Les études du CERI

Les études du CERI

Les Etudes du CERI series publishes about 10 issues per year following the strict rules of double blind peer reviewed academic publications. The editorial board is composed of members of CERI’s Unit Council.
Les Etudes du CERI is a tool for decision-making and offers to scrutinize and study the transformations of our contemporary world, in more than 200 titles addressing a variety of topics and analyzing political, social and economic questions related to a specific country/region or a global contemporary challenge. Every issue follows, and is the result of, a fieldwork undertaken by its author. In this respect, this publication illustrates CERI’s approach to area studies, based on a direct, empirical experience and methodology.
Previous and current issues are all available online, free of charge. As all publications of this website, Les Etudes du CERI is protected by copyright through the French law.

 

Series editor: Alain Dieckhoff, directeur du CERI

Editor of the journal: Judith Burko, judith.burko@sciencespo.fr, phone +33158717004

Media contact: Karolina Michel, karolina.michel@sciencespo.fr, phone+33158717007

Marlène Laruelle

La question des Russes du proche-étranger en Russie (1991-2006)
N°126
June 2006
Demography, Diasporas, Identities, Law, Migrations, Nationalism, NGOs / Civil society, Politics / Political Systems, Russia, Russian Federation, Les études du CERI

When the USSR collapsed, about 25 million Russians suddenly found themselves outside the Federation borders. This Russian diaspora has since then been defended by various lobbies based in Moscow. Some have simply the status of an association; others enjoy considerable institutional recognition in Parliament, various ministries or the executive in Moscow. The diaspora theme has undergone a profound evolution in the Russian political space: during the early 1990s it was first considered as a nationalist demand initiated within marginal circles, and since then has progressively been taken up by the state as a “politically correct” stance. In the space of 15 years, organizations defending the Russian diaspora’s rights have managed to become totally institutionalized and have gained influence on legislation regarding federal aid to the diaspora. The wide variety of terminology used to name this phenomenon, the use of the word ‘compatriot’ (judicially improper), the ethnicisation of the discourse, as well as the administrative efforts made to develop new and depoliticized conceptions of the Russian diaspora all show the underlying identity issues behind the diaspora question.

Comment citer ce volume :

Marlène Laruelle

, La question des Russes du proche-étranger en Russie (1991-2006) / Les Études du CERI, N°126, June 2006, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Zuzanna Olszewska

Les Afghans iraniens
N°125
April 2006
Afghanistan, Borders, Diasporas, Economic transactions, Identities, Iran, Law, Middle East, Migrations, Nationalism, Politics / Political Systems, Poverty, Religions, Social policy, Transnational, Violence, Les études du CERI

Though Afghan emigration results from sociopolitical circumstances (drought, changes in the system of government, wars) and from the economic structure (pastoralism, seasonal cycles of productive activities), it is part of a historical continuum of recurrent population movements in the region. Many Afghans, particularly Hazaras, have settled in Iran since the end of the 19th century. Their presence in the country intensified during the 1970s following the Iranian oil boom and the Afghan drought, but also following the political upheavals in Afghanistan since 1978. The Islamic Republic has adopted a changing and rather inconsistent policy to deal with these immigrants, and in a both popular and formal climate of xenophobia the country’s current objective is to repatriate them. Yet, the presence of Afghans on Iranian soil seems irreversible as it satisfies economic needs, reflects the intensity of commercial exchanges between the two countries, and constitutes a complex cross-border social reality. Lastly, the Afghan presence stokes a public and legal debate on how to define citizenship, while it appears to be inherent to the Iranian conception of its own nation.

Comment citer ce volume : Fariba Adelkhah

Zuzanna Olszewska

, Les Afghans iraniens / Les Études du CERI, N°125, April 2006, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Yves Tiberghien

The Battle for the Global Governance of Genetically Modified Organisms
N°124
April 2006
China, Environment, European Union, Globalization, Health, India, International organizations, Japan, New technologies, NGOs / Civil society, Regulation, South Korea, Trade, United States, Les études du CERI

Since the mid-1990s, a global political battle has developed around one of the most promising industries of the future: biotechnology. While transgenic technology showed great promise and became widely adopted in North America, it also became the target of a global resistance movement including non-governmental organizations (NGOs), key states, and international organizations. The emerging consensus among OECD countries embedded in the 1994 WTO agreement quickly collapsed after 1999, as the EU, Japan, Korea, and other countries led a counter-movement. The battle entails several dimensions—modern technology and human progress, global trade, environmental protection, health, food security, development, democratic deficit, and cultural identity—making it one of the fault lines in globalization. State policy with respect to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) includes both national regulations and support for global standards in international negotiations such as the 2000 Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. This study analyzes the stakes in the battle for global governance, the key actors, and the principal battlefields. It then focuses on the roles of two key players, the EU and Japan, and how they led the move toward a more precautionary approach. The study reveals the political mechanisms behind this transformation, emphasizing the role of emerging civil society movements as the determining trigger for policy change.

Comment citer ce volume :

Yves Tiberghien

, The Battle for the Global Governance of Genetically Modified Organisms / Les Études du CERI, N°124, April 2006, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Anne Rulliat

Les politiques de lutte contre le chômage à Shanghai depuis les années 2000
N°123
March 2006
China, Collective mobilizations, Emerging States, Multinational corporations, North-East Asia, Political economy, Poverty, Social policy, State, Les études du CERI

The city of Shanghai, which has been hard hit by the various reorganizations of state enterprises since the early 1990s, is a forerunner in policies to battle unemployment, to the extent that its achievements are often referred to by the expression the Shanghai model(Shanghai moshi). The city has been experiencing a variety of forms of unemployment since the year 2000, affecting not only workers in state enterprises but all categories of the population, particularly young people. This study examines the Shanghai model, first describing the causes of unemployment in Shanghai, and then tracing the development of the measures taken in the past ten years or so. From the widespread structural unemployment in the years 1996-1997 to the more contextual unemployment in recent years, the city has devised a whole array of measures that are constantly evolving. Some are specifically adapted to the organization of Chinese society, but a number of others are similar to those adopted in OECD countries. In opposition to the liberal discourse on the mercantilization of labor, these measures demonstrate a strong state voluntarism in employment policies. The preservation of social stability serves as a yardstick to gauge the effectiveness of these public policies.

Comment citer ce volume :

Anne Rulliat

, Les politiques de lutte contre le chômage à Shanghai depuis les années 2000 / Les Études du CERI, N°123, March 2006, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Marc Valeri

Le sultanat d'Oman en quête d'un second souffle
N°122
December 2005
Energy / Natural resources, Identities, Middle East, Multinational corporations, Nationalism, Oman, State, Les études du CERI

The sudden slump in oil production since 2001 has only heightened the question of an alternative to an economy based on oil revenues, whereas the sultanate had undergone exponential development over the three preceding decades. From this standpoint, the policy of Omanizing the labor force conditions all other issues, as it is not merely an economic matter, but instead deeply alters the social fabric that remained intact during the era of prosperity, thereby questioning the very legitimacy of Oman’s economic model. Omani society is currently experiencing a rise in frustrations reflected in a resurgence of particularist prejudices and demands. Alongside this phenomenon is an exacerbation of inequality, particularly due to the enmeshment of economic and decisionmaking powers in the hands of the oligarchy that has benefited from these revenues since 1970. To what extent do the changes Oman is going through today harbor a threat for the stability of a regime considered to be one of the most stable in the region?

Comment citer ce volume :

Marc Valeri

, Le sultanat d'Oman en quête d'un second souffle / Les Études du CERI, N°122, December 2005, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Jean-Pierre Pagé

Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2005 (volume 2)
N°121
December 2005
Comment citer ce volume :

Jean-Pierre Pagé

, Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2005 (volume 2) / Les Études du CERI, N°121, December 2005, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Jean-Pierre Pagé

Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2005 (volume 1)
N°120
December 2005
Comment citer ce volume :

Jean-Pierre Pagé

, Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2005 (volume 1) / Les Études du CERI, N°120, December 2005, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Marwa Daoudy

Le long chemin de Damas. La Syrie et les négociations de paix avec Israel
N°119
November 2005
Conflict resolution, Energy / Natural resources, International security, Israel, Middle East, Peace / Peacekeeping, Syria, Territory, Les études du CERI

From 1991 to 2000, Syria and Israel, two of the key actors of the Middle-Eastern conflict, entered into extensive peace negotiations. What lessons can be drawn from the process in terms of Syria’s objectives, motivations and perceptions, considering that this actor remains largely unknown? Such concerns will be addressed by identifying the major issues at stake: territory, security, and water resources. By analyzing all the obstacles on the road to peace, we will evaluate the potential for a resumption of peace talks in the new regional context. The death of President Hafez al-Asad in June 2000 and the rise to power of his son Bashar, the deterioration of the Israeli-Palestinian situation since the start of the Intifada and Ariel Sharon’s election in Israel, the war launched by the United States in Iraq, the assassination of Lebanon’s former Prime Minister Rafic Hariri, the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon in April 2005, and the meeting of the 10th Baath Party Congress in June have all drastically impacted on domestic and regional dynamics. The purpose of the study is to shed new light on Syria’s constraints and opportunities, and their impact on her bargaining position.

Comment citer ce volume :

Marwa Daoudy

, Le long chemin de Damas. La Syrie et les négociations de paix avec Israel / Les Études du CERI, N°119, November 2005, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh

Human Security: Concepts and Implications with an Application to Post-Intervention Challenges in Afghanistan
N°117
-118
September 2005
Afghanistan, Human rights, International organizations, Middle East, NGOs / Civil society, Peace / Peacekeeping, Politics / Political Systems, Security policy, Violence, Les études du CERI

Is the concept of “human security”, which has been discussed and debated in international organizations and academic circles since 1994, simply “hot air”, as its critics claim? Or does it provide a suitable framework for proposing multisectoral, integrated solutions in a world that is increasingly interconnected? While there is no consensus as to the exact definition of the term, human security goes beyond traditional notions of security to focus on such issues as development and respect for human rights. To some the concept is attractive, but analytically weak since it introduces too many variables that are not necessarily linked together. To others, human security concerns should be limited to situations marked by the threat or outbreak of violence. For those who favour a broad definition (as does this author), the human security agenda provides the means to assess the root causes of conflict (whether intra-state or inter-state), to propose adequate policies for resolving crises, and to provide the means for sustainable peace-building. In so doing human security policies focus on social and economic issues as they affect the individual, arguing that security (in the narrow sense of the term) is dependent on a wide-ranging network of factors that require a comprehensive approach to be effective. The paper introduces the various documents on the subject produced by international organizations, takes up the problem of the relation between academic research and policy-making, and points to a certain number of cases in which nations or regional organizations have included human security as a foreign policy option. Throughout the paper reference is made to the case of Afghanistan that is treated in the study reproduced in annex.

Comment citer ce volume :

Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh

, Human Security: Concepts and Implications with an Application to Post-Intervention Challenges in Afghanistan / Les Études du CERI, N°117-118, September 2005, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Odette Tomescu-Hatto

Comment conjuguer l'élargissement de l'Union européenne et la sécurité de ses frontières ? Le chapitre roumano-moldave
N°116
September 2005
Borders, Central and Eastern Europe, Conflict resolution, European Union, Europeanization, International organizations, Moldova, Regional integration, Romania, Russian Federation, Security policy, Les études du CERI

The enlargement of the EU to the Central and Eastern European countries raises interrogations concerning the new borders traced by Brussels between the Member States and their future neighbors. What is the impact of the EU enlargement on the Romanian-Moldovan relations and how might the cooperation between the two countries affect the security of the Eastern border of the EU? The analysis on the one hand of the impact of Romania’s preparations for EU membership on its relations with Moldova and the evaluation on the other hand of the limits and success of the European Neighborhood Policy towards Moldova, show that one of the main challenges for the EU will be to reconcile at the same time security and integration.

Comment citer ce volume :

Odette Tomescu-Hatto

, Comment conjuguer l'élargissement de l'Union européenne et la sécurité de ses frontières ? Le chapitre roumano-moldave / Les Études du CERI, N°116, September 2005, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Nicolas Revise

Le système Thaksin : coup de frein au processus de démocratisation ou « voie thaïlandaise » vers la démocratie ?
N°115
June 2005
Collective mobilizations, Democratization, NGOs / Civil society, Politics / Political Systems, Southeast Asia, Thailand, Les études du CERI

Thaksin Shinawatra, Thailand’s Prime Minister, is a man of superlatives: the billionaire telecommunications tycoon is the only elected Thai head of government to have managed to get through an entire legislative term before being triumphantly reelected to a second mandate. His party, Thai Rak Thai (“Thais Love Thais”), rules with an overwhelming majority. Having rose to power in the wake of the 1997 Asian crisis and the promulgation of Thailand’s democratic Constitution the same year, Thaksin exemplifies the country’s recent history: he is heir to the authoritarian military regimes of the 1960-1970 and the product of a political and economic liberalization that brought businessmen transformed into professional politicians to power. But whether the “Thaksin system” – a blend of authoritarianism and liberalism – has put the brakes on twenty-five years of political democratization or if he embodies a “Thai way” to democracy, the Prime Minister cannot rule to please himself: he is faced with a dynamic, complex and organized civil society that has already proven in at least three different instances its striking talent for political mobilization.

Comment citer ce volume :

Nicolas Revise

, Le système Thaksin : coup de frein au processus de démocratisation ou « voie thaïlandaise » vers la démocratie ? / Les Études du CERI, N°115, June 2005, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Renaud Egreteau

Birmanie : l’armée referme le jeu politique
N°114
March 2005
Burma, Collective mobilizations, Democratization, Identities, Politics / Political Systems, Southeast Asia, State, Transnational actors, Violence, Les études du CERI

The Burmese junta that came to power in 1962, and reaffirmed its domination by a second military coup d’état in September of 1988, has steadily increased its control over the nation’s institutions and over the running of the country (renamed Myanmar in 1989). In August of 2003, the decision taken by General Khin Nyunt, Prime Minister and head of military intelligence, to propose “a road map to democracy” suggested that a gradual “transition to democracy”, closely supervised by the military regime, was possible. But the ousting of Khin Nuyunt in October 2004 spelled the return of the regime’s hardliners and of the last of the army’s nationalist chiefs, adamantly opposed to any negotiations with the democratic civilian opposition led by Aung San Suu, held under house arrest since May 2003. Thus the regime, strengthened by a favorable strategic environment, has a good chance of remaining in power by setting its own rules for “democratic” procedures, its aim being to keep the country stable rather pursuing a process of liberalization. Such a policy will inevitably be detrimental to the interests of the opposition and the ethnic minorities.

Comment citer ce volume :

Renaud Egreteau

, Birmanie : l’armée referme le jeu politique / Les Études du CERI, N°114, March 2005, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Philippe Létrillart

L'Eglise catholique et la « société civile » à Cuba
N°113
March 2005
Collective mobilizations, Cuba, Democratization, Justice, Latin America and the Caribbean, NGOs / Civil society, Politics / Political Systems, Les études du CERI

Alongside the socialist society that Cuba is in the process of constructing, an unofficial “civil society” is actually taking shape, made up for the most part of dissident movements. The Cuban Catholic Church, the only non-Castrist institution in existence, is playing a crucial role in maintaining a certain balance between the two; the Church’s dual nature – universal in scope but locally implanted – has fostered a unique conception of its relation to Cuban society, all the more so as its ambition is above all to win back a position of influence and reaffirm its central status. This ambition is furthered by two means, both of which are basically handled by secular representatives, in particular by groups associated with Dagoberto Valdès. On one hand there is a pragmatic approach based on social work and the activities of training centers; on the other an effort to rethink the role of the Church in relation to society and envisage the possibility of a new form of citizenship founded on Catholic values. The charitable initiatives are acceptable to the regime; but the same does not hold as far as the resolve to become active social participants is concerned, a move seen as a form of defense of conservative, backward-looking options. In addition relations between the Church and dissident movements are strained. This ambiguous situation might well render the role of Catholics in the post-Castrist transition more uncertain, even though the Church’s expertise will be required for national reconciliation to take place.

Comment citer ce volume :

Philippe Létrillart

, L'Eglise catholique et la « société civile » à Cuba / Les Études du CERI, N°113, March 2005, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Jean-Pierre Pagé

Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2004 (volume 2)
N°112
December 2004
Comment citer ce volume :

Jean-Pierre Pagé

, Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2004 (volume 2) / Les Études du CERI, N°112, December 2004, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Jean-Pierre Pagé

Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2004 (volume 1)
N°111
December 2004
Comment citer ce volume :

Jean-Pierre Pagé

, Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2004 (volume 1) / Les Études du CERI, N°111, December 2004, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].