Les études du CERI

Les études du CERI

Les Etudes du CERI series publishes about 10 issues per year following the strict rules of double blind peer reviewed academic publications. The editorial board is composed of members of CERI’s Unit Council.
Les Etudes du CERI is a tool for decision-making and offers to scrutinize and study the transformations of our contemporary world, in more than 200 titles addressing a variety of topics and analyzing political, social and economic questions related to a specific country/region or a global contemporary challenge. Every issue follows, and is the result of, a fieldwork undertaken by its author. In this respect, this publication illustrates CERI’s approach to area studies, based on a direct, empirical experience and methodology.
Previous and current issues are all available online, free of charge. As all publications of this website, Les Etudes du CERI is protected by copyright through the French law.

 

Series editor: Alain Dieckhoff, directeur du CERI

Editor of the journal: Judith Burko, judith.burko@sciencespo.fr, phone +33158717004

Media contact: Karolina Michel, karolina.michel@sciencespo.fr, phone+33158717007

L'Etat face au défi maoïste en Inde
N°175
June 2011
India, Politics / Political Systems, Poverty, South Asia, State, Terrorism, Violence, Wars / Conflicts, Les études du CERI

The Maoist movement in India began to develop in the late 1960s, taking advantage of the political space provided when the Communist Party of India (Marxist) abandoned its revolutionary fight. In the early 1970s the Maoist, also called Naxalistes, were the victims of intense factionalism and severe repression which led the militants to retreat to the tribal zones of Andhra Pradesh and Bihar, their two pockets of resistance during the 1980s. This strategy explains not only the transformation of the Indian Maoist sociology (which was led originally by intellectuals but became increasingly plebian) but also its return to power in the late 1990s. That decade, notable for economic liberalization, witnessed the exploitation of mineral resources in the tribal regions to the detriment of the interests of the inhabitants. The growth in Maoism during the 2000s can be explained also by a reunification under the banner of the Communist Party of India (Maoist) which was created in 2004. The reaction of the government in New Delhi to this phenomenon which affects half the Indian states has been to impose repressive measures. In contrast the Maoists see themselves as the defenders of a State of rights and justice.

Comment citer ce volume : Christophe Jaffrelot, L'Etat face au défi maoïste en Inde / Les Études du CERI, N°175, June 2011, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Shira Havkin

La réforme des checkpoints israéliens : externalisation, marchandisation et redéploiement de l'Etat
N°174
May 2011
Borders, Israel, Middle East, Palestine, Privatizations, Security policy, State, Violence, Les études du CERI

Since 2006 the checkpoints along the borders of the West Bank and the Gaza strip have been reorganized and equipped with a new technological platform. They are now managed by private security firms. The instigators of these reforms speak of the "civilianization" of the checkpoints and justify their program on economic, organizational and humanitarian grounds. This detailed study of the concrete means by which the management of the Israeli checkpoints has been outsourced and commodified enables one to establish links between the evolution of Israeli society in terms of the relationship between the State, the market and society and the actual changes in the operation of the occupation. It would appear that this is not a case of the State receding in the face of market forces in a zero sum game. Rather it is the redeployment in a neoliberal context of the State in which it has adopted the uniquely Israeli layering of the public and the private, the national and the international, the State and civil society.

Comment citer ce volume :

Shira Havkin

, La réforme des checkpoints israéliens : externalisation, marchandisation et redéploiement de l'Etat / Les Études du CERI, N°174, May 2011, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

SAKURAI Keiko

Les madrasas chiites afghanes à l’aune iranienne : anthropologie d’une dépendance religieuse
N°173
January 2011
Les études du CERI

As a social institution, the madras must be analyzed in terms of their relationship to social, econmomic and political change and to the public educational system whose bureaucratic organization they have copied. In the case of Afghanistan they cannot be disassociated from the war and its consequences, such as emigration and the reconstitution of ethno-religious affiliations. Financed and run by the diaspora, they enable the Shiite minority, notably Hazara, to reestablish itself in the central State and to provide a counterweight to the Pachtoune domination. They also contribute to the education of girls and children from disfavored social classes. The dependeance of Shiite education in Afghanistan on the Iranian clergy has organizational, theological, financial and symbolique benefits. But it is accompanied by a reinvention of, and separation from, the Iranian model which should, in the minds of the religous authorities, lead to a national schism in Afghanistan of which Kaboul hopes to be the spiritual capital. The asymetric Irano-Afghan interaction illustrates the relevance of the notion of « religous dependence ».

Comment citer ce volume : Fariba Adelkhah

SAKURAI Keiko

, Les madrasas chiites afghanes à l’aune iranienne : anthropologie d’une dépendance religieuse / Les Études du CERI, N°173, January 2011, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Jean-Pierre Pagé

Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2010 (volume 2)
N°172
December 2010
Comment citer ce volume :

Jean-Pierre Pagé

, Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2010 (volume 2) / Les Études du CERI, N°172, December 2010, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Jean-Pierre Pagé

Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2010 (volume 1)
N°171
December 2010
Comment citer ce volume :

Jean-Pierre Pagé

, Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2010 (volume 1) / Les Études du CERI, N°171, December 2010, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
Amérique latine. Political Outlook 2010
N°169
-170
December 2010
Comment citer ce volume :

Observatoire Politique de l'Amérique latine et des Caraïbes de Sciences Po

, Amérique latine. Political Outlook 2010 / Les Études du CERI, N°169-170, December 2010, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].
Algérie : les illusions de la richesse pétrolière
N°168
September 2010
Algeria, Energy / Natural resources, North Africa, Politics / Political Systems, Social policy, State, Violence, Les études du CERI

Thirty years after the nationalisation of hydrocarbons Algeria’s oil wealth seems to have disappeared judging by its absence in the country’s indicators of well being. In Algeria oil led to happiness for a few and sadness for many. The absence of controls over oil revenue led to the industries downfall. Since 2002 Algeria is again seeing oil wealth. The increase in the price per barrel from 30 to 147 dollars between 2002 and 2008 provided the country with unexpected revenue permitting it to accumulate funds estimated, in 2009, at 150 billion dollars. Abdelaziz Bouteflika, returned to a devastated Algeria to restore civil order, unexpectedly benefited from this price increase. Thus, in addition to national reconciliation he was able to offer Algeria renewed economic growth. However, given that the wounds of the 1990s are not entirely healed and the illusions of oil wealth have evaporated this unexpected return of financial abundance raises concerns. To what ends will this manna be put ? Who will control it ? Will it provoke new violence and conflict ?

Comment citer ce volume : Luis Martinez, Algérie : les illusions de la richesse pétrolière / Les Études du CERI, N°168, September 2010, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Christian Milelli, Françoise Hay

La présence chinoise et indienne en Europe : au-delà des clichés
N°167
July 2010
China, Economic transactions, Emerging States, European Union, India, Multinational corporations, Western Europe, Les études du CERI

The arrival in Europe of Chinese and Indian firms is a recent phenomenon, yet it should be viewed as one which will last as it results from the strong economic growth of these two Asian giants. In this light it is useful to spell out the principal traits of these investors which remain largely unknown in Europe outside a narrow circle of experts and which have their own unique characteristics which are, on occasion, similar; this diversity can be explained by their unique national histories. The various modes of interaction can be explained by the manner in which these enterprises establish foreign subsidies. An examination of the impact these firms have on European economies and societies can help avoid unfounded paranoia and better address possible risks. The principal message of this paper is that it is necessary methodically and periodically to follow this phenomenon which is only in its infancy.

Comment citer ce volume :

Christian Milelli, Françoise Hay

, La présence chinoise et indienne en Europe : au-delà des clichés / Les Études du CERI, N°167, July 2010, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Irène Bono

Le « phénomène participatif » au Maroc à travers ses styles d’action et ses normes
N°166
June 2010
Governance, Morocco, NGOs / Civil society, Norms, North Africa, Politics / Political Systems, Poverty, State, Les études du CERI

In Morocco describing an activity as having a « participative » character vests it with all the virtues of civil society and implies it is a panacea. The launch in 2005 of the National Initiative for Human Development (NIHD), a program calling for the mobilization of everyone in the fight against poverty, can be considered a symbol of this « participation phenomenon ». By analyzing its norms and styles of action on which they are based it is possible to discover the internal logic of the participatory phenomenon and to see how it shapes politics. The promotion of certain styles of action, those combining the virtues of civil society with the technical support of participative policies, transforms the criteria of legitimation. Also, the moral values ascribed to participation justify the violation of other social norms, both economic and political, which have nothing to do with participation. Such an approach, developed here on the basis of the INDH at El Hajeb, brings to light the complex ideology on which the subject of participation is based as well as its active and creative role in the political configurations which draw their legitimacy from the value placed on participation.

Comment citer ce volume :

Irène Bono

, Le « phénomène participatif » au Maroc à travers ses styles d’action et ses normes / Les Études du CERI, N°166, June 2010, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Lukáš Macek

Après Lisbonne, le défi de la politisation de l’Union européenne
N°165
May 2010
European Union, Governance, Politics / Political Systems, Western Europe, Les études du CERI

The ratification of the Lisbon Treaty was, in the words of Jose Manuel Barroso, “an obstacle marathon”. Its entry into force marks the end of the debate over the future of Europe begun in December 2000 at the Council of Europe in Nice. Based on an analysis of this sequence of events the authors offer a diagnosis of the crisis of legitimacy gripping the European Union. They consider that the increase in certain forms of Euroskepticism is a result of the crisis of legitimacy and propose that it be addressed by the politicization of the European political system. This politicization would permit citizens to influence the political orientation of the European Union both in terms of substance and legislative process. Several avenues are available to encourage s pour fig 1b.jpg uch politicization, relating both to institutional practices and to the conduct of political actors.

Comment citer ce volume :

Lukáš Macek

, Après Lisbonne, le défi de la politisation de l’Union européenne / Les Études du CERI, N°165, May 2010, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski

Un exemple de la gestion des minorités ethniques et religieuses dans l’armée russe : le cas des musulmans
N°164
April 2010
Identities, Religions, Russia, Russian Federation, State, Violence, Les études du CERI

The post-Soviet Russian army, having decided to maintain the draft, must address issues associated with the existence of ethnic and religious minorities; specifically the growing numbers of Muslims and the proselytizing by the Orthodox Church. The Russian Orthodox Church’s policy of blessing the troops is the source of growing discontent among the Muslim community. The two conflicts in Chechnya have further contributed to the difficulties faced by the army’s Muslim minority. However, protests by Muslim leaders have lost their legitimacy since 1999. The policies of reconciliation led by Vladimir Putin have born fruit. The Muslim religious authorities have become increasingly involved in the draft, army officers have been educated about the basic principles of Islam, and “stroibaty” have been dismantled. The management of the forces however remains a source of tension, most notably the official policy of using the reorganization of local and ethnic groups to eradicate the “dedovchtchina”. Given the growth of the Muslim population what can we expect from a move to a professional army? Will the armed forces mirror the diversity of the nation or will they be ethnically and religiously homogeneous?

Comment citer ce volume :

Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski

, Un exemple de la gestion des minorités ethniques et religieuses dans l’armée russe : le cas des musulmans / Les Études du CERI, N°164, April 2010, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Anne Daguerre

Gaps in the US Safety Net: A Challenge for the Obama Administration
N°163
February 2010
Health, North America, Politics / Political Systems, Social policy, United States, Les études du CERI

The social policy of the US welfare state is based on a liberal model of social protection. The social contract is based on the idea that individuals of working age individuals should support themselves and their dependants thanks to their earned income. However, to have a job is no longer sufficient in protecting individuals against main social risks. President Obama has been elected on the promise that he will restore the American dream, whereby individual work is rewarded by upward social mobility. However, the Obama administration faces the challenge of rising social inequality and poverty, in an extremely difficult economic context. The Great Recession has laid bare the gaps of the safety net: a growing proportion of families must choose between paying for food or rent. To understand the inadequacies of the US social protection system, it is necessary to study the structure of public assistance programmes, as well as labour market trends and the impact of the recession on low-income households. This analysis will shed light on the main characteristics of the Obama administration’s response to the economic crisis.

Comment citer ce volume :

Anne Daguerre

, Gaps in the US Safety Net: A Challenge for the Obama Administration / Les Études du CERI, N°163, February 2010, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Jean-Pierre Pagé

Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2009 (volume 2)
N°162
December 2009
Comment citer ce volume :

Jean-Pierre Pagé

, Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2009 (volume 2) / Les Études du CERI, N°162, December 2009, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Jean-Pierre Pagé

Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2009 (volume 1)
N°161
December 2009
Comment citer ce volume :

Jean-Pierre Pagé

, Tableau de bord des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale 2009 (volume 1) / Les Études du CERI, N°161, December 2009, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].

Jean-Marc Siroën

L’OMC face à la crise des négociations multilatérales
N°160
December 2009
Economic transactions, Emerging States, Globalization, Governance, International organizations, Multilateralism, Multinational corporations, Les études du CERI

The latest WTO Round launched in Doha in 2001 has once again stalled. Even if an agreement were reached it is not certain it would be ratified by the US Congress. The latest delay is due in part to the changing economic context in which the negotiations are taking place, some of which changes are due to decisions made during the course of the negotiations. Governments and public opinion are increasingly in favor of bilateral negotiations in which it is possible to include new subjects rejected in the Doha multilateral negotiations. These include rules on labor and environmental standards, competition policy, investment, and government procurement. The assertiveness of emerging economies has upset the co-leadership positions of the US and the EU and argues for a new, as yet-to-be determined, negotiating process. The latest economic crisis has raised question about the objectives of the agriculture negotiations and has revealed the difficulties faced by an organization that thinks long-term of adapting to changes in the short term. This paper’s recommendations are aimed at improving the ability of the WTO to operate under current conditions and advocates the inclusion of new negotiating topics. If the principle of decision by consensus is not revised the rush to bilateralism is likely to continue, which is dangerous because of its discriminatory character.

Comment citer ce volume :

Jean-Marc Siroën

, L’OMC face à la crise des négociations multilatérales / Les Études du CERI, N°160, December 2009, [en ligne, www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/fr/papier/etude].