vary by their initial legal status. Migrants who arrived in France with student, worker and French spouse permits tend to be more advantaged in socioeconomic outcomes, while refugees face greater disadvantage. Yet, some of these disparities disappear once premigration variables and/or individual heterogeneity are accounted for. These results suggest that most initial legal status categories are stratified prior to arrival and not stratifiers in the destination country per se. However, we consistently measure a negative effect of refugee status on respondents’ income across diverse model specifications, suggesting a lasting impact of this legal category.

People interact closer when a face mask is worn but risk compensation is at best partial

Martin Aranguren et al. - New Paper
  • Image bvldone (via Shutterstock)Image bvldone (via Shutterstock)

People interact closer when a face mask is worn
but risk compensation is at best partial

Martin Aranguren, Alice Cartaud, Ibrahima Cissé, Yann Coello

European Journal of Public Health
ckad161, Published First 17 September, doi 10.1093/eurpub/ckad161

View or Download the Paper (Open Access)

As dramatically illustrated by the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, nonpharmaceutical interventions can be crucial in the effort to contain the spread of infectious diseases. During the still ongoing COVID-19 crisis, two of the most common interventions of this type have been the recommendation or mandate to wear a face mask and to keep a minimal physical distance from others. These measures are highly generic and low cost, in the sense that they can be implemented in response to a wide array of similarly transmissible infectious diseases, in the short term and with relatively modest economic effort. However, despite their clearly beneficial potential, the relationship between wearing a face mask and keeping a minimal distance from others is still an object of controversy.

The article addresses the following questions:
- Do people interact closer when the face mask is worn?
- Do people interact closer because they believe that the mask reduces the risk of contagion?
- If the mask induces people to interact closer, does the increase in risk entailed by shorter distances entirely offset the decrease in risk offered by the mask?

We performed a large field experiment on real-life interactions (n > 4500) in the streets of Paris between July and September 2021, and a controlled laboratory experiment in virtual reality in the IrDIVE Platform (Innovation Research in the Digital and Interactive Visual Environments, Tourcoing) with 64 volunteers.

Although the present report focuses on the effect of face mask use, the experiment was also conceived to test those of perceived race and social status.

 

Linking Wealth and Power

Direct Political Action of Corporate Elites and the Wealthiest Capitalist Families in the US and Germany
Lukas Arndt, CRIS Papers
  • Image miniartkur (via Shutterstock)Image miniartkur (via Shutterstock)

Linking Wealth and Power: Direct Political Action of Corporate Elites and the Wealthiest Capitalist Families in the United States and Germany

Lukas Arndt (PhD, Sciences Po - CRIS & MPIfG Cologne)

CRIS Papers n° 2023-1, October 2023, 32p., doi 10.25647/osc.papers.05

Download the Paper (Hal Sciences Po)
Download the Appendix (Data.sciencespo)

Lukas ArndtAs Thomas Piketty argued, wealth concentration at the top of the distribution in many economically developed countries might lead to continuous concentration of large fortunes among a few super-rich families. At the same time, what he calls “superstar managers” receive astronomical salaries.

Do individuals with power in the economy translate it into political power in capitalist democracies? And if yes, what do these individuals want to achieve?
Are they just pragmatically using access to influence economic policy, maximizing their own profits? Or do they use their economic power to advocate for an ideological agenda that might be different from the rest of the voters?

This study inquires whether two groups of individuals with power in the economy directly translate it into political power in capitalist democracies: The corporate elite and super-rich capitalist families.

It does so by analyzing three potential “avenues of influence”: Lobbying or party donations through controlled firms, and individual party donations.

Shareholders and managers of the largest German and US firms are analyzed.

First, 6,227 members of US and German families with large assets are identified.
Second, the national corporate elites are identified.
Individual and firm data is then used to predict lobbying and party contribution in 2019-2021 with logistic regressions.

Results suggest that direct political action on the part of the super-rich and the corporate elite is much more prevalent and more ideological in the United States than in Germany. If they engage at all,
the super-rich tend to be a very conservative group who use all three avenues of influence complementarily. However, the magnitude of super-rich and elite money does not favor the idea of an “oligarchy” in either of the two countries, at least not through these direct and visible channels.

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Beyond Borders:

Does Firm-Level Exposure to State and Local Paid Sick Leave Mandates Lead to Policy Diffusion?
Daniel Schneider, CRIS Seminar, October 6th
  • Image FHPhoto (via Shutterstock)Image FHPhoto (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, October 6th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, Room K008 (1 St-Thomas)

Beyond Borders: Does Firm-Level Exposure to State and Local Paid Sick Leave Mandates Lead to Policy Diffusion?

Daniel Schneider
Professor of Sociology and Malcom Wiener Professor of Social Policy
Harvard Kennedy School

Daniel Schneider (Harvard University)In the face of precarious working conditions, states and localities across the United States have passed labor standards to raise the floor on job quality. Where innovation in the American states might have once diffused to shape federal legislation, contemporary polarization in the US makes the enactment of national labor standards unlikely. Nevertheless, the resulting patchwork of state and local standards may, paradoxically, produce another kind of national policy diffusion.
Faced with this “patchwork,” large multi-state firms may align company labor practices with the most stringent regulatory environments that they face given the geographic distribution of their establishments.
To test this possibility, we take advantage of new employer-employee linked data from The Shift Project and focus on the case of paid sick leave.

We find that state and local paid sick leave mandates spill-over through multi-state employers to provide workers in places without mandates effective access to paid sick leave, and these findings survive a placebo test using other fringe benefits. These associations are stronger at firms headquartered in places with paid leave mandates and weaker at firms with franchise models. Companies act as conduits through which the reach of local mandates that raise the floor on job quality are expanded to a broader set of workers.

Mandatory Registration. Thank You !

Inequality and the Environment Symposium for Early-career Researchers

Call for Papers
  • Image Lightspring (via Shutterstock)Image Lightspring (via Shutterstock)

Inequality and the Environment Symposium for Early-career Researchers

Organized by Sciences Po's Center for Research on social InequalitieS, in partnership with the
World Inequality Lab at the Paris School of Economics

Co-Chairs: Lucas Chancel (Sciences Po - CRIS and Harvard Kennedy School)
Carlo Barone (Sciences Po - CRIS)
Committee: Carlo Barone, Lucas Chancel, Eloi Laurent, Allison Rovny

Rising inequality and environmental degradation are two critical challenges of our time. Our knowledge about the interplay between socio-economic inequality, environmental degradation, and environmental policies remains limited. The literature on inequality and the environment presents various conceptual, empirical, and theoretical gaps hindering societies’ ability to effectively address these issues.
Important questions remain unanswered, such as: How can governments address inequality while averting the exacerbation of climate and biodiversity crises? Which welfare regimes could be compatible with deep decarbonization? What types of political coalitions can support these changes? What role have income and wealth inequality played in accelerating or slowing environmental degradation?

From a methodological standpoint, the basic measurement and analysis of environmental inequalities is a complex task. How can emission inequalities between individuals and social groups be systematically measured? How can the multidimensional distributional impacts of environmental regulations be tracked and explained? How to accurately measure and understand the intersection of social class, gender, racial, and spatial inequalities to better explain observed pollution and depollution patterns?

This symposium aims to present, discuss, and foster innovative approaches to social science research on environmental inequality across three broad research streams :

  • Inequalities in the impacts of environmental degradation;
  • Inequalities in contributions to environmental damage; 
  • Inequalities in capacities to act against pollution or to cope with environmental policies.

We invite PhD students and Post-Docs from economics, sociology, psychology, political science, geography, demography, history, environmental sciences and related fields to submit their papers and participate in the symposium. The event will take place on one day at Sciences Po (Paris). This symposium provides a platform to present groundbreaking research, engage in discussions, and collaborate with other researchers. The participation in person is highly encouraged to facilitate scientific exchanges among researchers, but online participation is possible particularly for researchers from outside Europe.

Please download here the submission guidelines.

Deadline for Submission: November 1st, 2023.

For queries, contact : lucas.chancel@sciencespo.fr and carlo.barone@sciencespo.fr.

Join us in this endeavor to bridge the knowledge gap and foster the outstanding of social science research on inequality and the environment. We look forward to your contributions and insights!

Evaluation des politiques publiques

Methods and Approches
  • Images esbc et Shutterstock (eamesbot)Images esbc et Shutterstock (eamesbot)

Policy Evaluation: Methods and Approaches
Méthodes et approches en évaluation des politiques publiques

Edited by Anne Revillard

24 méthodes ou approches utilisées pour l'évaluation. Ouvrage conçu par le LIEPP sous la direction de Anne Revillard, édité par les éditions Sciences et Bien commun (Québec). L'ambition est de combiner des outils issus de la recherche fondamentale avec ceux développés par les praticiens, en ouvrant un dialogue entre méthodes quantitatives et qualitatives. Plus d'informations sur le projet, sur le site du LIEPP

Cet ouvrage est consultable en ligne en accès libre. Version de l'ouvrage en français

Two fundamental choices guide this book: combining tools from fundamental research with others developed in evaluation practice, and opening a dialogue between quantitative and qualitative methods. This book is also available in English.

Plusieurs fiches méthodologiques ont été rédigées par des chercheurs du CRIS.

Approches quanti et quali (illustration, Anne Revillard, 2023)

Immigration News Remix: Unraveling Online Distortions of Mainstream Narratives

Katharina Tittel
CRIS Scientific Seminar, September 29th 2023
  • Image BalkansCat  (via Shutterstock)Image BalkansCat (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, September 29th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, 27, rue Saint-Guillaume, room François Goguel

Immigration News Remix: Unraveling Online Distortions of Mainstream Narratives

Katharina Tittel (PhD Student, Sciences Po - CRIS & Medialab)

Media studies have long scrutinized the portrayal of migration, primarily within traditional newspapers, and assuming a top-down influence of elite-produced news frames on audiences. However, social media has disrupted these dynamics, challenging conventional media effects theories and raising questions about the roles of political actors, citizens, and civil society organizations in content distribution and framing effects. Which contents actually circulate, by whom, and how are they shared?

This research diverges from past content-centric studies, focusing on the circulation of news content online. It relies on digital-trace data from Facebook shares of immigration-related articles from mainstream newspapers in Germany and France from 2015 to 2019, as well as the sources shared in French immigration-related tweets from 2020 to 2021, using natural language processing, manual source classification, and combining the Twitter dataset with Chapel Hill expert survey data to estimate users' ideological leanings.

The analysis reveals that far-right political activists, along with anti-immigrant civil society groups, not only extensively share content from far-right outlets but also remix and recontextualize mainstream news, selectively emphasizing elements that further their agendas. In contrast, centrist and leftist voices, as well as refugee solidarity groups, exhibit markedly reduced engagement.

In the current political climate marked by the ascent of far-right movements in Germany and France, this research exposes how ostensibly "neutral" immigration news can become instruments to advance far-right political agendas. The observed silence among centrist and leftist groups further invites contemplation regarding how such behaviors may inadvertently leave the online space to extremist voices.

Just as organizations and scholars increasingly discuss the challenges of "fake news" and the necessity of fact-checking, this study underscores the urgency of addressing not only the spread of factually false information but also the subtler transformations of factually true mainstream news narratives.

Mandatory Registration. Thank You !

 

Where Do Local Voting Patterns Mirror the National Vote? A Micro-scale Study on Party Political Segregation in Germany

Ansgar Hudde - AxPo/CRIS Seminar, 22nd September 11:30am
  • Image 1take1shot (via Shutterstock)Image 1take1shot (via Shutterstock)

CRIS & Axpo Scientific Seminar

Friday, September 22nd 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, 1 place St-Thomas, room K008

Where Do Local Voting Patterns Mirror the National Vote?
A Micro-scale Study on Party Political Segregation in Germany

Ansgar Hudde
Lecturer, University of Cologne, Institute of Sociology and Social Psychology

Ansgar HuddeThis study analyses the spatial segregation in political voting behavior at the voting district (“neighborhood”) level in Germany. The degree of segregation versus integration is gauged by the extent to which local voting patterns diverge from overall, national-level voting patterns. If a neighborhood’s voting pattern resemble Germany's overall pattern, there is no segregation; conversely, if the neighborhood’s pattern strongly deviates from national trends, segregation is deemed high.

Small-scale political segregation matters because those residing in politically segregated areas are less likely to experience and “feel” the country’s general, political climate in their everyday life. This could lead to a sense of alienation from politics.

I analyze voting district-level results from the German federal elections from 1983 to 2021. With ~65,000 voting districts in 2021, this allows an extremely granular perspective.

Findings uncover two main patterns. Firstly, Eastern German neighborhoods typically exhibit higher levels of local segregation compared to those in Western Germany. Secondly, the relationship between segregation and the rural-urban continuum is U-shaped. Local voting patterns in rural areas and in large cities strongly deviate from national patterns. On the contrary, the voting patterns in mid-sized towns, ranging from 20,000 to 100,000 inhabitants, better represent Germany’s overall voting patterns. Further, the analyses identify additional patterns and deviations from these broader trends, such as differences between Bundesländer or outlying city-clusters like traditional university towns.

This study contributes to broader discussions on social cohesion, political polarization, and the urban-rural divide. Notably, it puts a spatial category at the center, which is often overlooked in urban-rural discussions: mid-sized towns.

Discussant: Edmond Préteceille (Sciences Po - CRIS).

Mandatory Registration. Thank You !
  This event is a joint seminar CRIS & AxPo

Assessing responsibility for GHG emissions

Antonin Pottier
CRIS Scientific Seminar, September 15th 2023
  • Image Visual Generation (via Shutterstock)Image Visual Generation (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, September 15th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, 1 place St-Thomas, room K008

Assessing responsibility for GHG emissions

Antonin Pottier (Maître de Conférences, EHESS - CIRED)

Antonin Pottier (EHESS)Numerous assessments of the responsibility for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions already exist in the literature. Assessing responsiblity however assumes a responsibility principle, that is a connection between emissions and the social entities deemed responsible for them. While the responsibility principles for countries have long been debated, the recent focus of the literature on individual emissions has relied only on consumer responsibility. I will highlight that the problem is analogous for both countries and individual: measuring emissions presupposes a perspective on the responsibility of agents.

I will then present two recent empirical studies that assess GHG emissions inequality in France. These studies are founded on contrasting responsibility principles: downstream responsibility, also known as income-based accounting, and upstream or consumer responsibility, often referred to as consumption-based accounting. Additionally, I will delve into a comprehensive discussion of the limitations of our data when it comes to evaluating consumption-based emissions, often referred to as the carbon footprint.

Mandatory Registration. Thank You !

A Social Demography of Widowhood across Ageing Societies

New Research Project
Zachary Van Winkle (Investigator) - ERC Starting Grant 2023
  • Image Ground Picture (via Shutterstock)Image Ground Picture (via Shutterstock)

The WIDOW Project (2023-2028)
A Social Demography of Widowhood across Ageing Societies

Zachary Van WinkleThe principle investigator is Zachary Van Winkle, Assistant Professor of Sociology at Sciences Po - CRIS.

Widowhood is a critical life event entailing profound grief and consequences in the short-term and long-term. It remains one of the prime life course risks in contemporary societies.
Most research demonstrates that spousal loss commonly may lead to an immediate decline in both mental health and economic wellbeing. In fact, existing evidence is mixed as to whether widows and widowers recover from grieving quickly or remain chronically and clinically depressed for years.
It is also unclear whether the financial consequences of spousal death are short lived or push large numbers of widows and widowers into a persistent state of old-age poverty.
As many countries grow older, the number of marriages ending with the death of a spouse is increasing dramatically, despite high separation rates. Although widowhood remains a common life event, many countries have cut or even abolished survivor benefit schemes targeted at securing the wellbeing of widows and widowers. The consequences of these reforms remain unknown.
Despite this social scientific research has been less interested in widowhood than other disruptive life events, such as job loss or divorce. The WIDOW project aims to remedy this.

This ground-breaking research will establish a social demography of widowhood. The foundation of this social demography is an innovative conceptual and methodological approach to estimate the risk of widowhood as well as the mental health and economic vulnerabilities of spousal loss. This research will concentrate on marital spousal loss among adults age 50 and older.

The risk of widowhood subsumes the probability of spousal loss and the duration of remaining widowed. The concept of vulnerability broadly denotes the consequences of widowhood during the pre- and post-widowhood periods for those who expect or not the loss of their spouse. Two types of outcomes are taking into account: mental health, including anxiety, insomnia, depression, and loneliness, as well as economic wellbeing, including household income, poverty, and wealth.

The Social Demograhy of Widowhood (Z. Van Winkle)Three pillars support that social demography.
The first assesses social inequalities in the risk and vulnerability to widowhood by focusing on how the probability and consequences of spousal loss vary by socioeconomic status, race-ethnicity, nativity, and networks of social support, as well as gender and age.
The second pillar zooms on cross-national differences in the risk and vulnerability to widowhood and their social inequalities. The geographic scope of this project spans middle- and high-income countries with ageing populations varying in demographic trends and welfare systems. The research will analyze all data sources from up to 60 countries.
The third pillar expands the comparative aspect of the project to examine both past and future change over time in the size and composition of the widowed population. Population changes will be assessed over time since 1989, with a projection to 2050.

Ethnic diversity at the local local level and prejudice, in the UK

New paper by Laura Silva et al.
Social Science Research, September 2023
  • Image Claire Louise Jackson (via Shutterstock)Image Claire Louise Jackson (via Shutterstock)

Effects of absolute levels of neighbourhood ethnic diversity vs. changes
in neighbourhood diversity on prejudice:
Moderation by individual differences in personality

Laura Silva, Franco Bonomi Bezzo, James Laurence & Katharina Schmid

Social Science Research, Vol. 115, September 2023, 102919

doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2023.102919 (View or Download the paper here)

This paper examines drivers of prejudicial attitudes among adults in the UK, focusing on the interaction between ethnic out-group size and personality traits.
Leveraging data from the National Child Development Study (NCDS), we use two survey waves carried out in 2000 and 2008, just before and after the EU enlargement policy that drove a wave of immigration in the UK.
We test the extent to which personality traits moderate the relationship between both absolute levels and changes in ethnic diversity at the local level, respectively, and prejudice.

Key findings suggest that both an individual's personality traits and the level of neighbourhood diversity matter for their intergroup attitudes. Secondly, personality traits, and in particular, one's levels of agreeableness, do appear important for conditioning how the proportion of non-white British in one's neighbourhood affects their prejudicial attitudes. Individuals with high agreeableness tend to be more tolerant of outgroup members and less likely to hold negative stereotypes.
One's level of agreeableness appears to determine how one reacts to neighbourhood diversity, potentially leading to an even greater polarisation in outgroup attitudes between low-/high agreeableness residents as neighbourhoods become more diverse.
Contrary to our predictions and prior research, we were unable to find robust evidence for the effect of openness to experience.

These findings have important implications for theorising how contextual and individual characteristics jointly affect intergroup relations.

Moving up the civic stratification ladder: inconsistency in citizenship declarations in French longitudinal data

Mirna Safi
CRIS Scientific Seminar, September 8th 2023
  • Image Darren Brode (via Shutterstock)Image Darren Brode (via Shutterstock)
  • Bulletin individuel du recensement, INSEEBulletin individuel du recensement, INSEE

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2023-2024

Friday, September 8th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po, 1 place St-Thomas, room K008

Moving up the civic stratification ladder: inconsistency in citizenship declarations
in French longitudinal data

Mirna Safi, with Louise Caron (Ined) and Haley McAvay (University of York)

 

Drawing on longitudinal data, this work tracks individual changes in self-reported citizenship over 30 years in France.
Census respondents tick one of three categories: “French by birth,” “Became French,” or “Foreigner”.
The first category should be stable over the life course: one is born, but cannot become, “French by birth”. Yet, our findings indicate that about 19% of foreign-origin respondents observed in a given census switch to “French by birth” declarations at the next census, in a process we call reclassification.
Key immigrant assimilation variables, such as nativity and migrant length of stay, as well as events such as intermarriage, naturalization, and residential mobility, trigger reclassification. Yet we also show that reclassification is higher among individuals with lower socioeconomic status and respondents of African and Southeast Asian origin, as well as those with origins in former French colonies. These findings suggest that reclassification is a byproduct of immigrant assimilation, which triggers feelings of national identity, and that it also possibly stems from status upgrading, whereby disadvantaged and discriminated groups change their citizenship declaration to compensate for low social status.
Empirically novel, these findings offer original theoretical insights into the meanings of citizenship, civic stratification, and boundary-crossing.

Mandatory Registration. Thank You.

Lauréats du Programme Jeune recherche 2023

Essai randomisé sur les biais ethno-genrés lors de l'évaluation des élèves | Gouvernance en temps de Covid
2 projets menés par Charlotte Corchete et Bartholomew Konechni
  • Image Marta Nascimento, Sciences PoImage Marta Nascimento, Sciences Po

Charlotte Corchete et Bartholomew Konechni, parmi les lauréats 2023 du programme Jeune Recherche

Proposé par le LIEPP et l'Université Paris Cité, ce programme s'adresse aux doctorants et jeunes docteurs, toutes disciplines confondues. Une subvention d'appui de 2000€ est attribuée aux lauréats.

Parmi les 16 projets lauréats, 2 sont portés par des doctorants du CRIS.

Charlotte Corchete : Corriger les conséquences des biais ethno-genrés lors de l'évaluation des élèves à l’aide d’un barème de notation ? Un essai randomisé contrôlé auprès des enseignant.e.s de français au collège

Charlotte Corchete (CRIS)En France, les récentes statistiques produites par la DEPP ont montré qu’il existe des écarts de performance non expliqués par l’origine sociale pour les garçons de troisième d'origine maghrébine ou subsaharienne et que de potentiels biais ethno-genrés peuvent s’activer lors des processus d’évaluation et de suivi scolaire. Il est intéressant de mesurer et de réduire ce phénomène afin de favoriser l’égalité.

Le projet comprend une revue de littérature systématique de l'ensemble des expérimentations portant sur les potentiels biais ethno-genrés des enseignant.e.s (notamment concernant les notes, le comportement et l'orientation scolaire). Il se fixe aussi pour objectif de réaliser une expérimentation peu coûteuse et facile à mettre en oeuvre par l'action publique afin d’encourager le recours aux barèmes de notation précis, déjà utilisés pour le brevet des collèges.

Bartholomew Konechni: Studying the Changing Pattern of Protective Behaviours During the COVID-19 Crisis - Etudier l'évolution des mesures de protection pendant la crise de Covid

Bartholomew Konechni (CRIS) La pandémie a posé un défi fondamental à la politique de santé. En l'absence de mesures efficaces, les gouvernements ont eu recours à trois grandes solutions : la coercition, le soutien économique et la vaccination. Elles ont ouvert la voie à de nouveaux instruments de gouvernance comme le confinement, le port du masque obligatoire, les aides financières directes aux plus pauvres, le passeport sanitaire... Bien que nombre de ces politiques aient effectivement permis de réduire le nombre de cas et de décès, la plupart d'entre elles se sont avérées difficiles à mettre en oeuvre, notamment sur le long terme.
En se concentrant sur les pays européennes et nord-américaines, ce projet cherche à répondre à plusieurs questions comme le niveau d'adhésion à ces mesures tout au long de la crise en fonction de leur type (coercition, incitations et vaccinations) ou l'identification de facteurs ayant modéré l'efficacité des politiques mises en oeuvre.

La liste complète des lauréats est disponible sur le site du LIEPP.

 

Les conséquences raisonnables d'une politique de réduction des énergies fossiles

Argumentaire de Lucas Chancel et al.
  • IIlustration  Vector Contributor (via Shutterstock)IIlustration Vector Contributor (via Shutterstock)

Potential pension fund losses should not deter high-income countries from bold climate action

Gregor Semieniuk, Lucas Chancel, Eulalie Saïsset, Philip B. Holden, Jean-François Mercure and Neil R. Edwards

Joule, pré-publication (en ligne), 22 juin
doi: 10.1016/j.joule.2023.05.023 

Cet article signé par Lucas Chancel (avec Gregor Semieniuk, Eulalie Saïsset, Philip B. Holden, Jean-François Mercure and Neil R. Edwards) dans la revue Joule (revue scientifique sur les enjeux des énergies renouvelables), traite de l’impact qu’aurait une politique climatique ambitieuse passant par la fermeture de sites de production de combustibles fossiles.

Au-delà de la décision d’engager une rapide transition énergétique, il y a la question du coût direct et induit de cette mesure. Quel serait l’impact, sur quel type de population, et faut-il prévoir des compensations par les États ?

En effet, stopper des activités économiques, dévaluer des actifs rentables peut entraîner des répercutions financières et sociales importantes, et pas seulement pour les propriétaires de ces industries. Il y aura un impact sur les emplois du secteur, mais aussi les fonds de pension qui comptent sur la bonne tenue des marchés financiers pour garantir le paiement des retraites.

Les auteurs précisent qu’ils étudient ici la propriété du capital financier et sa répartition dans les pays riches, la question de la perte de revenus du travail ainsi que celle des autres impacts macroéconomiques demandant à être analysés dans des travaux futurs.

La modélisation permise par l’exploitation de bases de données internationales (comptes nationaux, données fiscales, richesse…) permet aux auteurs de proposer une gamme de scénarios qui vont tous dans le sens d’une faisabilité de la transition avec un coût relativement modeste pour les finances publiques.

Les auteurs soulignent la concentration très élevée des actifs financiers en général et dans ce secteur en particulier, détenus par les plus riches. Ainsi aux États-Unis, sur 350 milliards de dollars d’actifs concernés, seuls 3,5 % concernent la moitié la plus pauvre de la population et un tiers les 90 % les plus pauvres, alors que les deux tiers restants se répartissent également entre les 10 % les plus riches. De plus, ces actifs dévalués ne représentent qu’une faible partie des patrimoines possédés par ces acteurs. Le pire des scénarios évalue les pertes potentielles à 2% de la richesse totale.

L’impact est plus fort, en proportion de la richesse, pour des ménages modestes, et variable selon les pays. Plusieurs systèmes d’épargne et de retraite existent et sont parfois très exposés aux fluctuations des marchés financiers.

Les auteurs proposent plusieurs scénarios pour évaluer les indemnisations, plus ou moins ciblées, que les gouvernements pourraient être amenés à proposer. Ils concluent que l’effort serait supportable pour les budgets publics.

Compenser les actifs dévalués pour les 50% des ménages les moins aisés coûterait 9 milliards de dollars à l’Europe, quand le renflouement de l’électricien allemand UNIPER a coûté 15 milliards. La compensation de toutes les pertes subies par les 90 % les moins aisés coûterait entre 0,1 % et 1,2 % du revenu national et 0,02 % et 0,3 % de la richesse nationale des pays pris en compte dans l’étude.
Les auteurs proposent plusieurs pistes pour financer les indemnisations, dont une taxation des émissions de carbone.

Enfin, les auteurs soutiennent qu’ un modeste impôt progressif sur la fortune appliqué aux 0,005 % les plus riches de la population permettrait de compenser la totalité des pertes induites par les actifs fossiles en 2 à 3 ans seulement. Les gouvernements des pays à revenu élevé pourraient ainsi prendre des mesures audacieuses pour le climat en dépit d’un lobbying certain des acteurs impliqués dans la production et la distribution des combustibles fossiles.

Accès à l'article en anglais (ScienceDirect)

L'article propose une annexe (PDF) et un lien vers le code et les données utilisées dans les figures.

Anne-Cécile Ott : une postdoctorante entre monde d'avant et le monde d'après

  • Anne-Cécile Ott (Image Bernard Corminboeuf)Anne-Cécile Ott (Image Bernard Corminboeuf)

Anne-Cécile Ott est chercheure postdoctorante au CRIS depuis le mois de février 2023. Elle collabore au projet MaMa - Du Monde d’Avant au Monde d’Après - porté par le CNRS.  

Anne-Cécile, quel est votre champ de recherche ? 

J’ai mené mes travaux de thèse au laboratoire Géographie-cités, en géographie sociale et culturelle, dans une perspective assez sociologique et pluri-méthodologique. Mon sujet portait sur la sociogénèse des manières de représenter le monde. J’ai interrogé 248 enfants de primaire, de profil social varié, pour étudier leurs représentations de l’espace mondial. Au travers de discussions individuelles ou collectives, de dessins ou de jeux, cette approche m’a permis d’appréhender la diversité des manières enfantines de penser le monde mais aussi la construction de stéréotypes ou d’enjeux éthiques et moraux - comme le rapport à l’altérité ou à l’environnement - à des échelles très éloignées du quotidien de la maison ou de l’école.
J’ai observé de fortes différenciations entre les représentations des enfants, qui sont parfois imputables à l’âge où à l’influence de l’Ecole mais aussi à leur socialisation familiale, par les médias ou entre pairs. Les représentations du monde ont fonctionné comme un laboratoire permettant d’observer la socialisation en train de se faire et de montrer que la socialisation des enfants au monde et par le monde crée et renforce des rapports de domination structurant le monde social  

Mon arsenal méthodologique est assez varié : enquête qualitative par entretien, statistiques descriptives, analyse textuelle… L’ancrage sociologique est évident ; c’est ce qui guide mes recherches.
Je suis qualifiée dans deux disciplines : en géographie et en sociologie.

En quelques mots, qu'étudient les chercheurs du projet MaMa ?

C’est un projet que l’on peut qualifier de multidimensionnel. Lancé par le CNRS et l’InSHS, il associe 6 laboratoires de recherche, avec plusieurs équipes par laboratoire, pour étudier les dynamiques, les processus et les reconfigurations sociales provoquées par la crise du Covid-19. Il intègre des chercheurs en santé, éducation, travail, ou culture, qui doivent apporter des éléments permettant de mesurer ce qui a changé ou pas avec la pandémie.

Le volet culture est pris en charge au CRIS et à Géographie-cités, sous la direction de Philippe Coulangeon (DR CNRS) et de Thomas Louail (CR CNRS).

Quelle est pour vous la question centrale ?

Au cœur de ce volet culturel, il y a la différenciation sociale des pratiques culturelles et numériques, notamment musicales, la formation des goûts et leur évolution dans le temps, avec une attention sur les périodes de confinement. Un des premiers enseignements est d’ailleurs que les gens semblent avoir de plus en plus de mal à se souvenir de cette période.

Quelles sont les données utilisées ?

L’étude des pratiques culturelles avant et après Covid utilise 3 types de données :

- une enquête par questionnaire que nous menons auprès des membres du panel ELIPSS (Sciences Po – CDSP, il s’agit d’un échantillon représentatif de la population française qui existe depuis 2012 et permet ainsi de disposer de données longitudinales),
- des données d’écoutes musicales venant d’un partenariat avec la plateforme Deezer que je vais utiliser sur le terrain. Ce partenariat était déjà effectif pour le projet RECORDS qui arrive bientôt à son terme et impliquait des chercheurs du CRIS et de Géographie-cité.  
- deux séries d’entretiens approfondis, de 1h30 en moyenne, qui sont de ma responsabilité, du design à l’exploitation des récits. Ces entretiens avec les abonnés DEEZER contiennent des moments d’écoute de morceaux sélectionnés pour susciter des réactions, des impressions. Les commentaires recueillis alors peuvent être très différents des réponses spontanées ou par questionnaire. C’est toute la richesse que permet l’exploitation de la mixité des matériaux collectés dans le projet

Anne-Cécile OttQu’est-ce qui vous apparait le plus motivant dans ce projet ?

La diversité des données que nous récoltons et qui entrent en synergie pour répondre aux objectifs de recherche. Je mène 48 entretiens auprès de parents et adolescents abonnés à Deezer pour comprendre les logiques de socialisation familiales aux pratiques culturelles et aux styles musicaux : la construction du goût... et du dégoût. Chaque individu est échantillonné en fonction des plusieurs variables comme le niveau de diplôme, le genre, l’âge, et la composition du foyer (adelphie). Dans tous les cas, nous disposons des données d’usage de Deezer, non seulement individuelles, mais aussi de l’abonnement « famille ». Je peux ici interroger les représentations et les pratiques, mais aussi mesurer l’écart entre le déclaratif et les pratiques réelles des abonnés, via les statistiques de stream enregistrées par la plateforme. Peu de chercheurs disposent de cette richesse et diversité de données… qui ouvrent d’autres angles d’étude. 


N’est-ce pas une situation un peu violente de confronter discours et usage dans un face à face ?

Nous avons des techniques pour susciter des commentaires sur les pratiques des volontaires ayant accepté l’entretien. Un petit outil développé par un chercheur (Robin Cura) permet de visualiser les données d’historique d’écoute. On confronte les gens à leur pratique sous forme ludique : des devinettes sur leurs morceaux favoris, les temps d’écoute, le Top 10 des artistes…

Avez-vous déjà des éléments sur cette transmission des goûts ? Peut-on penser qu’on idéalise ou sanctuarise souvent les musiques écoutées par nos parents ?

Moi j’avais un parti pris un peu inverse en m’attendant à des réactions critiques, de rejet. Mais en effet, j’ai été un peu surprise par la manière très positive dont les répondants, à l’âge adulte, parlent des goûts musicaux de leurs parents. D’où notre envie d’enquêter également auprès d’adolescents, à une période où les relations parents-enfants sont potentiellement plus conflictuelles. En fait, il ne faut pas considérer de manière trop verticale la socialisation. Elle émane de plusieurs sources : l’école, les média, les copines, les cousines… On perçoit parfois des traumatismes vécus pendant l’enfance qui se manifestent par un puissant rejet des pratiques familiales et qui serviront de guide pour la transmission à ses propres enfants.

Ces questions ne sont-elles pas redevables d’autres disciplines, comme la psychologie ?

Nous ne prenons pas les mêmes angles. Par exemple, les études sur les représentations spatiales des enfants, ont longtemps été l’apanage des psychologues. Pour Jean Piaget, dans les années 20, ces représentations évoluent par stades successifs de développement. D’abord la maison, puis le quartier… Mes travaux centrés sur les dynamiques sociales montrent des éléments allant dans un autre sens : les enfants ont des représentations de l’espace mondial dès leur prime jeunesse, et le milieu social à une influence primordiale sur la construction des représentations. Je me positionne donc différemment. D’autres chercheurs peuvent choisir des angles complémentaires. 

Comment ce travail va-t-il être valorisé ? Cela vous incite-t-il à réorienter vos travaux de recherche ?

Il y a bien entendu le rapport final remis à l’INSHS qui reprendra mes conclusions, mais aussi, dans  un planning très serré, la co-rédaction d’un article scientifique dans une revue anglo-saxonne à la fin de mon contrat. Nous avons choisi une revue reconnue en sciences sociales, compatible avec le sujet et les méthodes déployées. Le  budget pour externaliser les retranscriptions a permis  de se concentrer sur le design et le traitement des questionnaires.
Je considère que ce postdoctorat enrichit ma problématique de socialisation familiale et transmission de dispositions éthiques et morales, déployée depuis le Master.

Êtes-vous satisfaite des conditions d’accueil et d'intégration au CRIS ?

Les lieux sont magnifiques, il y a des postes de travail en open space mais on peut demander un bureau, je peux participer à tous les séminaires du laboratoire et j’ai petit à petit partagé des moments de convivialité avec les doctorants. L'environnement de travail est très stimulant. 

  

Louis-Adolphe Bertillon

Médecin, démographe, républicain engagé
Un ouvrage d'Alain Chenu sur le premier grand démographe
  • Ecrits sur la mortalité - INED Editions, 2023Ecrits sur la mortalité - INED Editions, 2023

Louis-Adolphe Bertillon
Écrits sur la mortalité (1855-1877)


INED éditions, Collection : Classiques de l’Économie et de la Population, juin 2023, 696 pages. ISBN 9782733208140

Alain Chenu (image Alexis Lecomte)Alain Chenu, professeur émérite au CRIS a rassemblé et commenté une vingtaine de textes et un atlas (Démographie figurée de la France, 1874) permettant de mieux situer le rôle majeur du docteur Louis-Adolphe Bertillon (1821-1877) dans l'émergence en France de la démographie moderne.
Si dans la famille Bertillon son fils Alphonse, inventeur de l'anthropométrie, est plus connu, les archives, parfois inédites, utilisées par Alain Chenu nous permettent de découvrir un homme engagé (républicain laïque) évoluant dans un espace intermédiaire entre la science et la politique, poursuivant sans relache pendant 20 ans son projet : caractériser et documenter le phénomène de mort prématurée, "évitable".
Louis-Adolphe BertillonCholéra, apoplexies, amanites, accidents... L'oeuvre de L.A. Bertillon (qui recouvre aussi la médecine, la mycologie, la craniologie, l'épistémologie et la philosophie des sciences) apporte des données statistiques sur les causes de décès prématurés, et permet d'éprouver des méthodes et des outils statistiques (usage de la notion de moyenne, tables de survie annuelles...).
Dans son atlas, il fait preuve d'un spectaculaire effort sémiologique pour représenter sous forme de graphiques et de cartes les phénomènes étudiés. Un travail "fait main" à l'époque qui demande aujourd'hui beaucoup de soin pour être reproduit avec nos outils modernes. 

Pourquoi qualifier Louis-Adolphe de "grand démographe" ? 3 arguments sont développés par Alain Chenu :
- il a joué un rôle décisif dans la diffusion du nom "démographie" lancé par son beau-père Achille Guillard,
- il a lui ajouté des travaux novateurs sur les mortalités différentielles,
- il  a animé de multiples réseaux de coordination et d'organisation statistique faisant émerger une institutionnalisation de la discipline, entre univers savants et administratifs.
Avec lui la France devient en 1870-1880 l'épicentre de la démographie naissante, et la revue Les annales de démographie internationale à laquelle il contribue, la première revue de démographie au monde. 

 Bertillon, Démographie figurée de la France


    

Not all Gangs are Created Equal: Criminal Governance in London

Federico Varese
CRIS Scientific Seminar, June 30th 2023
  • Image Sandor Szmutko (via Shutterstock)Image Sandor Szmutko (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2022-2023

Friday, June 30th 2023, 10:00 am
Sciences Po (13, rue de l'Université) - Salle du Conseil

Not all Gangs are Created Equal: Criminal Governance in London

Federico Varese

Professor of Sociology, Sciences Po - CEE

The paper explores the criminal governance dimension of gang activity by introducing a novel survey instrument, the Crim-Gov questionnaire, and applying it to identify governance-type gangs in London.

Criminal governance is a complex task that not all gangs are able to perform. We find a U-shaped relationship between deprivation and gangs: communities with no gangs are much better off than the rest of the city, yet governance-type criminal groups nest in areas that are not the most deprived and with the weakest social fabric.

Criminal governance is more likely to emerge in communities characterised by greater difficulties in accessing housing and local services, where the legal provision of services is potentially of lesser quality, and with lower residential mobility.

Mandatory Registration. Thank You.

L'écologie en pratiques. Consommation ordinaire et inégalités en France depuis les années 1980

Maël Ginsburger
Soutenance de thèse, 15 juin 2023
  • Illustration Lexi Claus (via Shutterstock)Illustration Lexi Claus (via Shutterstock)

L'écologie en pratiques.
Consommation ordinaire et inégalités en France depuis les années 1980

Practicing being green. Ordinary consumption and inequalities in France since the 1980s

Maël Ginsburger

Soutenance le jeudi 15 juin à Sciences Po Paris, salle 900, à 14h30.


Composition du Jury : Philippe Coulangeon (Directeur de recherche, Sciences Po - CRIS, CNRS), Sophie Dubuisson-Quellier (Sciences Po - CSO, CNRS), Tally Katz-Gerro (University of Haïfa) , Frédéric Lebaron (UVSQ-Printemps), Ivaylo Petev (Directeur de recherche, CREST, CNRS), Marie Plessz (ENS, INRAE, Centre Maurice Halbwachs).

 Maël Ginsburger (CRIS)L’injonction à la réforme écologique des modes de vie, dont l’espace public est saturé depuis le début des années 1990, induit un questionnement sociologique sur l’hétérogénéité des styles de consommation des ménages français et l’évolution des inégalités sociales. Les différences dans les manières de consommer, de polluer et de se conformer aux injonctions au verdissement des modes de vie reproduisent-elles ou renouvellent-elles des mécanismes de stratification et de différenciation sociale plus anciens ? Comment les inégalités relatives à la classe sociale et au revenu, mais aussi à l’âge, au genre et aux conditions résidentielles affectent-elles les styles de consommation ordinaire et de facto, l’observance d’une norme émergente d’écocitoyenneté ? Les conditions matérielles vécues par les individus sous le sceau de la ressource ou de la contrainte supplantent-elles les dispositions acquises dès l’enfance (goûts, valeurs et habitudes) dans la compréhension de tels clivages ? Des réponses sont apportées à ces trois interrogations.

En se focalisant sur les pratiques de consommation ordinaire — liées à l’alimentation, à l’énergie, aux déplacements, à l’équipement et à l’habillement — cette thèse explore les dynamiques de changement social générationnelles et au cours de la vie. Elle met ainsi en lumière la manière dont de telles pratiques se sont renouvelées ou pérennisées depuis 30 ans en lien avec le développement des préoccupations pour la préservation de l’environnement.

Cette thèse montre que les nouvelles significations éthiques et environnementales de certaines pratiques de consommation ne remettent pas en cause les clivages qui structurent les styles de consommation ordinaire des ménages depuis les années 1980. Ceux-ci restent parcourus d’oppositions étonnamment stables, qui traduisent, dans le domaine de la consommation, les positions inégales occupées dans l’espace social et résidentiel : ces oppositions distinguent les ménages intégrés et exclus de la consommation ordinaire, et les consommateurs ancrés localement des consommateurs connectés.
Les inégalités dans les styles de vie dépendent d’abord de conditions matérielles d’existence (budgétaires, résidentielles, familiales, professionnelles) inégales. Les styles de vie dépendent secondairement de dispositions acquises et transmises lors des expériences de socialisation, et seulement marginalement des variations dans l’inquiétude environnementale et du souci de conformité à la norme d’écocitoyenneté.


Les injonctions normatives ainsi que les nouveaux registres de distinction sociale qui naissent de la valorisation de formes d’anti-consumérisme doivent composer avec des formes rigides d’inégalités dans les styles de vie, qui, depuis longtemps, font des ménages socialement exclus — pauvres, plutôt jeunes et urbains — les champions de la frugalité et des agriculteurs et de leurs enfants les principaux tenants d’une consommation ancrée localement.

How Algorithms Shape Culture: Lessons on Authenticity from Elite Content Creators

Ashley Mears, AxPo/CRIS Hybrid Seminar, June 2nd
  • Image based on aurielaki [via Shutterstock]Image based on aurielaki [via Shutterstock]

Joint seminar AxPo & Centre for Research on social InequalitieS

How Algorithms Shape Culture: Lessons on Authenticity from Elite Content Creators

Ashley Mears

Professor of Sociology and Women’s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies at Boston University

Friday 2 June 2023, 11:30-13:00 (Paris time)

Location: Room "Salle du Conseil" (5th floor), Sciences Po, 13 rue de l'Université 75007 Paris.
[There will also be a Zoom option to enable a hybrid seminar.  Registration required]

Discussion by Achim Edelmann, Assistant Professor in Computational Social Science, Sciences Po - Médialab

Ashley Mears Algorithms shape culture, but how? Algorithms are now so intertwined with markets, workplaces, and media that scholars describe them as part of our social systems of meaning-making.

This project examines how algorithms shape the practical work of making culture. 

I draw from an immersive ethnography of content creators who engineer entertainment videos to go viral on social media. Algorithms, I find, discipline creative workers into making attention-grabbing content, often transforming their artistic visions of authenticity. 

First, creators learn to subjugate their own tastes to data; second, they adapt to algorithm changes; third, they simplify stories into visual, often stereotypically sexualized and racialized imagery; fourth, they copy what works; fifth, they experience thrills of a game of scoring metrics.Ultimately, successful creators redefine their standards of quality with quantitative metrics they think algorithms will reward. 

By documenting this labor process, and creators’ shift in values and authenticity, I arrive at a theory of algorithms as performative in the online cultural economy, and fundamentally at odds with social media platforms’ insistence that they prize and reward authenticity.

Registration is mandatory. Thanks!

Education & Social Inequality across Life Course

International Spring Meeting
#RC28PARIS 24-26 May
  • Image Ihnatovich Maryia (via Shutterstock)Image Ihnatovich Maryia (via Shutterstock)

ISA - RC 28The CRIS is pleased to organize, at Sciences Po in Paris, the 2023 Spring Meeting of the ISA Research Committee 28 "Social Stratification", on May 24-26th, 2023.

Following the Call for Papers, launched at the end of 2022, we received more than 600 proposals worldwide, dealing with the main themes of Education and Social Inequality across the Life Course

This meeting is organized in partnership with the Center for Research in Economics and Statistics (CREST), the Groupe d’Étude des Méthodes de l’Analyse Sociologique de la Sorbonne (GEMASS), the French Institute for Demographic Studies (INED) and the Sciences Po - LIEPP.  

Keynote speakers:
- Aaron Reeves (Associate Professor of Evidence-Based Social Intervention and Policy Evaluation, Department of Social Policy and Intervention (DSPI), University of Oxford).
The chosen few: Why the British elite are not like everyone else and how they try to convince people
otherwise.

- Prof. Dr. Jutta Allmendinger (President of the WZB Berlin Social Science Center and Professor of Educational Sociology and Labor Market Research at the Humboldt University, Berlin), Change in Attitudes, Norms and the Perception of Others: A New Methodological Approach.

210 presentations were finally selected among speakers coming from 29 countries (Germans, Americans, French and British making up the leading quartet, but Japanese and Australians are also with us). We hope that the researchers will have fruitful exchanges, and that they enjoy their stay on the Sciences Po campus and their cruise dinner on the Seine.

Examples of sessions scheduled:

  • Achievement and Educational inequality
  • Educational Assortative Mating and Gender
  • Education and Intergenerational Mobility
  • Educational Attainment and Life Course Trajectories
  • School Segregation and Inequality
  • Education and Labor Market Inequality
  • Educational Inequality, Policy, and Interventions
  • Networks and Peer Effects in Education
  • Motherhood and the labor market
  • Employment insecurity and precarity
  • Occupational mobility and wage inequality
  • Labor Market Transitions and Career Trajectories
  • Gender and Workplace Inequalities
  • Income, Inequality, and Child Development
  • Partnering, family formation
  • Wealth and wealth transfers
  • Social Determinants of Health and Well-Being
  • Covid-19
  • Dynamics of life-course and ageing
  • Intergenerational social mobility
  • Poverty and Inequality across the Life Course
  • Wealth and Social Stratification
  • Intergenerational Mobility in Immigrant Families
  • Regional and Ethnic Differences in Intergenerational Mobility
  • Elites
  • Cultural consumption
  • Spatial inequality
  • Methods and measures

The conference program is available here (pdf, 20 May 2023).

Members of the Scientific Commitee

List of participants

The Ecuadorian Securities Market: a sociological account of an apparent failure

Andrés Chiriboga
PhD Defensis, May 11th
  • Image Motioncenter (via Shutterstock)Image Motioncenter (via Shutterstock)

The Ecuadorian Securities Market: a sociological account of an apparent failure

Andrés Chiriboga

Thursday May 11th, 3 pm, Sciences Po.

Jury:

  • Valérie BOUSSARD, Professeure de sociologie, Université Paris Nanterre
  • Felix BÜHLMANN, Professeur associé, Université de Lausanne
  • Bruce CARRUTHERS, Professor of Sociology, Northwestern University
  • Olivier GODECHOT, Directeur de recherche CNRS, Sciences Po Paris (supervisor)
  • Paola TUBARO, Directrice de recherche CNRS, ENSAE-CREST Paris (reviewer)
  • Tod VAN GUNTEN, Lecturer in Economic Sociology, University of Edinburgh (reviewer)

Andrés ChiribogaThis dissertation explains the peculiar evolution of Ecuador's securities market —an inefficient but functional market— by examining how personal, business, and regional ties influence economic transactions and their outcomes.  The structural embeddedness approach is used as a starting point and is advanced it by showing that different social devices, such as regionalism and power imbalances, that have been largely treated separately can be studied as coexisting firm-to-firm ties. The thesis uses a mixed-methods approach to explain how brokerage hiring and trading depend on the existence of multiple social ties that emerge from the country's political economy, and that show how actors develop strategies to maintain or strengthen their advantaged positions. Evidence suggests that the use of trading strategies and their combination in the long run also have social roots. Most strategies increase the profits of brokerage firms and at the same time hinder the overall development of the market. In this sense, this research challenges previous views that have quickly judged this and other Latin American securities markets as failures. The complex social life of this type of incumbent market may not contribute to its global development, but it is not detrimental to individual profits and does not deviate from the effects and consequences of financialization in terms of the concentration of capital and the deepening of inequalities.

Shifts in Work Orientation during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Sigal Alon (Tel Aviv University)
CRIS & AxPo Joint Seminar, May 5th 2023
  • Image Olesya Kuznetsova (via Shutterstock)Image Olesya Kuznetsova (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2022-2023
Joint Seminar with AxPo

Friday, May 5th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po (1, place Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin) - Room K008

Shifts in Work Orientation during the COVID-19 Pandemic 

Sigal Alon

Professor of Sociology
Weinberg Chair in Sociology of Stratification and Inequality
Head of The B.I. Cohen Inst. for Public Opinion Research
Tel Aviv University

Discussant: Ettore Recchi (Sciences Po - CRIS)

Sigal AlonThe world of work has been severely afflicted by COVID-19. To deal with the immense employment crisis, unemployment benefits were extended in many countries. This raised the classical question of whether this support would decrease the motivation of the unemployed to search for work. The answer to this conundrum is deeply rooted in sociological thought about work centrality and the meaning of work in our life.

Is the motivation to work limited to the quest to ensure livelihood, or is work a primary source of dignity, self-image, fulfillment, and self-realization? How has these factors been affected by the pandemic?

This study takes advantage of the COVID-19 disruption to assess shifts in work centrality and work values during the extended coverage of unemployment benefits.
The investigation consolidates pre-COVID-19 surveys of work orientations in Israel with a COVID-19-era assessment.

The results demonstrate that this shock has been powerful enough to put individuals’ work orientation to the test and made them reconsider the meaning of work in their life. Overall, the surge in work centrality during the pandemic and the gravitation of values toward job security reflect the universal trauma caused by the sharp decrease in employment certainty.

There will also be a Zoom option to enable a hybrid seminar.

Mandatory Registration. Thank You.

To find out more:

Sigal Alon is The Weinberg Chair in Sociology of Stratification and Inequality and the Head of The B. I. Cohen Inst. for Public Opinion Research at Tel-Aviv University.
Her main research interests include social stratification and mobility, with an emphasis on the sociology of work and organizations and sociology of education.
Her work focuses on unveiling the dynamics and historical processes underlying inequalities in the labor market and educational attainment, and the extent to which public policy does narrow these inequalities. Alon’s perspective is interdisciplinary and comparative, taking into account employment and educational processes and outcomes, institutional arrangements and social structures, psychological biases, as well as demographic and economic trends. https://www.sigalalon.sites.tau.ac.il/

Shadowing recruitment processes in ‘inclusive’ organizations

Laurence Romani
CRIS Scientific Seminar, Friday, April 28th 2023
  • Image Ground Picture (via Shutterstock)Image Ground Picture (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2022-2023

Friday, April 28th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po (1, place Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin) - Room K008

Shadowing recruitment processes in ‘inclusive’ organizations  

Laurence Romani

Professor, Stockholm School of Economics
Director of the Center for Responsible Leadership

 

Laurence Romani

How can more skilled migrants be employed at their qualification level?

The management literature has only recently started to address this question, investigating the role that organizations can play in this multi-faceted challenge.

Our current knowledge indicates that problems generally relate to the difficulties of organizations to recognize the adequacy of the foreign skills, to match candidates with their positions on offer or to understand how they fit the organization.

In this presentation, we relate to the social capital literature for the study of an initiative organized by a private company to recruit skilled migrants.
With an in-depth qualitative investigation, we explore the recruitment of candidates to this program, and when and how their capital was recognized. Contrary to expectations, it appears that the recognition of the migrants’ skills was not limited in time (e.g., at the screening process), but rather at (almost) every step of the recruitment. In addition, the skilled migrants’ merits were not considered as a given, but were constantly (re)evaluated.

This case study provides a unique insight into an organizational initiative for the recruitment of migrants while contributing to theory by showing the volatility in evaluating academic merits of migrants. When each step of a recruitment process is about distinguishing and ranking candidates, the assessors do not usually question the recognition of the applicant’s merits. For migrants, it seems that their merits are constantly re-evaluated unless they are embodied in a way recognizable in the local context.

Mandatory Registration. Thank You.

To find out more:

Laurence Romani is also CIVICA Academic Lead for SSE.

Agnès van Zanten : 30 ans de sociologie de l'école

Entretien
6ème édition d'un classique (avec Marie Duru-Bellat et Géraldine Farges)
  • Agnès van Zanten, entretien - Couvertures : Armand ColinAgnès van Zanten, entretien - Couvertures : Armand Colin

Couverture édition 1En 1992, Marie Duru-Bellat propose à Agnès van Zanten une collaboration pour dresser une sociologie de l'école. 30 ans plus tard, l'éditeur Armand Colin propose le 6ème opus du manuel, fort de près de 400 pages, aux lecteurs désireux d'appréhender sous de multiples facettes le système scolaire français.

Les deux sociologues, aidées ici par Géraldine Farges, proposent de nombreux angles pour analyser ce « champ de recherche vivant » : celui des politiques publiques (politiques scolaires, laïcité), de la démocratisation de l'enseignement (inégalités, méritocratie), des enjeux sociétaux (emploi, ascension sociale, valeur des diplômes), du fonctionnement des établissements (décentralisation, autonomie), des contenus des programmes, des pratiques ou des évaluations de performance, sans oublier les acteurs, via le métier d'enseignant, les élèves (rapports au savoir) et les milieux familiaux (valeurs, choix).  

Couverture - Edition 6 (2022)Cette nouvelle publication est l'occasion de faire un rapide bilan avec Agnès van Zanten, autour de 3 questions clés :    
- le point de départ et les choix faits par les auteures,
- les changements les plus significatifs observés dans l'école au fil des éditions,
- le positionnement de la sociologue au centre d'une problématique très (trop ?) sensible dans l'opinion publique, une caractéristique française. 

Marie Duru-Bellat, Géraldine Farges, Agnès van Zanten, Sociologie de l'école, 6ème édition, Armand Colin, collection U. ISBN 978-2-200-63057-7. Présentation de l'éditeur

Plusieurs éditions de l'ouvrage sont également consultables sur le portail CAIRN.

Faire durer ses objets, une pratique distinctive ?

Consommation et frontières de classe chez les ménages aisés
Maël Ginsburger, Julie Madon, Revue Sociologie
  • Appliance repair service - Image Stokkete (via Shuttertsock) Appliance repair service - Image Stokkete (via Shuttertsock)

Faire durer ses objets, une pratique distinctive ?

Consommation et frontières de classe chez les ménages aisés

Maël Ginsburger (Sciences Po - CRIS), Julie Madon (Sciences Po - CSO)

Sociologie, volume 14, n° 1, p. 29 - 48
Cet article est consultable sur CAIRN

La consommation de biens et services ostentatoires a été largement étudiée en lien avec les dynamiques d’affirmation statutaire des classes supérieures. Pour autant, les pratiques de consommation ordinaire sont également propices à l’affirmation de frontières de classe et à la mise en évidence de mécanismes complexes de distinction sociale.

Nous avons choisi d'étudier la manière dont des pratiques visant à allonger la durée de vie des biens durables participent, au sein de ménages aisés, de formes renouvelées de distinction sociale vis-à-vis des autres ménages (issus des classes populaires, mais aussi des classes supérieures).

Pour ce faire, nous mobilisons la notion de « frontières symboliques », afin d’étudier l’interaction entre plusieurs répertoires distinctifs inégalement mobilisés par les individus.
À travers l’exploitation d’enquêtes statistiques et d’entretiens, nous montrons que les pratiques d’allongement de la durée de vie des objets demeurent associées – statistiquement ainsi que dans les représentations – à des situations de forte contrainte budgétaire.
Nous montrons comment la présence de telles pratiques chez des ménages aisés accompagne un difficile positionnement de leur part le long de la frontière socio-économique. Pour autant, ces pratiques servent de support à l’affirmation de frontières symboliques autres – éthiques, techniques et esthétiques – et participent de la construction d’une identité d’élite anti-consumériste.

Les biens durables retenus sont définis par l’enquête Budget de famille de l’Insee. Sont compris, les appareils électroménagers, audiovisuels et numériques, l’informatique et la téléphonie mobile, ainsi que les meubles et le matériel de jardinage et bricolage.

Nous explorons trois répertoires de distinction alternatifs à la consommation ostentatoire mobilisés par les classes supérieures aisées : la morale, la technique (savoir-faire et compétences masculines) et l’esthétique patrimoniale. Le croisement des méthodes et matériaux permet de mieux comprendre dans quelles configurations apparaît un tel recul du registre de la consommation ostentatoire au profit de l’affirmation d’un statut d’élite anti-consumériste.

Les deux auteurs ont été distingués par le Prix Jeunes Chercheurs de la Fondation des Treilles.

Merlin Schaeffer: ethnic diversity facing segregation

New Scholar Visiting
  • Merlin Schaeffer,  University of Copenhagen (Photo BC, CRIS)Merlin Schaeffer, University of Copenhagen (Photo BC, CRIS)

The CRIS is pleased to welcome Professor Merlin Schaeffer, for a scholar visiting, between 5th - 26th April. 

What is your field of study and what is your home institution?

I study ethnic diversity and inequality stemming from immigration, including the resulting processes of inclusion and political contestation. My home institution is University of Copenhagen.

What brought you to CRIS, and why were you interested in being a visiting researcher here?

At CRIS, several scholars are very proficient in using field experiments, and many work on similar topics as me. I therefore wanted to build contacts and would like to collaborate with colleagues at CRIS.

What has been the most unexpected or surprising aspect of your stay in Paris or Sciences Po so far?

The prices on the housing market and the huge range of luxury apartments available are quite unbelievable.

What would you most like to bring back with you once you leave?

Some new friends who I look forward to seeing during future conference visits.

Merlin Schaeffer led a presentation at the CRIS Scientific Seminar, Friday April 7th: 
Correcting Misperceptions about Ethnic Discrimination: The Limits of Awareness Raising to Promote Support for Equal Treatment Policies.

Selected publications

To find out more

Google Scholar

Webpage host by the University of Copenhagen, Department of Sociology

Bringing the Social Back In: Secularization Under Theocracy in Iran

Abdie Kazemipur
Joint Seminar CERI - CRIS, Tuesday April 25th, 12:30pm
  • Abdie Kazemipur, Sacred as Secular, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2022  Abdie Kazemipur, Sacred as Secular, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2022

CERI & CRIS Joint Seminar

Tuesday, April 25th 2023, 12:30 pm - 2:30 pm
Sciences Po (27, rue Saint-Guillaume) - Room Goguel

Bringing the Social Back In: Secularization Under Theocracy in Iran

Abdie Kazemipur

Professor of sociology and the Chair of Ethnic Studies at the University of Calgary

Discussant: Riva Kastoryano  (Sciences Po - CERI, CNRS)

The bulk of the current discussions and debates on religion and secularity in the Muslim world, including in Iran, suffers from an array of conceptual confusion, historical amnesia, and analytical simplifications. This is partly the consequence of the dominance of highly politicized narratives and the Neo-Orientalist modes of thinking, in which ‘state’ and ‘ideas’ are treated as the main drivers of historical change, including changes related to religion.

In Sacred as Secular: Secularization under Theocracy in Iran (2022, McGill-Queen’s University Press), Abdolmohammad Kazemipur offers an alternative account. Relying on a wide range of empirical data and using a Durkheimian sociological perspective, Kazemipur demonstrates the various dimensions of a deep secularization that has been underway in Iran in the Islamic Republic era and discusses the implications of those trends for the global debates on religion and secularity in the Muslim world.

Registration is mandatory. thank you.


Abdie Kazemipur (CRIS Visiting)Abdolmohammad Kazemipur is a professor of sociology and Research Chair in Ethnic Studies at the University of Calgary in Alberta, Canada, and the past president of Canadian Sociological Association.
He received his BA and MA in sociology from University of Tehran (Iran) and his Ph.D. from University of Manitoba (Canada).
Kazemipur has authored ten books and many journal articles and book chapters on his two principal research areas – socio-cultural trends in Iran, and socio-economic experiences of immigrants in Canada – writing in both English and Farsi.
His three most recent books on these topics include: What Went Wrong? On the Decline of Community in Iran (2023, Agar Publisher), Sacred as Secular: Secularization under Theocracy in Iran (2022, McGill-Queen’s University Press), and The Muslim Question in Canada: A Story of Segmented Integration (2014, University of British Columbia Press, the recipient of the 2015 book of the year award from Canadian Sociological Association). He is currently working on a new book manuscript on the international migration ecosystem, tentatively titled Homo Emigraturus.

To find out more:

 

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Fragile rights : Disability, public policy and social change

Anne Revillard
CRIS Scientific Seminar, Friday, March 31th 2023
  • Image Roman Zaiets (via Shutterstock)Image Roman Zaiets (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2022-2023

Friday, March 31th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po (1, place Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin) - Room K008

Fragile rights : Disability, public policy and social change

Anne Revillard

Associate Professor, Sciences Po - CRIS
Director of the Laboratory for the interdisciplinary evaluation of public policies (LIEPP)

Anne RevillardFragile Rights (Bristol University Press)

Over the years, many disability-related rights have been legally recognized, but how has this changed the everyday lives of disabled people?

This book offers an original perspective on disability rights by addressing the question of their (non-)realization at the individual level, taking the experiences of ordinary disabled people as a starting point.

Drawing on biographical interviews collected from individuals with either mobility or visual impairments in France, the book analyses the reception of disability policies in the fields of education, employment, social rights and accessibility.

It examines to what extent these policies contribute to the realization of the associated rights among disabled people. In all the domains under study, the rights associated with disability suffer from major implementation flaws. In this context, disabled citizens play a very active role in the realization of their rights: they protest, negotiate, tinker, use or circumvent policies in order to make their rights real, but also to assert themselves as subjects of rights. This seminar will demonstrate these conclusions based on the case of accessibility.

Fragile Rights. Disability, Public Policy, and Social Change. Published on March 29th by Bristol University Press. ISBN 978-1529231007. 

Mandatory Registration. Thank You.

To find out more:

Correcting Misperceptions about Ethnic Discrimination

The Limits of Awareness Raising to Promote Support for Equal Treatment Policies
Merlin Schaeffer, CRIS Seminar, 7th April 2023
  • Image Contimis Works (via Shutterstock)Image Contimis Works (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2022-2023

Friday, April 7th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po (1, place Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin) - Room K008

Correcting Misperceptions about Ethnic Discrimination:
The Limits of Awareness Raising to Promote Support for Equal Treatment Policies

Merlin Schaeffer

Professor, Dpt. of Sociology, University of Copenhagen

Merlin SchaefferTo what extent are mainstream citizens aware of ethnic discrimination in their society, and can awareness-raising initiatives increase recognition of this issue and garner support from citizens for equal treatment policies?

Using a survey experiment among a representative sample of 4,800 mainstream Danes, we elicited mis-perceptions of the extent of discrimination that Muslims face in access to work, housing, education, and political representatives. We then tested whether informing citizens about the results of field-experimental correspondence studies increases their recognition of the issue and support for equal treatment policies.

The study advances over prior information treatment designs, by testing the importance of three ideal-types of framing, based on the assumption that citizens require framing that helps them comprehend the significance of social science evidence.
The three ideal-types of framing tested were: an independent scientist framing the evidence as credible, a lawyer framing the evidence as a breach of the law, or a potentially affected minority framing the evidence as causing them grief.
Moreover, the experiment utilizes two control groups to disentangle the effects of priming respondents on the topic under investigation from the effects of the correction and its framing.

The results indicate that most citizens are aware of the discrimination that minorities face and even tend to over-perceive its extent. Furthermore, communicating correspondence study results corrects and converges perceptions about the extent of ethnic discrimination but does not change recognition of the problem or support for equal treatment policies - regardless of whether framed by researchers, lawyers, potentially affected persons, or not framed at all.
The mere priming of the topic of discrimination also has no effect, apart from increasing donations to minority support groups.

In conclusion, these findings suggests that awareness-raising initiatives are unlikely to be successful in promoting support for policies that promote equal treatment. We conclude by discussing that lack of support for such policies is likely driven by other factors, such as concerns that they may infringe on mainstream privileges.

Registration is mandatory. thank you.

To find out more:

 

Maël Ginsburger

Pratiques environnementales, inégalités sociales, styles de consommation
Lauréat du Prix Jeune chercheur, Fondation des Treilles 2023
  • Image SurfsUp (via Shutterstock)Image SurfsUp (via Shutterstock)

Mael Ginsburger (Sciences Po - CRIS)Maël Ginsburger termine son parcours de doctorant au CRIS. Dans 3 mois viendra la soutenance finale, alors que plusieurs articles et un ouvrage co-écrit garnissent déjà son portefeuille de publications.
Il décide à l’automne dernier de candidater au Prix Jeune chercheur de la Fondation des Treilles, créé par Anne Gruner-Schlumberger pour « nourrir le dialogue entre les sciences et les arts, afin de faire progresser la création et la recherche ». Le printemps venu, Maël découvre qu’il fait partie des lauréats distingués par le Conseil scientifique de la fondation. C’est l’occasion de présenter plus en détail ses travaux entamés au CRIS en 2018.

Titre de la thèse : Pratiques environnementales, inégalités sociales et styles de consommation en France depuis 1985, sous la direction de Philippe Coulangeon (Sciences Po - CRIS, CNRS).

Pourquoi présenter sa candidature au Prix Jeune chercheur ?
Plusieurs raisons en fait ! La dotation financière proposée par la Fondation qui constitue, comme les postes d’ATER, une source de financement pour terminer sereinement sa thèse. Un précédent, Mathieu Ferry, doctorant de l’OSC qui a obtenu ce prix en 2017 (1). C’est un prix pluridisciplinaire, orienté vers les jeunes chercheurs. Enfin, il y a eu un effort à fournir pour expliciter à des non spécialistes les enjeux et les méthodes mises en œuvre dans ma thèse.

Présentation du cadre scientifique
Ma thèse s’inscrit dans le domaine scientifique de la sociologie quantitative, l’étude de la stratification sociale, dans la lignée des travaux de Pierre Bourdieu sur la distinction.

Problématique et singularité de la démarche
- Pierre Bourdieu a principalement étudié les goûts et les pratiques culturelles, la culture revêtant une dimension symbolique structurant l’appartenance à différentes classes sociales. J’ai décidé, ce qui fait l’originalité de mon travail, d’étudier la stratification par le prisme très contemporain de la transition écologique, via des aspects matériels : les pratiques de consommation ordinaires, qui s’inscrivent dans des styles de vie. Cette approche permet une grande profondeur historique pour observer l’entrée dans la transition, le cheminement (ou pas) vers l’éco-citoyenneté prônée aujourd’hui. 
- Le fait d’avoir des appareils électro-ménagers nombreux et récents, d’utiliser une automobile ou le train, de trier ses déchets ou de fréquenter des magasins bio sont autant de marqueurs qui sont interprétables pour le sociologue. On a longtemps considéré que le développement de la société de consommation des années 70 à 2000 a amené à masquer les différences de classe. L’étude des pratiques quotidiennes ordinaires dans un contexte de prescriptions et d’injonctions environnementales me permet d’identifier les facteurs de différenciation.

Rien ne change vraiment
L’un des résultats remarquables de mes travaux c’est de noter la stabilité de la stratification sociale depuis 1985, entre les consommateurs exclus (contraints par les conditions matérielles d’existence) et ceux qui sont intégrés. Autre clivage pérenne, celui qui distingue les connectés (consommateurs de biens technologiques, très mobiles sur de longue distance, usagers des transports collectifs urbains), des  autonomes (pratiquant l’autoconsommation, peu de déplacements, un faible renouvellement des objets).

Des discours et des actes
On peut observer que les membres d’un groupe social peuvent se distinguer en érigeant une “frontière morale”, par exemple par le biais d’un discours supérieur prônant une éthique et des comportements environnementaux vertueux, alors qu’ils sont, de par leurs style de vie, et proportionnellement à d’autres groupes, de gros consommateurs.

________

1. Observatoire sociologique du changement, ancienne appellation  du laboratoire.
Titre de la thèse de Mathieu Ferry : What goes around meat eating, comes around: Vegetarianism as a status marker in contemporary India

Inequality and COVID-19 in Sweden

Relative risks of nine negative life events, along four social gradients, in pandemic vs. pre-pandemic years
Olof Östergren, CRIS Seminar, 24th March 2023
  • Image Anthony K.D (via Shutterstock)Image Anthony K.D (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2022-2023

Friday, March 24th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po (1, place Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin) - Room K008

Inequality and COVID-19 in Sweden:
Relative risks of nine negative life events, along four social gradients, in pandemic vs. pre-pandemic years

Olof Östergren

Researcher, Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm University


Olof Ostergren (CRIS Visiting)The COVID-19 pandemic struck societies directly and indirectly, impacting population health and disrupting many aspects of life. The burdens of the pandemic fell more heavily on some groups than others. These different consequences of the spreading virus ---and the measures to fight them--- are reported and analyzed in different scientific fora, with hard-to-compare methods that largely follow disciplinary boundaries. As a result, it is hard to grasp the pandemic's full impact on social inequalities.

This presentation relies on individual-level, administrative data for Sweden's entire population to describe how different social groups fared in terms of nine outcomes: three types of COVID-19 incidence, as well as six other negative life outcomes reflecting health, economic conditions and health care access. The outcomes are all defined as binary events and expressed as the risks of experiencing a negative event. Relative risks are calculated by gender, region of birth, education, and income using the population average risk as the reference for all groups.

During 2020, the population faced severe morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 and saw higher all-cause mortality, income losses and unemployment risks, as well as reduced access to medical care. In terms of relative risks versus mean risks in the population, these burdens fell disproportionately on those with low income or education, and on residents born outside of Sweden. However, the relative risks across social groups were strikingly similar to those in pre-pandemic years.

The pandemic struck Swedes unequally across several dimensions and along multiple social gradients. Despite at-risk groups experiencing larger excess risks for direct and indirect consequences of the pandemic, relative social inequalities were strikingly similar to those in pre-pandemic years.

Registration is mandatory. Thank you.

To find out more:

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Visiting Colleagues...

  • 2023 Spring Visitings at CRIS (images B. Corminboeuf & Nubin Cirizi)2023 Spring Visitings at CRIS (images B. Corminboeuf & Nubin Cirizi)

Let's meet our current guests, in Spring 2023:

_________  Abdie Kazemipur (Canada)

Abdie Kazemipur (CRIS Visiting)Where are you from?
I work at Department of Sociology, University of Calgary, Canada, as a professor and the Research Chair in Ethnic Studies. I am also the Academic Director of the University’s Research Data Centre. Originally, I am from Iran, where I finished my BA and MA in sociology at University of Tehran. I then moved to Canada to finish my doctoral studies at University of Manitoba, after which worked at universities of Lethbridge, Memorial, and now Calgary.

What is currently your main research questions?
I am currently working on three new projects:
- a quantitative study of the socio-economic experiences of Muslim immigrants in Canada, which utilizes a range of secondary data generated by Statistics Canada, as well as a nationwide survey of Muslim and non-Muslim Canadians to be conducted later in 2023;
- a mixed-methods study of the culture of migration in Iran and its consequences for the lives of migrants, non-migrants, and what I have called ‘subjective migrants’;
- a study of the broad societal changes in Iran over the past half a century, and their implications for the future of the country, with a focus on ways to (re)build the communal spirit.

What do you expect from this stay?
As a believer in the value of comparative research, I hope to benefit from brainstorming with, and feedback from, colleagues with shared research interests who are working in different countries. I also hope to build a foundation for future collaborative comparative work in any/all of the above-mentioned areas. I believe in the motto once mentioned by the American sociologist, Martin Lipset: “A person who knows only one country basically knows no country well”.

What has been the most unexpected or surprising aspect of your stay in Paris or Sciences Po so far?
As a first impression of Paris by a sociologist of religion, I have been amazed about the number of large and magnificent churches that exist throughout the city and in close proximity to each other. I am also impressed that despite the secularity of the population and the state policy of laïcité, which have defined the French society for so long, these churches have remained relatively intact and functional throughout the years.

What would you most like to bring back with you once you leave?
A better understanding of the French society and its intellectual history; more familiarity with the French sociologists and their works; and some basic understanding of the French language. 

University of Calgary Webpage - Personal website

Nubin Ciziri (Sweden)  ______________

Nubin Ciziri (CRIS Visiting)Where are you from?
Uppsala University, Sweden.

Could you present your scientific field?
Sociology of migration and education with interests in ethnic studies and family sociology.

What is currently your main research question?
I explore how the process of migration characterises refugee families’ structures, practices and resources. I work with the case of Kurds who fled the Syrian war and reside in Sweden.

What do you expect from this stay?
I hope to write my empirical chapters and present them to the group at CRIS, as well as engaging in the seminars and doctoral events with colleagues.

Uppsala University Webpage  - Twitter

 _________ Olof Östergren (Sweden)

Olof Ostergren (CRIS Visiting)Where are you from?
I am Swedish and my academic home is the Department of Public Health Sciences at Stockholm University.

Could you present your scientific field?
Currently I am working on inequalites in social and health outcomes and health heavior during the coronavirus pandemic, mortality from behavioral risk factors for Finnish migrants in Sweden and the reflexive relationships between social and pysiological processes in relation to addictive substances and behaviors. I am also a program coordinator for SWECOV, a national transdisciplinary research program on the coronavirus pandemic. I work primarily with quantitative methods and with administrative register data.

What brought you to CRIS, and why were you interested in being a visiting researcher here?
My research interests combine social sciences and health sciences and I try to learn as much as I can from specialists from different fields. After defending my thesis in Sociology I was a postdoc in the social gerontology unit at Karolinska Instiutet. After that I worked with scientists and civil servants from several different fields at the Swedish govenrment offices, in a inquiry evaluating the political response to the coronavirus pandemic. I recently ended a year long research stay with demographers at INED. I came to CRIS to gain a better understanding of social inequalites.

What would you most like to bring back with you once you leave?
I'd like to develop as a researcher, both in terms of substnative knowledge and in terms of new perspectives on the topics I am working with.

Stockholm University Webpage

Austin Vo (USA) ______________

Austin Vo (CRIS Visiting)What is your topic of study and what is your home institution?
I examine the borders and development of nation-states by studying political sociology and migration at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

What brought you to  CRIS, and why were you interested in being a visiting PhD student here?
I was familiar with the work of many CRIS faculty members before I knew CRIS existed. When I realized all of their scholarship and research were taking place within one institute, I wanted to take part of it as a visiting PhD student and was lucky that my dissertation advisor had a connection here.

What has been the most unexpected or surprising aspect of your stay in Paris or Sciences Po so far?
I studied in Paris during my undergraduate coursework, so I had preconceptions about how university life in Paris would be different than what I was used to in the United States. However, I was surprised by SciencePo’s beautiful campus and how it felt hospitable to the kinds of academic community I appreciated back in my home department. Being in community with others and a change of scenery definitely makes the research more enjoyable.

What would you most like to bring back with you once you leave? 
I am looking forward to extending my research and engaging with scholarship outside of the Anglosphere. I am most excited to bring back important perspectives from the Francophone world of both past and present to understand how social change takes place in different contexts with the hope that it could be useful for understanding how change, or lack thereof, occurs in other contexts.

UNC The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Discriminations en raison de l’origine

Prévalence, mécanismes et conséquences cumulatives
Numéro de Appartenances & Altérités coordonné par Martin Aranguren
  • Image Andrii Yalanskyi (via Shutterstock)Image Andrii Yalanskyi (via Shutterstock)

Prévalence, mécanismes et conséquences cumulatives des discriminations en raison de l’origine

Revue Appartenances & Altérités

Numéro 2023-3

Accès ouvert sur le portail Open Edition

Ce numéro propose un dialogue interdisciplinaire entre psychologie sociale, science économique et deux styles de recherche en sociologie que l’on associe au « qualitatif » et au « quantitatif ». Les auteurs se sont livrés à une relecture croisée des différentes contributions. Le dossier permet une vue panoramique sur les travaux de recherche contemporains traitant des discriminations en raison de l’origine, dans différents domaines, notamment le marché de travail, les interactions avec la police et les échanges entre passants dans les espaces publics.

Dans le dossier :

Martin Aranguren
Introduction. Prévalence, mécanismes et conséquences des discriminations en raison de l’origine : un état des lieux des travaux en économie, en psychologie et en sociologie

Serge Guimond
Les discriminations individuelles et institutionnelles : Apports théoriques et méthodologiques de la psychologie sociale  [Individual and institutional discrimination: Theoretical and methodological contributions of social psychology]

Yannick L’Horty et Pascale Petit
Mesurer des discriminations ethno-raciales en France : l’apport des testing
[Measuring ethno-racial discrimination in France: the contribution of correspondence tests]

Guillaume Roux, Anaïk Purenne et Julien Talpin
Expérience des discriminations et citoyenneté : Enquête auprès d’habitants de quartiers populaires [The experience of discrimination and citizenship: A study with inhabitants of French banlieue neighborhoods]

Martin Aranguren
Sketch of a research program on the contribution of discrimination to mental health inequalities: a critical review of evidence, models and methods

Early and intensive music education in disadvantaged neighbourhoods

What impacts, for whom? Evidence from a quasi-experiment
Julie Pereira, CRIS Seminar, Friday, 17th March
  • Image wavebreakmedia (via Shutterstock)Image wavebreakmedia (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2022-2023

Friday, 17th March 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po (1, place Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin) - Room K008

Early and intensive music education in disadvantaged neighbourhoods:
what impacts, for whom? Evidence from a quasi-experiment

Julie Pereira

PhD Student, Sciences Po - CRIS

Julie PereiraThis presentation explores the impact of a music education program on the development of cognitive abilities of young students aged 4-7 years.
This program, implemented in a set of 40 pre-elementary schools located in disadvantaged areas of Val d'Oise, relies on regular violin training during standard school hours.
The main rationale for this project is based on the widespread belief — though unequally backed by the scientific literature — that learning a musical instrument improves general cognitive skills.

Based on a quasi-experimental research design combining entropy balancing and multilevel mixed effects models, two main results already emerge midway into the program.

- First, the program has a substantial impact on some specific skills related to fine motricity and reading, as well as perceived conscientiousness ; while displaying no significant impact on other outcomes.
- Second, the magnitude of this impact varies according to students' social background: maximum for students from low SES backgrounds, and minimal for students from higher SES backgrounds.

Evidence gathered from this study show mixed results regarding the impact of arts education in general, and instrumental musical training in particular, on educational inequalities. On one hand, cognitive near transfer has been demonstrated, especially for the most socially disadvantaged students, which tend to confirm DiMaggio’s cultural mobility theory. However, on the other hand, our research does not show any evidence of far transfer, to numeracy or logic for example.
These results thus suggest that benefits from such arts education programs could be limited to a set of skills closely related to the specific skills being trained.

Registration is mandatory. Thank you.

Algorithmic Management and New Forms of Class Conflict

David Stark
Department of Sociology Seminar - 10th March 2023
  • Image Gorodenkoff (via Shutterstock)Image Gorodenkoff (via Shutterstock)

Department of Sociology Seminar

Friday, 10th March 2023, 12:30pm - 2:30pm
Sciences Po (9 rue de la Chaise) - Room C910
[Zoom link available on request]

Algorithmic Management and New Forms of Class Conflict

David C. Stark

Arthur Lehman Professor of Sociology, Columbia University
Director, Center on Organizational Innovation

David C. StarckThe turn of the 20th Century saw the emergence of a new knowledge class, pioneered by mechanical engineers championing a movement known as Scientific Management.
Today, in the opening decades of the 21st Century we find the emergence of a different knowledge class. At its forefront we also find engineers, but these are software engineers championing Algorithmic Management.

In this presentation, I first discuss the platform organizational form and then examine how algorithmic management addresses the peculiar managerial challenges when valuable assets and activities occur on the platform but not in the firm.
After comparing and contrasting scientific and algorithmic management I then discuss the current era of platform monopoly capitalism as one of class conflict between two middle classes. On one side is the established professional-managerial class, organized around claims of professional expertise. On the other side, the challengers, organized around new, algorithmic knowledge claims.

Registration is mandatory. Thank you.

To find out more: https://davidcstark.net/

Can Markets be Morally Performative?

Henry Ford and the U.S. Quest for Standard Hospital Prices
Roi Livne, CRIS Scientific Seminar, Friday 24th February
  • Image James R. Martin (via Shutterstock)Image James R. Martin (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2022-2023

Friday, February 24th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po (1, place Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin) - Room K008

Can Markets be Morally Performative?
Henry Ford and the U.S. Quest for Standard Hospital Prices

Roi Livne

Associate Professor, University of Michigan

Roi LivneScholars of economic performativity have largely focused on the constitutive effect of economic designs, models, formulae, and tools of calculation on markets (Callon, 1998). Yet the theoretical notion of capitalist markets provides far more than material designs for market exchange. Since Adam Smith, markets have also been moral constructs that generate categorizations of social and moral worth.

In this talk, I draw on the sociology of critical capacity (Boltanski and Thevenot, 1999; Boltanski, 2011) to interrogate critiques that have been directed toward how U.S. hospitals price care. Principle among those critiques is the fact that, unlike in the perfect market model, U.S. hospitals exercise radical price discrimination, charging virtually arbitrary amounts to different people for similar treatments. I analyze the case of the historic Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan as a paradigmatic case in which a hospital attempted to institute standard prices, arguing that this attempt illustrates moral performativity, as it was tightly linked to a moralistic view of the capitalist society, which Ford sought to promote through his hospital.

Registration is mandatory. Thank you.

To find out more: https://lsa.umich.edu/soc/people/faculty/roi-livne.html

The Big Apple’s Inner Workings:

Structural Stress, Individual Strain, and Relational Footholds in a Labor Market
Philipp Brandt, CRIS Seminar, 17 February 2023
  • Image Helena Garcia Huertas (via Shutterstock)Image Helena Garcia Huertas (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2022-2023

Friday, February 17th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po (1, place Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin) - Room K008

The Big Apple’s Inner Workings:
Structural Stress, Individual Strain, and Relational Footholds in a Labor Market

Philipp Brandt

Assistant Professor, Sciences Po - CSO

Philipp BrandtWorkers quickly disappear behind larger processes in labor markets. They can get qualifications or referrals for better jobs, do the ones they have well or slack, and organize for better conditions. But labor market changes come from political reforms, technological innovation, and the rise of international trading partners.

This talk turns to a less vivid but equally important side of labor markets, their continuity, where workers’ activities play a significant role. It shows how so in the prominent case of New York City’s original yellow cab industry.

Whereas previous studies took externally defined perspectives, this analysis reconstructs drivers’ work lives from a large database of a year’s work activities: 170 million trips. It identifies two main segments of drivers, one in familiar transactional work arrangements and another in previously unrecognized relational work arrangements. Transactions offer flexibility and relations stability but require commitment. Drivers embark on “relational hustling” quests where they take spare shifts in existing relational arrangements to find stable relations and, with them, higher average revenues.

This small segment of hustlers ensures continuity for all in New York City’s yellow cab industry and informs our understanding of labor markets.

Registration is mandatory. Thank you.

To find out more: https://www.philippbrandt.xyz/home

In or Out? Xenophobic Violence and Immigrant Integration. Evidence from 19th century France

Mathilde Emeriau (LSE)
CRIS Scientific Seminar, Friday, February 10th 2023
  • Massacre des italiens, Aigues-Mortes, 1893 (Domaine public)Massacre des italiens, Aigues-Mortes, 1893 (Domaine public)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2022-2023

Friday, February 10th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po (1, place Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin) - Room K008

In or Out? Xenophobic Violence and Immigrant Integration.
Evidence from 19th century France

Mathilde Emeriau

Assistant Professor in Empirical Political Economy, LSE (London)

Mathilde EmeriauHow do immigrants respond to xenophobic violence? We study the responses of Italian immigrants in 19th century France to a wave of xenophobic violence triggered by the assassination of the French president by an Italian anarchist in 1894.
By linking nominative census records between 1886, 1891 and 1896, we study the decision of Italian immigrants to either leave their host communities or stay and naturalize using a difference in differences design, comparing the change in exit and naturalization rate of Italians before and after the assassination to that of other foreigners in the same period.
While some Italians left, other stayed and naturalized.

Descriptively, our data is consistent with three different mechanisms: (1) Exposure to or fear of violence drove Italians out, (2) anticipating discrimination from consumers, business owners naturalized to avoid boycott by natives, (3) pressured by French workers, employers fired Italians workers who had to leave to find employment elsewhere.

Registration is mandatory. Thank you.

To find out more: Home page (LSE) - Website

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on learning during the COVID-19 pandemic

Bastian Betthäuser, Anders Bach-Mortensen, Per Engzell
Nature Human Behaviour, January 2023
  • Image Smolaw (via Shutterstock)Image Smolaw (via Shutterstock)

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on learning
during the COVID-19 pandemic

Bastian A. Betthäuser, Anders M. Bach-Mortensen, Per Engzell

Nature Human Behaviour, published 30 January 2023

Open Access - doi: 10.1038/s41562-022-01506-4 

Since the beginning of the pandemic, children in primary and secondary schools have lost out on one third of what they would have learned in a normal school year. The existing evidence suggests that children have thus far not recovered this learning deficit. These are the main conclusions of the study.
The authors analyzed data from more than 38 million school children in 15 countries.

  • Children in primary and secondary schools lost out on a substantial amount of learning early in the COVID-19 pandemic.
    The first months of the pandemic were very disruptive. Teachers, parents and children were not prepared for schools closing. Children’s ability to learn is likely to have been reduced by lockdowns and the associated economic uncertainties of many families.
  • Worryingly, children have still not recovered the learning they lost early in the pandemic.
    But, on the positive side, children, teachers and parents have been successful in preventing early learning deficits from growing even larger as the pandemic continues.”
  • The learning gap between children from different socioeconomic backgrounds increased during the pandemic. The learning crisis is an equality crisis. Children from disadvantaged families were disproportionately affected. At the same time, they had fewer means to continue learning from home, for example with respect to a quiet place to study or a computer.
  • The pandemic also reinforced learning inequality at the global level.
    Children in poorer countries lost out on more learning than their peers in richer countries.
  • The extent of learning deficits also differs across subjects.
    The authors see a larger learning deficit in maths compared to reading. This may be due to parents being better able to help their children with reading compared to maths.
  • A few countries seem to have avoided significant setbacks, and their experience may provide valuable policy lessons.
    In Sweden, where schools did not close, students are performing as well as in normal school years before the pandemic.
  • The study highlights that urgent policy action is needed to address setbacks in children’s learning.
    In order to allow children to recover learning lost during the pandemic, we need to provide them with opportunities to learn outside of the regular classroom hours. Potential ways to do this include offering summer schools, organizing tutoring programmes and improving digital learning platforms.

Is ‘diversity’ a liability or an asset in elite labour markets?

The case of graduates who have benefited from a French positive discrimination scheme
Agnès van Zanten, Journal of Education and Work
  • Image Reflex Pixel (via Shutterstock)Image Reflex Pixel (via Shutterstock)

Is ‘diversity’ a liability or an asset in elite labour markets?
The case of graduates who have benefited from a French positive discrimination scheme

Agnès van Zanten, Senior Researcher CNRS, Sciences Po - CRIS

Journal of Education and Work
Volume 36, 2023 - Issue 1: Positionality and social inequality in graduate careers

Available online: https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080.2022.2162016

 

Agnès van ZantenThis article analyses the obstacles faced by graduates who benefited from an ambitious positive discrimination scheme called conventions éducation prioritaire (acronym CEP) which was launched by Sciences Po in 2001 and which had involved 2,262 young people by 2020. The scheme (which operated from 2001–2020) represented a radical departure from the main admissions procedure at the time, which was based on a competitive written exam including several essays on traditional academic subjects.

It adopts a Bourdieusian perspective enriched by research on the barriers encountered by socially mobile individuals from disadvantaged and stigmatised categories and studies the experiences of graduates who lack the economic, cultural, and social capital necessary to compete with traditional holders of elite positions and who, due to their ascribed characteristics and/or the positive discrimination label itself, are prone to self-eliminate from elite positions or be subjected to discriminatory practices.

Using data collected through interviews with 42 beneficiaries of this scheme still in the early stages of their professional careers, the article shows that the graduates’ disadvantages and ways of coping with them, as well their chances of being stigmatised and reactions to this process, vary considerably.
This variation can be explained by different family backgrounds and ethnoracial characteristics but also by axiological positions towards employability and social mobility, with ‘purists’ more likely to invest in increasing their technical cultural capital to make up for ‘handicaps’ and ‘players’ more likely to put forward ‘soft skills’ including, in some cases, those associated with their ‘diversity’.

Social Diversity at School, Academic Performances, and Social Skills

Evidence From a French Desegregation Experiment
Elise Huillery, CRIS Scientific Seminar, 27 January 2023
  • Image Inside Creative House (via Shutterstock)Image Inside Creative House (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2022-2023

Friday, January 27th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po (1, place Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin) - Room K008

Social Diversity at School, Academic Performances, and Social Skills:
Evidence From a French Desegregation Experiment

Élise Huillery

Full Professor,  Université Paris-Dauphine (PSL)


Elise HuilleryThis presentation examines whether desegregation at school may benefit all students and reduce social inequality in educational outcomes.

We exploit a national initiative launched by the French Ministry of Education to desegregate voluntary middle schools, and matched these schools with similar schools, which have not engaged into desegregation.
In the more segregated schools, the program was successful at increasing the exposure of low-SES to high-SES students, and conversely. Absolute academic performance of students from both background-types was not affected by the program, although the pre-existing gap in relative rank and academic self-esteem between both types of students widened.
We also show that desegregation improved students’ social relationships: it induced more diverse friendship networks, and low-SES students report better school climate, higher quality of relationships with friends, and a greater feeling of safety at school, while leaving the one of high-SES students unchanged.
Finally, we find some improvements in students’ values in favor of cooperation and solidarity. Overall, school desegregation brings social benefits, without negatively affecting the academic performance of any group.

Registration is mandatory. Thank you.

To find out more: https://dauphine.psl.eu/recherche/cvtheque/huillery-elise

Housing and school choices in the unequal city: current findings and a future research agenda

Quentin Ramond
CRIS Scientific Seminar, Friday, January 20th 2023
  • Image 4 PM Production (via Shutterstock)Image 4 PM Production (via Shutterstock)

CRIS Scientific Seminar 2022-2023

Friday, January 20th 2023, 11:30 am
Sciences Po (1, place Saint-Thomas-d'Aquin) - Room K008

Housing and school choices in the unequal city:
current findings and a future research agenda

Quentin Ramond

Assistant Professor, Center for Social Conflict and Cohesion Studies
& The Institute of Urban and Territorial Studies
(Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago)
 

Quentin Ramond

In many cities, rising housing prices make access to advantaged neighbourhoods served by desirable schools highly challenging for large segments of the population. How, then, do families with children articulate housing and school choices?

This presentation examines the complex trade-offs households consider between housing and school to deal with growing housing affordability constraints and the unequal geography of education.

First, I present recent results regarding the relationship between access to homeownership and inequalities of educational opportunity in Paris. Drawing on exhaustive and geocoded data on property transactions and buyers, I show that the upper-middle classes have consolidated their access to the property market in the most desirable school catchment areas, thereby widening the gap with the rest of the population who is increasingly excluded from neighbourhoods served by high-quality schools.

Based on these findings, I outline an ambitious research agenda that structures my ERC Starting Grant proposal, which is currently under evaluation. Drawing on national, geocoded and individual-level longitudinal data, the aim of this project is to analyse how housing tenure – that is, being a homeowner or living in a privately rented dwelling or in social housing – shapes residential sorting processes and, subsequently, local educational opportunity and school choice in large French metropolitan areas."

Registration is mandatory. Thank you.

Roads, rails, and checkpoints: Assessing the permeability of nation-state borders worldwide

Ettore Recchi, Emanuel Deutschmann & Lorenzo Gabrielli
  • Image Babarajo (via Shutterstock)Image Babarajo (via Shutterstock)

Roads, rails, and checkpoints:
Assessing the permeability of nation-state borders worldwide

Ettore Recchi, Emanuel Deutschmann & Lorenzo Gabrielli

World Development, vol. 164, 106175, April 2023, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2022.106175
Paper in open access on ScienceDirect

The permeability of nation-state borders determines the flow of people and commodities between countries and therefore greatly influences many aspects of human development from trade and economic inequality to migration and the ethnic composition of societies worldwide. While past research on the topic has focused on border fortification (walls, fences, etc.) or the legal dimension of border controls, we take a different approach by arguing that transport infrastructure (paths, roads, railroads, ferries) together with political checkpoints can be used as valuable indicators for the permeability of borders worldwide. More and better transport infrastructure increases permeability, whereas checkpoints create the political capacity for reducing entries.

Using automatized computational methods combined with extensive manual checks, we parse data from OpenStreetMap and the World Food Programme to detect cross-border transport infrastructure and checkpoints. Based on this information, we define an index of border permeability for 312 land borders globally.

Subsequent analyses show that regardless of the degree of closure enforcement at checkpoints, Europe and Africa have the most, and the Americas the least, permeable borders worldwide. Regression models reveal that border permeability is higher in densely populated areas and that economic development, by far the most relevant explanatory factor, has a curvilinear relationship with border permeability: Borders of very rich and very poor countries are highly permeable, whereas those of moderately prosperous nation-states are significantly harder to cross. Implications of this remarkably clear pattern are discussed.

This novel approach may deliver new insights into many social, political, economic, geographic, epidemiological, legal, and cultural aspects of world development. For example, the Border Permeability Dataset could be used to examine whether and how border permeability is related to: COVID-19 outbreaks, mobility flows of various kinds (from trade to migration to tourism to virus flows), conflict, war, terrorist incidents, environmental degradation, or ethnic fractionalization.

Worldmap - Average border permeabilities - Recchi, Deutschmann, Gabrielli, 2023
Europe and Western and Eastern Africa have the most permeable and the Americas the least permeable borders worldwide.

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