Politique de la ville, réussite scolaire et criminalité
- Nina GUYON, Assistant Professor à l’Université Nationale de Singapour (NUS), chercheure affiliée au LIEPP, IZA Research Fellow
Between 2004 and 2020, the National Urban Renewal Programme (PNRU) aimed to restructure nearly 600 of France's most disadvantaged neighbourhoods, with a view to promoting social diversity and improving the quality of life in these areas. 150,000 social housing units were demolished, 320,000 others were renovated, and 140,000 new social housing units were built, for a total investment of 45 billion euros. At the same time, the so-called "SRU" law on urban solidarity and renewal, passed in 2000, aims to even out the territorial distribution of social housing between municipalities. This policy consists of imposing budgetary penalties on municipalities in major French conurbations that fall below a minimum rate of social rental housing. This rate was initially set at 20% and was raised to 25% in 2013 by the so-called "Duflot I" law on the mobilisation of public land for housing and the strengthening of social housing production obligations.
In the report "What effects has urban regeneration had on targeted neighbourhoods? published by Sciences Po's LIEPP in 2017, Nina Guyon showed that, over 10 years, the PNRU had led to a reduction in the level of poverty in the targeted neighbourhoods, which was much more pronounced in the neighbourhoods where demolition work had been most intense. Gobillon and Vignolles (2014) showed that the SRU law had led to a reduction in the segregation of social housing in the towns affected. This project follows on from this work and aims to assess the effects of these two closely related policies on the educational trajectories of the children affected, on residential social segregation in the towns concerned, and on delinquency and crime in these same towns.
This research is being carried out in partnership with the Commissariat général à l'égalité des territoires (CGET), the Agence nationale pour la rénovation urbaine (ANRU), the Direction de l'évaluation, de la prospective et de la performance (DEPP) of the Ministère de l'Education Nationale, and the Service statistique ministériel de la sécurité intérieure (SSMSI) of the Ministère de l'Intérieur.
1. Effects of the national urban renewal programme on children's school careers
Nina GUYON, Assistant Professor (NUS)
According to ANRU data (2015), almost half of the families affected by the 150,000 demolitions and 320,000 renovations of social housing have had to move outside their original neighbourhood. As a result, many children have ended up in a different secondary school from the one they would have attended in the absence of urban regeneration. This study aims to understand how these moves, accompanied by changes of school, have affected the educational trajectory of the children concerned. Firstly, it will attempt to show the extent to which the children's actual collèges differ from those to which they should have gone, and then analyse the consequences for the pupils' educational orientation after the third year and the secondary school diplomas obtained.
2. Urban policy, social segregation and delinquency
Camille HEMET, Associate Professor (Paris School of Economics)
Nina GUYON, Assistant Professor (NUS)
Arnaud PHILIPPE, Lecturer in Economics (University of Bristol)
This second study will be carried out on a broader geographical scale, that of the city. Its first aim will be to understand how the reduction in the spatial segregation of social housing in towns affected by the PNRU and the SRU law has been reflected in terms of residential income segregation. These effects are not automatic, as they depend on the way in which the demolition-related rehousing was carried out, the location of the new social housing built as part of the programme, and the more general population movements induced by the programme. The second objective will then be to analyse the effects of this reduction in residential income segregation on delinquency and crime in the towns concerned.
ANRU. « Les chiffres au 30 juin 2015. », 2015.
Gobillon, Laurent, et Benjamin Vignolles. « Evaluation de l'effet d'une politique spatialisée d'accès au logement : la loi Solidarité et Renouvellement Urbain (SRU). » PSE Working Papers n.22, 2014.