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Biometric Identification of 1.3 Billion Indians. The Business Community, the State and the Civil Society
Ethics, Fight against crime and corruption, Governance, India, Law, Law, New technologies, Norms, Political order, Political science, Social policy, Sociology, South Asia, State, Les études du CERI
Christophe Jaffrelot et Nicolas Belorgey
In 2009, India embarked on a scheme for the biometric identification of its people. This project was conceived by IT companies based in Bengaluru. The programme’s main architect, Nandan Nilekani, was in fact the head of one of these firms. The idea behind the project was to use digital technology – and the data it enables to collect – for economic ends. But to register the entire Indian population, the State had to be persuaded to be involved in the project, later named as "Aadhaar". The rationale that secured the government’s engagement was financial: using Aadhaar would help disburse aid to the poor while minimising the "leakages" caused by corruption and duplicates among beneficiaries. Yet, possessing an Aadhaar number gradually became necessary for a number of other things, too, including tax payment. When approached to rule on this matter, the Supreme Court dragged its feet and did not seek to decisively protect people’s privacy. As for the avowed aim of the scheme itself, Aadhaar did not improve the quality of the services rendered to the poor – far from it – and its economic impact, too, remains to be proven, even if operators who believe that "data is the new oil" consider benefits in a long term perspective.
Belarus, Central and Eastern Europe, Collective mobilizations, Democratization, Europeanization, Political participation and mobilization, Political science, Quatre questions sur, Russia, Sovereignty
Voting Far Away. Transnational Electoral Dynamics in the Ninth Constituency of French Citizens Abroad
Algeria, Burkina Faso, Collective mobilizations, Global history, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, North Africa, Political science, Politics / Political Systems, Senegal, Sociology, State, Transnational, West Africa, Les études du CERI
While it often attracts media attention for its atypical aspects, the vote of French nationals abroad has rarely been the subject of in-depth fieldwork. This study of electoral dynamics in the ninth constituency of French citizens abroad (North Africa and West Africa) during the presidential and legislative elections of 2017 questions the constraints on the nomination process and candidacies, the transnational blurring of what is at stake during the election, and the effects of atypical campaigning in electoral archipelagos characterized both by their strong localism and their particular connection to broader geopolitical issues. This contribution shows how the meanings and stakes of extraterritorial voting are multivocal depending on the actors involved (candidates, voters, local media, authorities in the host country). Does overseas voting bring about a French community abroad or does it rather reveal the persistent differentiations at work between French communities according to origin, relationship to the “host” country and to “autochtony”, social status and the temporality of integration abroad?
Arctic / Antarctica, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Borders, Caucasus / Central Asia, Conflict resolution, Democratization, Demography, Diasporas, Energy / Natural resources, Europeanization, Georgia, Global realm, International security, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Multilateralism, Networks, Political economy, Political science, Politics / Political Systems, Power, Religions, Russia, Russian Federation, Security policy, Sovereignty, State, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Wars / Conflicts, Les études du CERI
Anne de Tinguy (dir.)
Looking into Eurasia : the year in politics provides some keys to understand the events and phenomena that have left their imprint on a region that has undergone major mutation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991: the post-soviet space. With a cross-cutting approach that is no way claims to be exhaustive, this study seeks to identify the key drivers, the regional dynamics and the underlying issues at stake
Entretien - projet, European Union, History, Networks, New technologies, NGOs / Civil society, Political science, Security policy, Sociology, Sovereignty, State
Argentina, Bolivia, Borders, Brazil, Collective mobilizations, Colombia, Economic transactions, Governance, Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Political economy, Political order, Political science, Politics / Political Systems, Regional integration, State, Transnational, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, Violence, Les études du CERI
Observatoire politique de l’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes de Sciences Po
Amérique latine - L’Année politique is a publication by CERI-Sciences Po’s Political Observatory of Latin America and the Caribbean (OPALC). The study extends the work presented on the Observatory’s website (www.sciencespo.fr/opalc) by offering tools for understanding a continent that is in the grip of deep transformations.
Afghanistan, Caucasus / Central Asia, Entretien - projet, International security, Justice, Mali, Middle East, Political science, Syria, Violence, Wars / Conflicts, West Africa
Entretien - projet, Global realm, Peace / Peacekeeping, Political science, Power, Sovereignty, Violence and danger management, Wars / Conflicts
Crime, Fight against crime and corruption, Material cultures, Pakistan, Political economy, Political science, Security policy, Social policy, Sociology, South Asia, Urbanization, Violence, Les études du CERI
The history of industrial capitalism and its modes of domination is intimately linked to that of violent entrepreneurs deploying their coercive resources at the service of workplace discipline, the extraction of surplus value and the securitization of the accumulation cycle. The relationship between capital and coercion is always fraught with tensions, though, and sustains new vulnerabilities among security-consuming elites. The manufacturing economy of Karachi is a particularly fertile ground for studying this endogenous production of insecurity by security devices. The relations between Karachi’s factory owners and their guards have generated their own economy of suspicion. Various attempts to conjure this shaky domination have generated new uncertainties, calling for new methods of control to keep the guards themselves under watch.