Uses of Technologies for the Surveillance of Communications (UTIC)

The UTIC project looks at the communications surveillance practices of police and intelligence services, in particular in France but also at the European and transatlantic levels. It surveys today's technologies for collecting and analysing communications, the use of these technologies by law enforcement agencies as well as the political and legal controversies they trigger. The goal is to examine the reconfiguration of contemporary surveillance, the way it is redefining the limits of democracy as well as state sovereignty.

To grasp the stakes surrounding communications surveillance, the project's transdisciplinary approach relies on both Engineering Sciences and Social Sciences. The project's supervisors are Didier Bigo at the CERI (Sciences Po Paris), who is also UTIC's coordinator, Sébastien Laurent for CMRP (Bordeaux) and Laurent Bonelli (Paris Ouest Nanterre).

What is UTIC?

Funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR), the UTIC project has spanned over four years (2015-2019). The research has unfolded in three stages: 

1. The first stage consists in reviewing today's communications surveillance technologies and the transformations brought about by new computing capacities, integration platforms or Big Data analytics. Are these innovations changing the very nature of surveillance? When data is collected "in bulk" without individualized warrants, can we speak of a "mass surveillance" that threatens the privacy of the whole population, or is it still targeted surveillance to the extent that only part of the collected data is eventually retrieved and analysed? In spite of ongoing controversies and self-assured discourses sparked by the NSA scandal and the information disclosed by Edward Snowden, these crucial questions require a systemic analysis of modern surveillance technologies, as well of their social uses and their legal frameworks.

2. The second stage aims to understand the variations in the relation to technology among and between law enforcement agencies and their respective countries, as well as the justifications underlying surveillance practices. How is the relationship between different agencies structured both by the use of the collected data and the purpose of surveillance? What is the applicable law and the authorizations or recommendations issued at the European, transatlantic and global levels? Different patterns coexist, depending on whether the goal of surveillance is antiterrorism, tackling organized crime or collecting intelligence on the socio-economic situation of an ally country. Actors, operational end-goals as well as norms change depending on the context, and so do justification regimes.

3. The third stage of UTIC studies how national security and its relationship to fundamental rights are transformed both by the global nature of Internet traffic and by the modes of cooperation developed by public and private actors involved in surveillance. Communications surveillance is no longer national and public. Data collection and transfers take place at the transnational scale between different agencies from different countries, with the support of private corporations. In this context, how are alliance systems and power relationships evolving? What is the role of public-private hybridation in this process? What happens to the reason of State when the collection and processing of data takes place on a transnational scale? These are complex questions, since the actors of surveillance have conflicting interests. They also act under the constraint of multiple and sometimes contradictory legal frameworks, which are in turn shaped and mobilized by social movements attached to the protection of fundamental rights.

The team

The UTIC project is carried on by three research teams, each led by one supervisor: Didier Bigo at  CERI (Sciences Po Paris), who is also UTIC's coordinator, Sébastien Laurent for CMRP (University of Bordeaux) and Laurent Bonnelli at ISP (University of Paris Ouest Nanterre).

Center for International Studies - CERI (Sciences Po)

Didier Bigo is senior lecturer at Sciences Po Paris and researcher at the CERI. He is also professor at King's College London's Department of War Studies and director of the Center for the Study of Conflits, Liberty and Security (CCLS). He has managed several European research projects FP5, FP6, FP7 and is a regular contributor to European Parliament reports.

François Thuillier is associate reseacher at Center for the Study of Conflits, Liberty and Security (CCLS), and former head of the Department of Studies and Forecasting of a antiterrorist taskforce (UCLAT) within the Interior Ministry. He has spent his career within the Ministry's specialised services in parallel to its academic activities (IHESI, lecturer at the IEP de Paris, author of many articles on terrorism and intelligence).

Félix Tréguer is an associate researcher in the Center "Internet and Society", in the CNRS. He is also a post-doctorate researcher at Sciences Po-CERI. His research is at the crossroads of political history and theory, law and the study of media and techniques. They are focused on the political history of the Internet and computation, power practices such as censorship or telecommunication surveillance, government of the public space through algorithms and more broadly the digital transformation of the State and the field of security. He is also a founding member of La Quadrature du Net, an advocacy group defending fundamental rights online. He is the author of L'Utopie déchue. Une contre-histoire d'Internet, XVè-XXIè siècle (Fayard, 2019).

Montesquieu Center for Political Research - CMRP (University of Bordeaux)

Sébastien Laurent is a professor at the School of Law and Political Science at the University of Bordeaux. He works on intelligence and surveillance policies in France. From 2006 to 2010, he directed the first French research programme on intelligence, the IOIF ANR programme. He is also a member of the editorial board of Intelligence and National Security.

Daniel Ventre is a researcher at the Center of Sociological Research on Law and Penal Institutions (CEDIP-CNRS). He is head of chair in Cyberdefense and Cybersecurity at the military schools of Saint-Cyr Coëtquidan. The scientific activity of the chair is transdisciplinary and focuses on the impact of cybersecurity on the evolution of the armed forces, the legal and ethical questions raised by cyberwarfare as well as issues of territoriality.

Philippe Guillot is lecturer in mathematics at the University of Paris 8 in the "fundamental mathematics and information security" Master. For 13 years, he has directed cryptology laboratories in companies such as Thomson-CSF, Canal-Plus technologies. His work focuses on the conception and assessment of encryption, and on the social impacts of cryptology.

Institute for Social and Political Science - ISP (University of Paris Ouest Nanterre/ENS Cachan)

Laurent Bonelli is lecturer in political science at the University of Paris Ouest Nanterre. He is specialised in surveillance, anti-terrorism as well as urban security. He is co-editor-in-chief of the Cultures & Conflits journal. He is also member of the advisory board of the National Observatory for Deliquency and Penal Responses (ONDRP).

Patrick Garcia Pétin is a PhD candidate at the University of Paris Ouest Nanterre. His ongoing thesis focuses on intelligence collection in the Brazilian police forces.

Antoine Champagne is a journalist specialised in hacking, network surveillance practices like Deep Packet Inspection and more generally in issues related to personal data.

Jean Paul Hanon is an associate researcher at the Centre de Recherche des Écoles de Coëtquidan  (CREC Saint-Cyr: Coëtquidan School Research Center). He is a graduate of ESM Saint-Cyr and "Enseignement Militaire Supérieur et Technique" (EMST: Higher and Technical Military Education) in foreign languages and International Relations. He holds an "agregation" in English. He directed the Department of International Relations at the Coëtquidan School Research Center from 1998 to 2017. He taught strategic and security and defense policy issues at Sciences Po from 1998 to 2014. He currently conducts thesis work at the University of Nanterre on the making of intelligence in Germany. He has published on topics such as internal security in the EU, cooperation of armed forces and police, anti-terrorism, intelligence and security technologies. He chaired the working group on the "intelligence function" of the National Gendarmerie in 2007 and 2008.

Activities

Events organized by the UTIC partners

  • International workshop, « State-Surveillance-Democracy in a Digital Age », CERI-Sciences Po. September 18-19, 2019.
  • Exploratory research workshop, "L’insécurité dans le monde cyber" [Insecurity in the cyberspace], ANR-UTIC and interdisciplinary program CONFLICTARM, Bordeaux University, June 6, 2019.
  • RESO Seminar, « Les entrepreneurs privés de sécurité spécialisés dans les question de renseignement et des data analytics », présentation par Alexandra Gheciu. 10 décembre 2018.
  • Conférence internationale, « The War On Terror And State Extremism », consisting of a first round table on "An inventory of the war against terrorism and its repercussions", with the participation of Didier Bigo, Félix Tréguer, Muhammad Rabbani, Yasser Louati; a second round table on "The role of identity debates in exceptional policies, the extremes have they won?", with the participation of Emmanuel Daoud, Jalila Sbai, Francesco Ragazzi, and Anissa Righi; and Nisha Kapoor's presentation of her book Deport Deprive Extradite, followed by a discussion with Malia Bouattia, Muhammad Rabbani, Francesco Ragazzi and Yasser Louati. October 15, 2018.
  • Sixth annual conference of the Association Française de Droit de la Sécurité et de la Défense (AFDSD: French Association of Law of Security and Defense) (IRM-ISCJ), University of Bordeaux-PJJ, September 27-28, 2018.
  • Second International Conference UTIC, « SIGINT Intelligence Transnational Activities in France and Europe: Transnationalisation, Oversight and the Role of Courts », CERI-Sciences Po. September 24-26, 2018.
  • Colloquium UTIC, « Law, technology and privacy : resisting, limiting or regulating surveillance », introduction by Didier Bigo and Laurent Bonelli. First roundtable on "technical resistance to surveillance" with the participation of Lunar, Benjamin Sonntag, Antoine Champagne and Felix Tréguer. Second roundtable on "legal resistance to surveillance", with Tomaso Falchetta, Olivier Iteanu, Amelie Lefebvre, Olivier Tesquet and Jean-Philippe Foegle. December 18-19, 2017.
  • Colloquium « Le renseignement politique intérieur dans les démocraties libérales, entre légitimation et contestation » ["The interior political intelligence in liberal democraties, between legitimation and questioning"], organized by Laurent Bonelli (with Hervé Rayner, Fabien Thétaz, Bernard Voutat – University of Lausanne / Institute of Political, Historic and International Studies, CRAPUL), University of Lausanne, Switzerland. December 7-8, 2017.
  • RESO Seminar, « Les pratiques du secret et des secrets partagés. Collaboration en matière de police, investigations sur les amitiés électroniques, mécanismes de résistance à la surveillance douce » ["The practices of secrecy and shared secrets. Police collaboration, investigation of electronic friendships, mechanisms of resistance to soft surveillance"], interventions by Didier Bigo, Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet and Julien Pomarède. December 4, 2017.
  • RESO Seminar, « L'Allemagne du renseignement: des acteurs invisibles mais puissants? » ["Intelligence services in Germany: Invisible but powerful actors?"], interventions by Didier Bigo and Jean-Paul Hanon. November 9, 2017.
  • First International Conference UTIC, « The Internet, Private Actors and Security Challenges », CERI-Sciences Po. October 9-10, 2017.
  • Panel "Recent trends in European counterterrorism: a comparative perspective", organized by Laurent Bonelli and Manni Crone (DIIS, Denmark), European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR), Oslo. September 8, 2017.
  • Colloquium « Surveillance, Oversight, and Human Rights in Counter Terrorism » (with the Queen Mary Criminal Justice Center, Reflection Group on Terrorism and Human Rights), Sciences Po. Keynote address by Nils Muižnieks, Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights. November 28-29, 2016.
  • Colloquium « Données et Sécurité » ["Data and security"], organized by Daniel Ventre with Telecom ParisTech (prof. Daniel Koffman). Marc 25, 2016.
  • RESO Seminar « Amis et ennemis dans le cyberespace ? Les enjeux de la vie privée et de l’anonymat sur le net » ["Friends and enemies in cyberspace? The issues of privacy and anonymity on the Net"], organized by Didier Bigo at the Sciences Po Doctoral School. Presentations by Hager ben Jaffel (KCL) « The UK intelligence services and the European Union: what relations ? » ; Mara Wesseling (Center of Organizations Sociology, Sciences-Po/CNRS), « Opening the Black Box : à la recherche du fonctionnement et de l'efficacité du Terrorism Finance Tracking Program » ["Opening the Black Box: In Search of the Functioning and Effectiveness of the Terrorism Finance Tracking Program"]. Discussant: Alexandra Gheciu (Ottawa University). March 8, 2016.
  • Colloquium « Le secret de l’État. L’étude du renseignement en France (XVIIe-XXIe siècles) : Récents acquis de la recherche et nouvelles perspectives » ["The secret of the State. The study of intelligence in France (17th-21st centuries): Recent research achievements and new perspectives"], organized by Sébastien Laurent with the Paris Sorbonne University and the National Archives. March 4-5, 2016.
  • RESO Seminar « Usages des technologies prédictives par les services de police et de renseignement » ["Uses of Predictive Technologies by Police and Intelligence Services"], organized by Didier Bigo at the Sciences Po Doctoral School. Presentations by Colonel Patrick Perrot (Gendarmerie Nationale, chief of the Analysis and Criminal Investigation Division at the Ministry of the Interior), « De l’analyse temporelle à l’anticipation contre la criminalité » ["From temporal analysis to anticipation against crime"]; Bilel Benbouzid (Paris Est University, Marne-la-Vallée, LISIS - ANR INNOX), « Sociologie du predictive policing aux Etats-Unis : les réformes policières, la science du crime et le quatrième amendement : le cas de Predpol » ["Sociology of Predictive Policing in the United States: Police Reforms, Crime Science and the Fourth Amendment: The Case of Predpol"]. February 16, 2016.
  • Conference on the control of intelligence activities, organized by Didier Bigo at King's College London with the participation of the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights Nils Muzniek. January 21, 2016.
  • RESO Seminar « Renseignement, guerre préventive, assassinat extrajudiciaire ? » ["Intelligence, Preventive War, Extrajudicial Killing?"], organized by Didier Bigo at the Sciences Po Doctoral School. Presentations by Christophe Wasinski (ULB-Bruxelles) ; Eric Macé and Mathias Delori (Centre Emile Durkheim, Bordeaux University), « La question de la définition de l’ennemi dans la lutte contre le jihadisme » ["The question of defining the enemy in the fight against jihadism"], Thomas Lindemann, « Sur guerre, terreur et reconnaissance » ["On war, terror and recognition"]. January 12, 2016.
  • RESO Seminar « Rationalité technologique, rôle du Renseignement humain : Quelles modalités de coopération? » ["Technological Rationality, the Role of Human Intelligence: What Modalities of Cooperation?"], organized by Didier Bigo at the Sciences Po Doctoral School. Presentations by Philippe Hayez (Sciences Po), « Pour quelles formes de "sécurité" et "d'identité" » ["For what forms of "security" and "identity"?"] ; Armen Khatchatourov (Télécom ParisTech), « Les métamorphoses de l'identité à l'ère numérique » ["The metamorphoses of identity in the digital age"] ; Gabriel Périès (Télécom ParisTech), « Les technologies d'identification et la confiance à l'heure de la sécurité "nationale" » ["Identification technologies and trust at the time of "national" security"] ;  Pierre-Antoine Chardel (Télécom ParisTech), « Les conditions d’existence et de subjectivation à l'heure de la surveillance » ["The conditions of existence and subjectivation at the time of surveillance"]. December 8, 2015.
  • Conference « Surveillance After Snowden », with a keynote by David Lyon at the CERI (Sciences Po). Participation of ISP and CERI, with a presentation by Laurent Bonelli of preliminary research based on judiciary counter-terrorist files (deliverable 3), a presentation by Jean-Paul Hanon of preliminary research on German law and the organization of the intelligence services (deliverable 7), a presentation by Félix Tréguer of his research hypothesis regarding the role of private actors in surveillance (deliverable 5). November 3, 2015.
  • Création of the RESO Seminar (« Renseignement, Espionnage, Surveillance, Obéissance ») ["Intelligence, Espionage, Surveillance, Obedience"] by Didier Bigo, Laurent Bonelli and the teamsfrom Sciences Po-CERI and Paris Ouest Nanterre. First session : « Penser l’international autrement - L’international comme interétatique et niveau d’analyse, l’international comme mouvement vers la mondialisation et la société globale, l’international comme allongement des dynamiques des champs de pouvoir et de leur enchevêtrement, transgovernmental networks et guildes transnationales, les services de renseignement antiterroriste et leur coopération transnationale » ["Thinking the international differently - International as interstate and level of analysis, the international as a movement towards globalization and the global society, the international as extension of the dynamics of the fields of power and their entanglement, transgovernmental networks and transnational guilds, counter-terrorism intelligence services and their transnational cooperation"]. Presentation of the research hypotheses and the big post-Snowden controverses. October 19, 2015.
  • Colloquium « Geospatial Intelligence. Révolution technologique, représentation spatiale et analyse géopolitique » ["Geospatial Intelligence. Technological revolution, spatial representation and geopolitical analysis"], by Sébastien Laurent as member of the scientific committee, with the participation of Paris VIII University, ENS-Ulm and Airbus DS.
  • Summer School « Defence-Security-Cyber » at the IDEX-Bordeaux University, under the scientific direction of Sébastien-Yves Laurent. July 6-10, 2015.
  • ISP-CERI study day at the Sciences Po Doctoral School. Presentation by Didier Bigo on the Five-Eyes surveillance techniques as documented by the Snowden revelations, presentation by Laurent Bonelli on "low-tech" in the French inside intelligence, intervention by Jean-Paul Hanon on the German agencies and the mutualisation of the technical intelligence (inside/outside, local/national). March 27, 2015.

Publications

Books and books chapters
Journal articles
Vulgarization

Interventions

  • Félix Tréguer, « Résister aux sociétés de contrôle, subvertir de l’informatique dominante : une typologie des illégalismes hackers » ["Resisting control societies, subverting dominant computing: a typology of illegal hackers"]– 15th Congress of the Association Française de Science Politique (AFSP: Franch Association of Political Science), thematic section 59 « Politiques du hacking. Enquête sur les ruses numériques » ["Hacking policies. Research on digital guile"], Institute of Political Sciences of Bordeaux. July 2, 2019.
  • Félix Tréguer, « Analysing and reconstructing the Internet and Web of the 1990s: A round table » (with Valérie Schafer, Niels Brügger, Ian Milligan, Geert Lovink, Michael Stevenson and Patrick Pétin), RESAW19: The Web That Was: Archives, Traces, Reflections, Université d’Amsterdam. June 19, 2019.
  • Sébastien-Yves Laurent, « Conflictualités, violences et Internet Studies » ["Conflictualities, Violence and Internet Studies"] et « La violence numérique : quels mots et concepts pour la dire ? » ["Digital Violence: What Words and Concepts to Say it?"], research workshop « L’insécurité dans l’environnement cyber » ["Insecurity in the cyberenvironment"], ANR-UTIC and Conflictarm, Bordeaux University. June 6, 2019.
  • Sébastien-Yves Laurent, « Les effets de la confusion des perceptions dans l’environnement numérique mondial » ["The effects of perceptual confusion in the global digital environment"], Forum Saint-Laurent on  internationale security, Quebec (Canada). May 2-3, 2019.
  • Philippe Guillot and Marie-José Durand-Richard, « How mathematics spread and transformed cryptographic activities » and « From Poznan to Bletchley Park: The history of cracking the Enigma machine », CIIT Lab Workshop, History of Cryptography, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Nis, Serbia. April 2019.
  • Sébastien-Yves Laurent, « La gouvernance supérieure du renseignement : un défi culturel pour la technostructure d’État » ["High-level governance of intelligence: a cultural challenge for state technostructure"], SGDSN, study day on the SGDN [Secretariat General of National Defense]. March 15, 2019.
  • Félix Tréguer, « Chercheurs sous surveillance : les enjeux de la protection des données de recherche » ["Researchers under surveillance: the challenges of the protection of data collected through research"], study day Tracés « Quelles données pour quelle recherche ? » ["What data for what research?"], EHESS Paris. February 8, 2019.
  • Félix Tréguer, « Cryptographie et libertés publiques » ["Cryptography and civil liberties"]: Round table during the session « Sciences, Légitimités et Médiations » ["Science, Legitimacy and Mediation "] for the 20th anniversary of the seminar "History of Sciences" at the University Paris 8 (multipartner with Philippe Guillot of the Bordeaux team). 
  • Félix Tréguer, « Challenging France’s Intelligence Act before the Courts », workshop « Interrogating the Right to Privacy and the Limits of Surveillance », co-organized by Queen Mary University London and Sciences Po Paris, Paris.
  • Sébastien-Yves Laurent, « Le "renseignement" face aux "nouvelles menaces": un levier pour le changement ? » ["Intelligence" in the face of "new threats": a lever for change?"] ICES, Symposium "New Threats".  October 15-16, 2018.
  • Félix Tréguer, « (Re)configuration of Public-Private Assemblages in Internet Surveillance » – UTIC final conference “SIGINT Intelligence Transnational Activities in France and Europe: Transnationalisation, Oversight and the Role of Courts”, Sciences Po. September 25, 2018. 
  • Sébastien-Yves Laurent, « Global Surveillance without the States », conference « The Eyes and Ears of Power - Surveillance, History and Privacy », University of Copenhagen. September 13-14, 2018.
  • Félix Tréguer, « La police des communications et ses transformations » ["The police of communications and its transformations"], summer school of the CERI-CERIUM chair in international studies on the contemporary transformations of policing, Paris. September 5, 2018. 
  • Sébastien-Yves Laurent, « Les études de renseignement, dix ans après Métis » ["Intelligence studies, ten years after Métis"], Métis Seminar No.96, Sciences Po Paris. May 29, 2018. 
  • Sébastien-Yves Laurent, « L’Etat coercitif dans les plis du secret : du secret et du clandestin » ["The coercive state in the folds of secrecy: the secret and the clandestine"], study day « Les territoires du secret. Les sciences sociales face aux pratiques de confidentialité » ["The territories of the secret. Social sciences in front of privacy practices"], organized by the Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB). May 24, 2018.
  • Félix Tréguer, « Cartographier les controverses post-Snowden : intuitions théoriques et perspectives » ["Mapping Post-Snowden Controversies: Theoretical Insights and Perspectives"], Medialab-Sciences Po Research Seminar, Paris. April 4, 2017.
  • Sébastien-Yves Laurent, « La naissance paradoxale du contrôle parlementaire du renseignement » ["The Paradoxical Birth of Parliamentary Intelligence Control"], Symposium on « Le contrôle et l’évaluation de la politique publique du renseignement » ["The Control and Evaluation of Public Intelligence Policy"], organized by the Délégation Parlementaire au Renseignement (DPR: Parliamentary Intelligence Delegation) and the Commission Nationale de Contrôle des Techniques de Renseignement (CNCTR: National Intelligence Techniques Oversight Commission), National Assembly. March 22, 2017.
  • Félix Tréguer, « Fragments d’une histoire politique du chiffrement » ["Fragments of a political history of encryption"], colloquium « Chiffrement, libertés et sécurité » ["Encryption, freedoms and security"] of the Observatoire des Libertés et du Numérique [Observatory of Freedoms and Digital], National Assembly, Paris. November 21, 2016.
  • Félix Tréguer, « Enduring Illegality & the Snowden Paradox: About an Overlooked Provision of the 2015 French Intelligence Act », Digital surveillance and cyber spying: French – German perspective, Maison de la recherche, Paris 1 University. September 23, 2016.
  • Félix Tréguer, « Mapping the controversies about surveillance in the digital space » Professionals: Trajectories, fields dynamics, symbolic capital, CERI-Sciences Po. September 14, 2016.
  • Philippe Guillot, « Approche spectrale de la CPA (Correlation Power Analysis) » ["A spectral Approach to CPA (Correlation Power Analysis)"], seminar « Protection de l'information » ["Information Protection"] of the LAGA. June 9, 2016.
  • Daniel Ventre, chairman of the panel « Technological autonomy – a European answer to surveillance », international colloquium « Reacting to Surveillance by security agencies in the age of big data – what is the role of the European Union? », Berlin. May 13-14, 2016.
  • Didier Bigo, « Lessons from Maher Arar case- Laws on Intelligence services-possible reforms », Winnipeg Special plenary session and research meeting, CARFMS 16 Annual Conference, Canada. May 11, 2016.
  • Didier Bigo, « Transformation des coopérations entre services de renseignement depuis 2013 et les implications pour le contrôle de ces activités » ["Transformation of cooperations between intelligence services since 2013 and the implications for the overisght of these activities"], Faculty visiting scholars workshop, University of British Columbia-UBC-Vancouver PA Allards School of Law, Canada. May 6, 2016.
  • Philippe Guillot, « Sécurité des systèmes cryptographiques embarqués » ["Security of embedded cryptographic systems"], International Workshop on Cryptography and its Applications, Oran. April 26-27, 2016.
  • 7th Biennial Surveillance & Society Conference, Barcelone. Panel to introduce the first outcomes of the RESO group, grown from a collaboration between CERI and ISP. Didier Bigo, « The paradoxical effects of post-Snowden collaboration : analysing the transnational acquisition of data based on the circulation worldwide of data of citizen of other countries in regard to national security debates and imperatives » ; Laurent Bonelli, « Collecting traces, building narratives : Intelligence services and their uses of technologies » ; Félix Tréguer, « From Deep State Illegality to Law of the Land: The Case of Internet Surveillance in France ». April 22, 2016.
  • Daniel Ventre, chairman of the panel « Information, désinformation : enjeux et acteurs d’une guerre “hybride” dans le cyber-espace » ["Information, disinformation: stakes and actors of a "hybrid" war in cyberspace"], conference on the « data warfare », IHEDN. April 13, 2016.
  • Didier Bigo, « Reconceptualising boundaries differently from Westphalian model ? The practices of border police, intelligence prevention and military controls : Towards trends of delocalisation and digitisation ? » (keynote), conference « Coder-décoder les frontières » ["Coding-decoding borders"], ULB- Espace Flagey- Brusels. April 13, 2016.
  • Laurent Bonelli (with Ragazzi F.), « Despite all the high-tech spy toys they have in store... – Digital surveillance and counter-terrorism in France, UK and the United States. », ULB – Brussels, conference « Inside borders / migration control », December 15, 2015.
  • Didier Bigo, « Les flux internationaux, l’ordre politique et le changement social » ["International flows, the political order and social change"], conference « Policing of/through the flows », Montreal, November 13, 2015.
  • Didier Bigo, « Critical security studies and intelligence studies » (keynote), conference in Marburg University, Germany. November 5-6, 2015.
  • Didier Bigo, « Les paradoxes de la transnationalisation de la raison d'État » ["The paradoxes of the transnationalization of the reason of state"], conference « Surveillance After Snowden », Sciences Po. November 3, 2015.
  • Laurent Bonelli, « Renseignement, traces et preuves : réflexions sur les logiques de l'antiterrorisme » ["Intelligence, traces and evidence: reflections on the logic of anti-terrorism"], conference « Surveillance After Snowden », Sciences Po. November 3, 2015.
  • Jean-Paul Hanon, « Le BND dans l'architecture de renseignement en Allemagne » ["The BND in the intelligence architecture in Germany"], conference « Surveillance After Snowden », Sciences Po. November 3, 2015.
  • Félix Tréguer, « Don't be evil? Collaboration et résistance à la surveillance chez les acteurs privés de l’économie numérique » ["Don't be evil? Collaboration and resistance to surveillance by private actors in the digital economy"], conference « Surveillance After Snowden », Sciences Po. November 3, 2015.
  • Didier Bigo, « Les guildes transnationales gérant les informations sensibles: privé et public, local, transnational et global » ["Transnational guilds managing sensitive information: private and public, local, transnational and global"] (keynote), Geneva University. September 30 - October 4, 2015.
  • Brandon Dravie, Philippe Guillot and Gilles Millérioux, « Security proof of the canonical form of self-synchronizing stream cipher », conference « Workshop on Cryptography and Coding », April 2015. 

Deliverables

Deliverable 1: Evolution of technical systems in the field of surveillance

  • Philippe Guillot and Daniel Ventre, report: « Capacités d'interception et surveillance. L’évolution des systèmes techniques » ["Interception and Surveillance capacities. The evolution of technical systems"], 2019. 
  • This report brings an analytic framework for the technical or technological aspects of interception capacities. It is therefore essentially designed as a working tool for the researchers who contribute to the rest of the UTIC project. It intends to clarify the definitions of concepts that are essential to the project (surveillance, interception, data, etc.), to describe techniques, methods and interception technologies and to recall some milestones of the legal evolution in the field of cybersurveillance and interception of communications.

Deliverable 2: Technics and technical countermeasures

  • Edouard Sill and Patrick Pétin, report « Techniques et contre-mesures techniques » ["Technics and technical countermeasures"], 2018. The first part complements deliverable 1 and focuses on the development, marketing and expectations of using Deep Packet Inspection in surveillance practices in Europe and France. The second part studies the resistances that can be observed in the movements in the French digital sector and exposes their recent history, in order to understand the positioning against the Snowden revelations.
  • Félix Tréguer, « De la dépêche secrète aux Crypto Wars (brève histoire politique du chiffrement) » ["From secret dispatch to Crypto Wars (a brief political history of encryption)"]. La Chronique d’Amnesty International, 365, April 2017.
  • Félix Tréguer, « Anonymat et chiffrement, composantes essentielles de la liberté de communication » ["Anonymity and encryption, essential components of the freedom of communication"], in: Quentin Van Enis et Cécile De Terwangne (Ed.) L’Europe des Droits de l’Homme à l’heure d’Internet, Brussels: Bruylant, 2019. 

Deliverable 3: Differentiated relations to technique inside intelligence services

  • Laurent Bonelli and Francesco Ragazzi, « Low-tech security: Files, notes, and memos as technologies of anticipation », Security Dialogue, 45(5), 2015, pp. 476-493.
  • Jean-Paul Hanon, "German services at the heart of the relations between national security, transatlantic solidarity between intelligence services, effectiveness of information-sharing platforms, evaluation-resistance through law and democratic control", discussion with PhD students and guest researchers from UTIC. November 9, 2017.
  • Didier Bigo and Laurent Bonelli, « "Nous ne sommes pas un Big Brother !" Autorité et stratégies de légitimation des services de renseignement dans la captation et l’usage des données numériques » [« "We are not Big Brother!" Authority and legitimation strategies of the intelligence services in the interception and use of digital data » ], Cultures & Conflits, No. 114-115, 2019 [Publication pending].
  • Laurent Bonelli, "Domestic Intelligence and Counter Terrorism in France", in Jacques de Maillard and Wesley Skogan, Policing in France, London: Routledge, 2020 [Publication pending].
  • Several interviews with French, British, Spanish and German intelligence professionals, as well as the processing of terrorist judicial cases (nationalist, jihadist, extreme left / right) in France, have led to a better understanding of the practical logics in the use of interception techniques, highlighting both their rationality for the investigative services and the limitations they entail. They also underscore the links between the different investigative techniques and their combination. This allowed us to map the ​​intelligence space and to better understand the forms of cooperation that unfold there (thus illuminating the deliverable 6). The investigation also shows that this use of interception techniques is not separable from the modes of legitimization of their activity used by the services and the possible disputes to which they give rise, and of which the Snowden revelations are one of the most recent events. To understand the singularity or, on the contray, the consistency of the articulations between technology, legitimation and contestation, we mobilized other colleagues to collect their analyses on other historical periods or other geographical areas (United States, Switzerland, Canada). The results of these reflections consist of a double issue of Cultures et Conflicts, led by Laurent Bonelli, entitled « Les mondes du renseignement, entre légitimation et contestation » ["The Intelligence Worlds, Between Legitimation and Questioning"] (No.114-115), to be published in December 2019. 

Deliverable 4: Transnational cooperations

1) Reseach methods

2) Analysis of current public policies and the controversy concerning the large-scale collection of personal data and their consequences in France, the United Kingdom and Germany

 3) Analysis of the sociogenesis of internet surveillance in the 2000s and its reasons

Deliverable 5: Public-private hybridation 

Deliverable 6: Analysis of the different data exchange networks at the international level

Deliverable 7: The embedding of legal standards

Deliverable 8: The fragmented global governances of the Internet

  • Sébastien-Yves Laurent, report « Les gouvernances mondiales fragmentées de l’Internet » [The fragmented global governances of the Internet], 2019.
  • This deliverable focuses on the discourses, the practices and the governance structures of the Internet on a worlwide scale. The first two parts provide a diachronic state of play of the governance of the network, which was developed in the USA (Part I), before going global, which prompted an involvement of the UN, with a multilateralized conception of governance (Part II). The weakness of the governance system, caused by unequal sucesses in terms of Internet regulation through hard law is then underscored, leaving room for the predominance of norms and soft law (Part III). In addition, the deep polarization of the international debate on cyber caused by cybersecurity issues (Part IV) and the failure of a global governance based on the initial intentions of the United Nations (Part V) are addressed. As a whole, these trends have led to fragmented global governances of the Internet, which constitute a major characteristic feature of the current international system (2019).